Koofers

Chapter 8 - Flashcards

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Class:PHIL 1504 - Language and Logic
Subject:Philosophy
University:Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University
Term:Fall 2015
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Equivocation
  • occurs when a sentence contains a word or phrase that is open to more than one interpretation.

ex: All banks are alongside rivers and the place where I keep my money is a bank. therefore the place where I keep my money is alongside a river
 A sentence having two different meanings 
Composition
  • occurs when a feature of the parts of something is erroneously attributed to the whole.

ex: This building is built from rectangular bricks; therefore, it must be rectangular 

ex: the public thinks highly of individual members of congress. therefore, the public thinks highly of congress as a whole

ex: 'you are on the football and you are black therefore the entire team is black"
Division
  • The same as composition but going the other direction.
ex: during the recent recovery my financial portfolio gained considerably in value. Therefore Microsoft stock, which is in my portfolio, gained considerably in value.

the fact that the speakers portfolio as a whole increased in value during the recovery does not show that any particular investment within it increased in value during the recover.

ex: the football team has gotten must better. Doesn't mean all the individual  gotten better.
ex: GPA increased at VT, doesn't mean one specific individuals gpa increased.
Confusing Explanations with excuses
  • Speaker: the young man who killed all those people at sandy Hook Elementary school was suffering from a half dozen mental disorders.
  • Heckler: oh, so now you're going to tell us he had an excuse for the horrible things he did!
No necessarily. The speaker may simply be trying to explain why things happened as they did.
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Consistency and Inconsistency
  • Specific claim can be consistent or inconsistent.
  • Consistent if it is possible it can happen
  • Inconsistent if it is impossible for it to happened

ex: cows falling from the sky= inconsistent
ex: A group of people saying purple is the best color= consistent 

Gambler
  • Is a common and seductive mistake that happens when we don't realize that independent events really are independent events really are independent

ex: The last three coin flips have all been heads, so the next flip is more likely to come up tails

self explanatory 
ignoring prior probabilities
occurs when someone fails to take these underlying probabilities into account.
If everything on an equal playing field, what's the probability of something happening ?

ex: Bill is the best football player in our high school, and Hal is the best hockey player in our high school. So it appears that Bill's chances of becoming a professional football player and Hal's chance of becoming a professional football player are equally good.

you want everything to be equal but it's not.

ex:


Confusing contraries and contradictories
ex: Visitor : I understand that all the fish in this pond are carp.
curator: no, quite the opposite, in fact
visitor: what? no carp?

the visitor's conclusion does not follow. "None are carp" is not the opposite of "All are carp.' a pair of claims that are exact opposites of each other are contradictories, meaning they never have the same truth value.


Contraries= at least one is false
contradictors= one is true one is false.
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 Equivocation
  • occurs when a sentence contains a word or phrase that is open to more than one interpretation.

ex: All banks are alongside rivers and the place where I keep my money is a bank. therefore the place where I keep my money is alongside a river
 A sentence having two different meanings 
 Composition
  • occurs when a feature of the parts of something is erroneously attributed to the whole.

ex: This building is built from rectangular bricks; therefore, it must be rectangular 

ex: the public thinks highly of individual members of congress. therefore, the public thinks highly of congress as a whole

ex: 'you are on the football and you are black therefore the entire team is black"
 Division
  • The same as composition but going the other direction.
ex: during the recent recovery my financial portfolio gained considerably in value. Therefore Microsoft stock, which is in my portfolio, gained considerably in value.

the fact that the speakers portfolio as a whole increased in value during the recovery does not show that any particular investment within it increased in value during the recover.

ex: the football team has gotten must better. Doesn't mean all the individual  gotten better.
ex: GPA increased at VT, doesn't mean one specific individuals gpa increased.
 Confusing Explanations with excuses
  • Speaker: the young man who killed all those people at sandy Hook Elementary school was suffering from a half dozen mental disorders.
  • Heckler: oh, so now you're going to tell us he had an excuse for the horrible things he did!
No necessarily. The speaker may simply be trying to explain why things happened as they did.
 Consistency and Inconsistency
  • Specific claim can be consistent or inconsistent.
  • Consistent if it is possible it can happen
  • Inconsistent if it is impossible for it to happened

ex: cows falling from the sky= inconsistent
ex: A group of people saying purple is the best color= consistent 

 Gambler
  • Is a common and seductive mistake that happens when we don't realize that independent events really are independent events really are independent

ex: The last three coin flips have all been heads, so the next flip is more likely to come up tails

self explanatory 
 ignoring prior probabilities
occurs when someone fails to take these underlying probabilities into account.
If everything on an equal playing field, what's the probability of something happening ?

ex: Bill is the best football player in our high school, and Hal is the best hockey player in our high school. So it appears that Bill's chances of becoming a professional football player and Hal's chance of becoming a professional football player are equally good.

you want everything to be equal but it's not.

ex:


 Confusing contraries and contradictories
ex: Visitor : I understand that all the fish in this pond are carp.
curator: no, quite the opposite, in fact
visitor: what? no carp?

the visitor's conclusion does not follow. "None are carp" is not the opposite of "All are carp.' a pair of claims that are exact opposites of each other are contradictories, meaning they never have the same truth value.


Contraries= at least one is false
contradictors= one is true one is false.
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