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Class:PHIL 1304 - Morality and Justice
Subject:Philosophy
University:Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University
Term:Fall 2010
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Singer On world hunger Principle of aid: If it is in our power to prevent something very bad from happening, without thereby sacrificing anything of comparable moral importance, we morally ought to do it. The implication is that we should do everything in our power to prevent others from starvation and impoverishment.
Hardin Life boat metaphor life boat metaphor: Every nation has its own "lifeboat" and these boats all have their own carrying capacity. The nations that are suffering from famine have too many on their lifeboat so a lot of people fall off the boat and seek help from other nations. The question is whether or not it is the responsibility of the well off nations to aide those in the water. It would be impossible for the well off nations to fit every person on their boat because of their carrying capacity.
Hardin The ratcheting effect The ratcheting effect: If we aide poorer nations and they continue to refuse responsibility for their population growth, then the conditions which cause the need for aid will persist. Our aid encourages population growth. If the conditions for aid persist and we continue to aid, then we will all suffer eventually.
Nielsen On the Earth's capacity We are not nearing the Earth's carrying capacity because... 1. We don't know the Earth's capacity because technology and subjective levels of comfort make such estimations difficult. 2. We've got plenty of land. Less than half of the available arable land is used for food production. 3. The land we use is used inefficiently, we could increase production with better choices. 4. Too man cash crops. Political arrangements mean that land is used to benefit a severe minority which fores more burdens on the majority
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Positive rights Positive rights are rights to entitlements; they permit action. They obligate others to act with respect to the right holder. Examples: Police protection, right to counsel, public education, health case, and social security.
Negative rights Negative rights re rights as protections; they permit inaction. A negative right forbids others from acting against the right holder. Examples: Freedom of speech and private property.
Hosper On libertarianism Every indiviual is only responsible for their own life. Owners have a right to dispose of their things as long as i doesn't harm another owner's similar right. The only rights people have are negative. The implications is that the government's sole purpose is to protect the rights of its citizens and a just government must not act outside its purposes. Government programs such as fire control, public hospitals, and libraries are all deemed unjust by this argument
Nielsen On economic arrangement He believes that an economic arrangement that best sustains and furthers the values of freedom and autonomy, equality, justice, rights and democracy is the arrangement we should adopt. Socialism best exemplifies these principles and it also allows public ownership of productive property and it does not have a class system. In these ways it is better than capitalism.
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The different types of euthanasia Active: killing of a patient by giving a drug Passive: removing life-sustaining treatment Voluntary: patient actively consents to euthanasia Non-Voluntary: patient is unable to consent Involuntary: patient actively dissents Physician-assisted suicide: a terminally ill patient kills himself, with drugs prescribed by a physician.
Rachels Objection to AMA doctrine Its cruel: Euthanasia is only justified when it would eliminate suffering and the AMA doctrine allows passive euthanasia which often leads to more suffering. It leads to life and death decisions being made on irrelevant grounds: Down syndrome baby example. You can refuse treatment but the circumstances are not always just. It mistakenly asserts that there is a moral difference between killings and letting die: Ex of Smith and Jones killing cousin. What is important is the moral reasons behind the death and not the method.
Self-determination and how it relates to euthanasia Brock argues that self-determination is a key reason why active euthanasia should be legalized. He states that self determination is important because it allows individuals to control the manner, circumstances, and timing of their dying and death.
Potts harms of euthanasia 2: Abandonment of hope.-Worth it because of suffering 3: Increased fear of hospitals-Regulation would eliminate fear 4: Difficulties in oversight and regulation-Strict regulation would prevent that 5: Pressure on the patient-Just cause for euthanasia
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Corvino on different meanings of how being gay is unnatural 1. Abnormal or unusual-unusual activities are not immoral for that reason 2. Not practiced by other animals-Wrong and animals don't guide morality 3. Doesn't proceed from innate desires-morally irrelevant and doesn't establish a relevant difference 4. Violates sexual organ's primary purpose-many functions of organ and doesn't guide morality 5. Disgusting or offensive-not just cause for being immoral
False dichotomy A logical fallacy that involves a situation in which only two alternatives are considered, when in fact there are additional options. "You're either with us or against us". It is wrong because it tries to force a decision by leaving out other options and uses extreme sides of an argument.
Rauch on gay marriage
Just war theory components jus ab bello: having sufficient justification for going to war jus in bellum: conducting the war in a just manner
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Luban on US policy on terrorism He says that the US policy combines the war and criminal law model and this combination illegitimately combines elements of each o rob individuals of all rights. Terrorist can be targeted like soldiers but are treated like unlawful combatants. Policy is not uniformed so Americans are not subject to restrictions on the treatment of soldiers and there is no restriction on criminal prosecution.
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 Singer On world hunger Principle of aid: If it is in our power to prevent something very bad from happening, without thereby sacrificing anything of comparable moral importance, we morally ought to do it.

The implication is that we should do everything in our power to prevent others from starvation and impoverishment.
 Hardin Life boat metaphorlife boat metaphor: Every nation has its own "lifeboat" and these boats all have their own carrying capacity. The nations that are suffering from famine have too many on their lifeboat so a lot of people fall off the boat and seek help from other nations. The question is whether or not it is the responsibility of the well off nations to aide those in the water. It would be impossible for the well off nations to fit every person on their boat because of their carrying capacity.

 Hardin The ratcheting effectThe ratcheting effect: If we aide poorer nations and they continue to refuse responsibility for their population growth, then the conditions which cause the need for aid will persist. Our aid encourages population growth. If the conditions for aid persist and we continue to aid, then we will all suffer eventually.
 Nielsen On the Earth's capacityWe are not nearing the Earth's carrying capacity because...
1. We don't know the Earth's capacity because technology and subjective levels of comfort make such estimations difficult.
2. We've got plenty of land. Less than half of the available arable land is used for food production.
3. The land we use is used inefficiently, we could increase production with better choices.
4. Too man cash crops. Political arrangements mean that land is used to benefit a severe minority which fores more burdens on the majority
 Positive rightsPositive rights are rights to entitlements; they permit action. They obligate others to act with respect to the right holder.

Examples: Police protection, right to counsel, public education, health case, and social security.
 Negative rightsNegative rights re rights as protections; they permit inaction. A negative right forbids others from acting against the right holder.

Examples: Freedom of speech and private property.
 Hosper On libertarianismEvery indiviual is only responsible for their own life. Owners have a right to dispose of their things as long as i doesn't harm another owner's similar right. The only rights people have are negative.

The implications is that the government's sole purpose is to protect the rights of its citizens and a just government must not act outside its purposes.

Government programs such as fire control, public hospitals, and libraries are all deemed unjust by this argument
 Nielsen On economic arrangementHe believes that an economic arrangement that best sustains and furthers the values of freedom and autonomy, equality, justice, rights and democracy is the arrangement we should adopt. Socialism best exemplifies these principles and it also allows public ownership of productive property and it does not have a class system. In these ways it is better than capitalism.
 The different types of euthanasiaActive: killing of a patient by giving a drug
Passive: removing life-sustaining treatment
Voluntary: patient actively consents to euthanasia
Non-Voluntary: patient is unable to consent
Involuntary: patient actively dissents
Physician-assisted suicide: a terminally ill patient kills himself, with drugs prescribed by a physician.
 Rachels Objection to AMA doctrineIts cruel: Euthanasia is only justified when it would eliminate suffering and the AMA doctrine allows passive euthanasia which often leads to more suffering.
It leads to life and death decisions being made on irrelevant grounds: Down syndrome baby example. You can refuse treatment but the circumstances are not always just.
It mistakenly asserts that there is a moral difference between killings and letting die: Ex of Smith and Jones killing cousin. What is important is the moral reasons behind the death and not the method.
 Self-determination and how it relates to euthanasiaBrock argues that self-determination is a key reason why active euthanasia should be legalized. He states that self determination is important because it allows individuals to control the manner, circumstances, and timing of their dying and death.
 Potts harms of euthanasia
2: Abandonment of hope.-Worth it because of suffering
3: Increased fear of hospitals-Regulation would eliminate fear
4: Difficulties in oversight and regulation-Strict regulation would prevent that
5: Pressure on the patient-Just cause for euthanasia
 Corvino on different meanings of how being gay is unnatural1. Abnormal or unusual-unusual activities are not immoral for that reason
2. Not practiced by other animals-Wrong and animals don't guide morality
3. Doesn't proceed from innate desires-morally irrelevant and doesn't establish a relevant difference
4. Violates sexual organ's primary purpose-many functions of organ and doesn't guide morality
5. Disgusting or offensive-not just cause for being immoral
 False dichotomy A logical fallacy that involves a situation in which only two alternatives are considered, when in fact there are additional options. "You're either with us or against us". It is wrong because it tries to force a decision by leaving out other options and uses extreme sides of an argument.
 Rauch on gay marriage 
 Just war theory components jus ab bello: having sufficient justification for going to war

jus in bellum: conducting the war in a just manner
 Luban on US policy on terrorismHe says that the US policy combines the war and criminal law model and this combination illegitimately combines elements of each o rob individuals of all rights. Terrorist can be targeted like soldiers but are treated like unlawful combatants. Policy is not uniformed so Americans are not subject to restrictions on the treatment of soldiers and there is no restriction on criminal prosecution.
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