Koofers

chapter 6 - Flashcards

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Class:PHIL 1504 - Language and Logic
Subject:Philosophy
University:Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University
Term:Fall 2015
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fallacy
  • A mistake in reasoning, an argument that doesn't really support or prove the contention it is supposed to support or prove.

ex: "yOU TELL me it's dangerous to text when I'm driving, but I have seen you doing it"

The speaker is dismissing someone's claim that it's dangerous to drive and text. However the other person text while she drives has no bearing on whether texting while driving dangerous.

premise (I've seen you doing it)
Argumentum Ad Hominem
  • Most common fallacy in the world.
  •  you commit this fallacy if you think you dismiss someone's position  (idea, proposal, claim, argument, etc.) by dismissing him or her.
  • ex: "Not only have I seen you drive and text, but just last week you were saying it isn't dangerous to do that" still talking about the other person. The speakers argument was directed at the other person and not what the other person said.
False Dilemma
  • When someone tries to establish a conclusion by offering it as the only alternative to something we will find unacceptable, unattainable, or implausible.
  • Ex: "we EITHER eliminate social security or the country will go bankrupt. Therefore we must eliminate social security"
speaker fails to present all options.
The perfectionists fallacy
  • the fallacy is committed when a speaker or writer ignores options between "perfection" and "nothing"

ex: A single English course won't make anyone a great writer, so I don't see why we have to take one"

The speaker has restricted our options. he is stating if a single English course won't make us a great writer then we shouldn't have to take on eat all.
Generated by Koofers.com
The line-drawing fallacy
  •  when a speaker or writer assumes that either a crystal-clear line can be drawn between two things, or there is no difference between them. 

ex: You can't say exactly when a video game is too violent; therefore no video game is too violent

"poverty isn't a problem in this country; after all, when is a person really poor? you can't say exactly.
Misplacing the Burden of Proof
When people try to support or prove their position by misplacing the burden of proof.

ex: Obviously, the president's birth certificate is a forgery. can you prove it isn't?

ex: guns should be outlawed. I'll bet you can't think of a single good reason they shouldn't.
Appeal to ignorance.
  • When someone asserts that we should believe a claim because nobody has proved it false, the fallacy is a version of misplacing the burden of proof known as appeal to ignorant.

ex: nObody has proved ghost don't exists; therefore they do.
Begging the question
  • When the speaker tries to "support" a contention by offering as "evidence" what amounts to a repackaging of the very contention in question.
ex: obviously the president told the truth about Benghazi. He wouldn't lie to us about it.


ex: That god exists is proved by scripture, because scripture is the word of god and thus cannot be false.
Generated by Koofers.com
Appeal to emotion
  • When a speaker o writer "supports" a contention by playing on our emotions rather than by producing a real argument.

ex:
Argument from outrage
  • attempts to convince us by making us angry rather than by giving us a relevant argument.

ex: do you think apple doesn't know it fires 12 year old children to make is electronics? you think it isn't aware it pay them slave wages and has them work in buildings without heat or air conditioning? it knows. Apple products can't be any good.

wants to make the audience angry.
Scare tactics
  • occurs when a speaker or writer tries to scare us into accepting an irrelevant conclusion.

ex: you really should get a prudential life insurance policy. what would happen to you spouse and children if you die? remember you are the main source of income. would  they be forced to move?

attempting to scare us of a conclusion.
Poisoning the well
speakers nd writers sometimes try to get us to dismiss what someone is going to say by talking about the persons consistency or character or circumstance.

"you can forget what father Hennessey will say this evening about abortion, because father Hennessey is a priest and priest are rewired to think that abortion is a mortal sin.

Dismissing what someone is going to say cuz they must believe it.
Generated by Koofers.com
guilt by association
  • occurs when a speaker tries to persuade us to dismiss a belief by telling us that someone we don't like has that belief.

ex: you think waterboarding is torture? that sounds like something these left-wing college professors would say.
genetic fallacy
  • speaker argues that the origin of a contention in and or itself automatically renders it false
ex: the idea is absurd. it's just something the Tea Party put out there.

Where on earth did you hear that? on talk radio?
straw man
  • speaker attempts to dismiss a contention by disorting or misrepsresenting it.

ex: What do I think about outlawing large ammunition clips? I think the idea of disarming everyone is ridiculous and dangerous.
Peer pressure fallacy
ex: "Obviously the government  must cut spending. You agree with the rest of us on that, I Assume

The speaker hasn't given the listener a reason for cutting government spending, He/she is trying to make us fear being made an outcast.
Generated by Koofers.com
Appeal to pity
occurs when a speaker or writer tries to convince us of something by arousing our pity rather than by giving relevant argument. 
 
ex: Jane is best qualified candidate because she is out of work and desperately needs a job.
Irrelevant conclusion
  • Relevance fallacies that do not fit comfortably into the above categories 

ex: I don't think I missed too many classes to pass. My attendance has been much better lately.

An improvement to attendance doesn't show you didn't miss too many classes to pass

ex: this new Honda gets better mileage than any other car in its class. After all, Honda has completely redesigned the engine  

Hooray for Honda, but lets hear figures on mileage
Two wrongs Make a right
Ex: Why should I tell them they undercharged me? you think they would say something if they overcharged me?

Only supports negative appraisal of their ethics, not a positive appraisal of his.
Wishful thinking
  •  happens when we forget that wanting something to be true is irrelevant to weather it is true.

ex: I really really hope I will be the next American Idol. Therefore I'm sure I will be.

Boils down to " I hope that it's true, so it is
Generated by Koofers.com
Denial
  • wHERE THE speaker concludes that a claim is false solely on the grounds that she wants it to be false.

"yeah, it stinks, but the universe just can't be that cruel. I won't be unemployed for long"
Smokescreen
  •  occurs when the speakers premise don't support the conclusion, but also are intended to distract the audience from the lack of support

"People don't like the president. Granted polls suggest he's popular, but people are lying because they don't want anymore to think they're racists"

"so I'm a lazy bum, huh? what a crock! when's the last time you took the trash out? when's the last time you cleaning the litter box
Generated by Koofers.com

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 fallacy
  • A mistake in reasoning, an argument that doesn't really support or prove the contention it is supposed to support or prove.

ex: "yOU TELL me it's dangerous to text when I'm driving, but I have seen you doing it"

The speaker is dismissing someone's claim that it's dangerous to drive and text. However the other person text while she drives has no bearing on whether texting while driving dangerous.

premise (I've seen you doing it)
 Argumentum Ad Hominem
  • Most common fallacy in the world.
  •  you commit this fallacy if you think you dismiss someone's position  (idea, proposal, claim, argument, etc.) by dismissing him or her.
  • ex: "Not only have I seen you drive and text, but just last week you were saying it isn't dangerous to do that" still talking about the other person. The speakers argument was directed at the other person and not what the other person said.
 False Dilemma
  • When someone tries to establish a conclusion by offering it as the only alternative to something we will find unacceptable, unattainable, or implausible.
  • Ex: "we EITHER eliminate social security or the country will go bankrupt. Therefore we must eliminate social security"
speaker fails to present all options.
 The perfectionists fallacy
  • the fallacy is committed when a speaker or writer ignores options between "perfection" and "nothing"

ex: A single English course won't make anyone a great writer, so I don't see why we have to take one"

The speaker has restricted our options. he is stating if a single English course won't make us a great writer then we shouldn't have to take on eat all.
 The line-drawing fallacy
  •  when a speaker or writer assumes that either a crystal-clear line can be drawn between two things, or there is no difference between them. 

ex: You can't say exactly when a video game is too violent; therefore no video game is too violent

"poverty isn't a problem in this country; after all, when is a person really poor? you can't say exactly.
 Misplacing the Burden of Proof
When people try to support or prove their position by misplacing the burden of proof.

ex: Obviously, the president's birth certificate is a forgery. can you prove it isn't?

ex: guns should be outlawed. I'll bet you can't think of a single good reason they shouldn't.
 Appeal to ignorance.
  • When someone asserts that we should believe a claim because nobody has proved it false, the fallacy is a version of misplacing the burden of proof known as appeal to ignorant.

ex: nObody has proved ghost don't exists; therefore they do.
 Begging the question
  • When the speaker tries to "support" a contention by offering as "evidence" what amounts to a repackaging of the very contention in question.
ex: obviously the president told the truth about Benghazi. He wouldn't lie to us about it.


ex: That god exists is proved by scripture, because scripture is the word of god and thus cannot be false.
 Appeal to emotion
  • When a speaker o writer "supports" a contention by playing on our emotions rather than by producing a real argument.

ex:
 Argument from outrage
  • attempts to convince us by making us angry rather than by giving us a relevant argument.

ex: do you think apple doesn't know it fires 12 year old children to make is electronics? you think it isn't aware it pay them slave wages and has them work in buildings without heat or air conditioning? it knows. Apple products can't be any good.

wants to make the audience angry.
 Scare tactics
  • occurs when a speaker or writer tries to scare us into accepting an irrelevant conclusion.

ex: you really should get a prudential life insurance policy. what would happen to you spouse and children if you die? remember you are the main source of income. would  they be forced to move?

attempting to scare us of a conclusion.
 Poisoning the well
speakers nd writers sometimes try to get us to dismiss what someone is going to say by talking about the persons consistency or character or circumstance.

"you can forget what father Hennessey will say this evening about abortion, because father Hennessey is a priest and priest are rewired to think that abortion is a mortal sin.

Dismissing what someone is going to say cuz they must believe it.
 guilt by association
  • occurs when a speaker tries to persuade us to dismiss a belief by telling us that someone we don't like has that belief.

ex: you think waterboarding is torture? that sounds like something these left-wing college professors would say.
 genetic fallacy
  • speaker argues that the origin of a contention in and or itself automatically renders it false
ex: the idea is absurd. it's just something the Tea Party put out there.

Where on earth did you hear that? on talk radio?
 straw man
  • speaker attempts to dismiss a contention by disorting or misrepsresenting it.

ex: What do I think about outlawing large ammunition clips? I think the idea of disarming everyone is ridiculous and dangerous.
 Peer pressure fallacy
ex: "Obviously the government  must cut spending. You agree with the rest of us on that, I Assume

The speaker hasn't given the listener a reason for cutting government spending, He/she is trying to make us fear being made an outcast.
 Appeal to pity
occurs when a speaker or writer tries to convince us of something by arousing our pity rather than by giving relevant argument. 
 
ex: Jane is best qualified candidate because she is out of work and desperately needs a job.
 Irrelevant conclusion
  • Relevance fallacies that do not fit comfortably into the above categories 

ex: I don't think I missed too many classes to pass. My attendance has been much better lately.

An improvement to attendance doesn't show you didn't miss too many classes to pass

ex: this new Honda gets better mileage than any other car in its class. After all, Honda has completely redesigned the engine  

Hooray for Honda, but lets hear figures on mileage
 Two wrongs Make a right
Ex: Why should I tell them they undercharged me? you think they would say something if they overcharged me?

Only supports negative appraisal of their ethics, not a positive appraisal of his.
 Wishful thinking
  •  happens when we forget that wanting something to be true is irrelevant to weather it is true.

ex: I really really hope I will be the next American Idol. Therefore I'm sure I will be.

Boils down to " I hope that it's true, so it is
 Denial
  • wHERE THE speaker concludes that a claim is false solely on the grounds that she wants it to be false.

"yeah, it stinks, but the universe just can't be that cruel. I won't be unemployed for long"
 Smokescreen
  •  occurs when the speakers premise don't support the conclusion, but also are intended to distract the audience from the lack of support

"People don't like the president. Granted polls suggest he's popular, but people are lying because they don't want anymore to think they're racists"

"so I'm a lazy bum, huh? what a crock! when's the last time you took the trash out? when's the last time you cleaning the litter box
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