Koofers

chapter 7 - Flashcards

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Class:PHIL 1504 - Language and Logic
Subject:Philosophy
University:Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University
Term:Fall 2015
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Hasty generalization
  • arrive at a general statement or rule by citing too few supporting cases.

ex: the food in L.A. is lousy, judging from this meal.

assuming the speaker is dining at a restaurant, he or she made a sweeping generalization about food sold at restrautnts in a very large city based on experience at one restaurant.
fallacy of the lonely fact.
  • ex: the policy stopped me for driving five miles over the speed limit. Around here they will stop you for anything.

Cited for driving 5 miles over the speed limit in nd itself is a "lonelyfact" insufficient for thinking the police will stop everyone for ever infraction.
Argument by anecdote
  • Anecdote is a story. When a speaker tries to support a general claim by offering a story. When a speaker or writer tries to support a general claim by offering a story.

ex: did you read where John Travolta flew his plaine in LAX and parked it on the tarmac- right out there in everyone's way? that's the trouble with these Hollywood actors. They don't care about anyone but themselves.
Small sample
  • when someone tries to derive a statement about all or most members of a population from a statement about a tiny  sample of the population.

ex: People who live in Cincinnati have no idea where Akron is. I didn't, when I LIVED in cincy

ex: things cost less at Cosco. I bought lawn fertilizer there for a ridiculously  low price.
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Exceptional cases
  • Arriving at a general statement or rule by citing an atypical supporting case 
ex: the police aren't required to get a search warrant if they arrest a suspect while a robbery is in progress and search him for a weapon. Therefore they shouldn't be required to get a search warrant for any kind of search.

The speaker is generalizing about all police searches, from a premise about searches in exceptional circumstances. 

ex: Animals will live longer if they are on a calorie- restricted diet. This has been shown in experiments with rats.


Fallacy of Biased sample
  • occurs when a speaker or writer incautiously bases a generalization about a large population on an atypical or skewed sample.

ex: Almost everyone in a large survey of Tea Party members thinks the president should be impeached. Therefore most Americans think the president should be impeached.

The problem is that tea party members might have atypical opinions. When logicians call a sample "biased" they don't mean that it is a sample of people who have unfounded opinions about something. They mean that the sample is potentially atypical or skewed.
Self- selection fallacy
  • Happens when someone generalizes incautiously from a self- selected sample. Self SELECTED sample is ome whose members are included by their own decisions.

ex: most Americans have favorable view of the president as a person, judging from an online survey conducted by CNN.

ex:The online reviews for this product X are mostly negative. Therefore, this is a bad product
fallacy of Accident
  • occurs when a speaker or writer assumes that a general statement automatically applies to a specific case that is (or could well be) exceptional

ex:it is illegal to use a cell phone while driving; therefore that police officer committed a crime when he used his cell when he was driving.

ex: Everyone should have access to a college education. Therefore anyone who applies should be admitted to Cal Poly
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weak analogy
  • is a weak argument based on debatable or unimportant similarities between two or more things

ex: My mom is just like Adolf Hitler. I doubt she will let me go out with you guys.

ex: the federal government is just like a private household. If it doesn't balance its budget it will go bankrupt
appeal to authority
  • tries to support a contention by offering evidence the opinion of a nonauthoritantive source.

ex: my father thinks the president lied. Therefore the president lied.

the fact that it is one's father who thinks the president lied does not affect the probability that he did. unless the father had specific knowledge about it.

ex: my doctor thinks my car has leaking valves. therefore my car has leaking valves.
appeal to popularity
  • happens when a speaker or writer treats an issue that cannot be settled by public opinon as if it can.
ex: the Iranians have nuclear weapons. everyone knows it

ex: almost everyone knows the plastic is contaminating the oceans. therefore plastic is contaminating the oceans.
appeal to common belief
happens when a speaker treats or writer treats an issue that cannot be settled by public opinion as if it can.

ex: The Iranians have nuclear weapons. Everyone knows that

ex:almost everyone knows that plastic is contaminating the ocean. therefore plastic is contaminating the oceans.
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appeal to common practice
when speakers try to justify a practice on the grounds that is traditional or is commonly practiced.

ex: This is the right way; it's the way it has always been
The bandwagon fallacy
  • When a speaker or writer uses "everyone thinks" (and other such phrases) as a psychological poly, he or she commits the bandwagon fallacy

ex: rand Paul has earned your support. everyone is endorsing him.
ex: lets get a spa. they are very popular these days. 
 
the speaker hasn't really shown that we need a spa. He wants us to get on the bandwagon.
fallacies about cause & effect
Pheph vs. CHEPH Post Hoc
  • means "after this, therefore because of it" a speaker or writer commits this fallacy when he or she assumes that the fact that one event came after another establishes that it was caused by the other.

  • ex: After I played poker my cold went away fast. therefore taking Zicam caused my cold to go away fast.
  • ex:after I played poker my cold went away fast. therefore playing poker caused my cold to go away fast,
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Overlooking the possibility
 ex: after susan threw out the chain letter, she was in an automobile accident. therefore throwing out the chain letter caused her to get in an  automobile accident.

the speaker has overlooked the possibility that the sequential events were coincidental
Overlooking common cause
ex: I left the lights on when I went to bed. Next morning I woke up with a headache. therefore leaving the lights on caused the headache.

the speaker has overlooked the possibility that leaving the lights on and waking up with a headace may each be the effects of a common cause, such as having gone to bed unusually tired or intoxicated.
Reserved causation
  • "with this, therefore because of it"
  • ex: people who walk long distances enjoy good health. therefore walking long distance will make you healthy.
the speaker has ignored the possibility that the events in question are both the effects of a common cause, the weather turning colder.
argument by anecdote (causal variety)
it is a fallacy to try to support (or disprove) a cause- and - effect claim by telling a story.  attempting to do the latter is also known as the anecdote

ex: Iv'e heard doctors say eating red meat daily increases your risk of heart disease, but I don't believe it. My uncle was a rancher and he lived to be 100. His entire life he ate red meat three times a day. He didn't die of a heart attack, either. He did when he fell down a well.
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Slippery Slope
  • resets on an unsupported warning that is controversial and tendentious, to the effect that something will progress by degrees to an undesirable outcome. (A tendentious assertion is one that is slanted toward a particular point of view)

ex: we should not require gun owners to carry liability insurance, because if we do that, before long they will repeal the second Amendment.
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Hasty generalization
  • arrive at a general statement or rule by citing too few supporting cases.

ex: the food in L.A. is lousy, judging from this meal.

assuming the speaker is dining at a restaurant, he or she made a sweeping generalization about food sold at restrautnts in a very large city based on experience at one restaurant.
 fallacy of the lonely fact.
  • ex: the policy stopped me for driving five miles over the speed limit. Around here they will stop you for anything.

Cited for driving 5 miles over the speed limit in nd itself is a "lonelyfact" insufficient for thinking the police will stop everyone for ever infraction.
 Argument by anecdote
  • Anecdote is a story. When a speaker tries to support a general claim by offering a story. When a speaker or writer tries to support a general claim by offering a story.

ex: did you read where John Travolta flew his plaine in LAX and parked it on the tarmac- right out there in everyone's way? that's the trouble with these Hollywood actors. They don't care about anyone but themselves.
 Small sample
  • when someone tries to derive a statement about all or most members of a population from a statement about a tiny  sample of the population.

ex: People who live in Cincinnati have no idea where Akron is. I didn't, when I LIVED in cincy

ex: things cost less at Cosco. I bought lawn fertilizer there for a ridiculously  low price.
 Exceptional cases
  • Arriving at a general statement or rule by citing an atypical supporting case 
ex: the police aren't required to get a search warrant if they arrest a suspect while a robbery is in progress and search him for a weapon. Therefore they shouldn't be required to get a search warrant for any kind of search.

The speaker is generalizing about all police searches, from a premise about searches in exceptional circumstances. 

ex: Animals will live longer if they are on a calorie- restricted diet. This has been shown in experiments with rats.


 Fallacy of Biased sample
  • occurs when a speaker or writer incautiously bases a generalization about a large population on an atypical or skewed sample.

ex: Almost everyone in a large survey of Tea Party members thinks the president should be impeached. Therefore most Americans think the president should be impeached.

The problem is that tea party members might have atypical opinions. When logicians call a sample "biased" they don't mean that it is a sample of people who have unfounded opinions about something. They mean that the sample is potentially atypical or skewed.
 Self- selection fallacy
  • Happens when someone generalizes incautiously from a self- selected sample. Self SELECTED sample is ome whose members are included by their own decisions.

ex: most Americans have favorable view of the president as a person, judging from an online survey conducted by CNN.

ex:The online reviews for this product X are mostly negative. Therefore, this is a bad product
 fallacy of Accident
  • occurs when a speaker or writer assumes that a general statement automatically applies to a specific case that is (or could well be) exceptional

ex:it is illegal to use a cell phone while driving; therefore that police officer committed a crime when he used his cell when he was driving.

ex: Everyone should have access to a college education. Therefore anyone who applies should be admitted to Cal Poly
 weak analogy
  • is a weak argument based on debatable or unimportant similarities between two or more things

ex: My mom is just like Adolf Hitler. I doubt she will let me go out with you guys.

ex: the federal government is just like a private household. If it doesn't balance its budget it will go bankrupt
 appeal to authority
  • tries to support a contention by offering evidence the opinion of a nonauthoritantive source.

ex: my father thinks the president lied. Therefore the president lied.

the fact that it is one's father who thinks the president lied does not affect the probability that he did. unless the father had specific knowledge about it.

ex: my doctor thinks my car has leaking valves. therefore my car has leaking valves.
 appeal to popularity
  • happens when a speaker or writer treats an issue that cannot be settled by public opinon as if it can.
ex: the Iranians have nuclear weapons. everyone knows it

ex: almost everyone knows the plastic is contaminating the oceans. therefore plastic is contaminating the oceans.
 appeal to common belief
happens when a speaker treats or writer treats an issue that cannot be settled by public opinion as if it can.

ex: The Iranians have nuclear weapons. Everyone knows that

ex:almost everyone knows that plastic is contaminating the ocean. therefore plastic is contaminating the oceans.
 appeal to common practice
when speakers try to justify a practice on the grounds that is traditional or is commonly practiced.

ex: This is the right way; it's the way it has always been
 The bandwagon fallacy
  • When a speaker or writer uses "everyone thinks" (and other such phrases) as a psychological poly, he or she commits the bandwagon fallacy

ex: rand Paul has earned your support. everyone is endorsing him.
ex: lets get a spa. they are very popular these days. 
 
the speaker hasn't really shown that we need a spa. He wants us to get on the bandwagon.
 fallacies about cause & effect
 Pheph vs. CHEPH Post Hoc
  • means "after this, therefore because of it" a speaker or writer commits this fallacy when he or she assumes that the fact that one event came after another establishes that it was caused by the other.

  • ex: After I played poker my cold went away fast. therefore taking Zicam caused my cold to go away fast.
  • ex:after I played poker my cold went away fast. therefore playing poker caused my cold to go away fast,
 Overlooking the possibility
 ex: after susan threw out the chain letter, she was in an automobile accident. therefore throwing out the chain letter caused her to get in an  automobile accident.

the speaker has overlooked the possibility that the sequential events were coincidental
 Overlooking common cause
ex: I left the lights on when I went to bed. Next morning I woke up with a headache. therefore leaving the lights on caused the headache.

the speaker has overlooked the possibility that leaving the lights on and waking up with a headace may each be the effects of a common cause, such as having gone to bed unusually tired or intoxicated.
 Reserved causation
  • "with this, therefore because of it"
  • ex: people who walk long distances enjoy good health. therefore walking long distance will make you healthy.
the speaker has ignored the possibility that the events in question are both the effects of a common cause, the weather turning colder.
 argument by anecdote (causal variety)
it is a fallacy to try to support (or disprove) a cause- and - effect claim by telling a story.  attempting to do the latter is also known as the anecdote

ex: Iv'e heard doctors say eating red meat daily increases your risk of heart disease, but I don't believe it. My uncle was a rancher and he lived to be 100. His entire life he ate red meat three times a day. He didn't die of a heart attack, either. He did when he fell down a well.
 Slippery Slope
  • resets on an unsupported warning that is controversial and tendentious, to the effect that something will progress by degrees to an undesirable outcome. (A tendentious assertion is one that is slanted toward a particular point of view)

ex: we should not require gun owners to carry liability insurance, because if we do that, before long they will repeal the second Amendment.
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