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Final Exam Review - Flashcards

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Class:PHIL 1320 - ETHICS & SOCIETY
Subject:Philosophy
University:Texas State University - San Marcos
Term:Fall 2011
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Be able to define the four classic branches of Philosophy, p. 15
    1. Metaphysics- study of natural reality
    2. Ethics- state of values and moral decision making
    3. Logic- study of correct thinking or argumentative, establishing rules for proper thinking as opposed to fallacious thinking
    4. Epistemology- study of theories of knowledge
Definitions of the logical fallacies, p21
    1. Hasty Generalization- logical fallacy of making a generalization based on a single or small event. EX: a woman was cheated by two auto mechanics, therefore no mechanics can be trusted.
    2. Appeal to Authority- logical fallacy that affirms that because the person is an expert in one area, then they must always be correct.
    3. Begging the Question- logical fallacy when someone tries to prove a point just by rephrasing it. EX: I am right because I am never wrong.
    4. Ad Baculum- Latin for “by the stick”; logical fallacy of using physical threats.
    5. Ad Hominem- logical fallacy which assumes that who a person is determines the correctness or incorrectness of what he or she says.
    6. Slippery Slope argument- logical fallacy that assumes that drastic consequences will follow a certain policy.
    7. Straw Man- fallacy that invents a viewpoint so radical that hardly anyone holds it, so you can knock it down. EX: gun advocates want to allow criminals and children to own weapons, so we should work toward a gun ban”.
    8. Bifurcating- logical fallacy in which you say there are only two options, creating a false dichotomy (saying there are only two options when there are actually more).
    9. Red Herring- logical fallacy that is a deflection away from the truth. EX: much like changing the subject when it gets uncomfortable.
    10. Ad Misericordiam- logical fallacy of bad excuses (only if something is solely an excuse and not a legitimate reason for something).
Four major paths to deal with moral differences, p. 115-118
    1. Moral Nihilism, Skepticism, and Subjectivism
      1. Moral Nihilism
        1. there are no morally right or wrong viewpoints
        2. difficult position to uphold because it is so extreme
        3. no conflict solving ability
      2. Moral Skepticism
        1. we can’t know whether there are any moral truths
        2. no conflict solving ability
      3. Moral Subjectivism
        1. moral views are merely inner states in a person and that they can’t be compared to the inner state of another person
        2. no conflict solving ability
    2. Ethical Relativism
      1. there is no universal moral truth
      2. moral truths exist but are relative to their time and place
      3. can solve problems within a culture
      4. whatever the majority deems to be the moral rule is the right rule to follow
      5. intercultural moral disagreements can rarely be solved
      6. no goal of mutual understanding
    3. Soft Universalism
      1. perceives that there are some universal moral rules; soft because it is not as radical as hard universalism or absolutism.
    4. Hard Universalism
      1. attitude that most often is supported in ethical theories
      2. there is one universal moral code
      3. does not acknowledge the possibility or legitimacy of more than one set of moral codes
Descriptive vs. normative ethics, p. 121
    1. Descriptive- merely describes what it sees as fact or what it sees as bad, describes what people actually do or think. EX: It is generally not considered immoral to eat meat.
    2. Normative- adds a moral judgement, evaluation, or justification; classifies actions as right or wrong. EX: It is okay to eat meat because it is nourishing.
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Ethical relativism, p. 120-123
    1. Theory that there is no universal moral code, each culture has its own set of rules that are valid for that culture and we have no right to interfere.
    2. If the majority considers it morally right, it is morally right for that culture.
Six problems of ethical relativism, p. 125-131
    1. No criticism or praise of other cultures
    2. Majority rule- whatever the majority believes is right
    3. Professed or Actual Morality?- is what is right what the majority of population believes or what they actually do?
    4. What is a “majority”?
    5. What is a “culture”?
    6. Can tolerance be a universal value?
Inclusive and exclusive multiculturalism, p. 139-140
    1. Inclusive multiculturalism- integrate everyone onto all aspects of our society; to break through the “glass ceiling” that prevents minorities from reaching top positions, to become sensitized to what others may find offensive, and if we hear something that is offensive, to speak up for ourselves. 
    2. Exclusive multiculturalism- intended to help children of minority groups retain or regain their self-esteem; they were to be isolated in their groups and taught about their culture, but many felt this was a new form of segregation
Define psychological egoism, p. 163
    1. Theory that we are all selfish; help others ultimately because of the personal benefits.
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Explain the shortcomings of Psychological Egoism, p. 177-181
    1. Falsification isn’t possible (doesn’t allow for the possibility that it is wrong).
    2. Is doing what we want always selfish? (Is it what you want that matters, not just the fact that you want something?).
    3. Problems of Language (there is a difference between what psychological egoists call normal selfish behavior and really selfish behavior, so it would be illogical to call both selfish.
Explain ethical egoism of Hobbes and Rand, p. 181-185, p. 206-210

    1. Hobbes
      1. wrote Leviathan
      2. humans are selfish by nature, and society is our best way to protect ourselves from one another.
    2. Rand
      1. advocated the idea that people have a right, even a duty, to look after themselves and seek their own happiness.
      2. It is “moral cannibalism” to advocate altruistic theories wherein humans are supposed to feel obligated to help those who have no wish to help themselves.
Shortcomings of ethical egoism, p. 185-188
    1. Self contradictory
    2. Inconsistent
    3. Isn’t able to solve problems
    4. Doesn’t work in practice
    5. Doesn’t take emotions into consideration
Define altruism, p. 188-190
    1. Concern for the interest of others.
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Explain the three major schools of thought on source of values, p. 191
    1. Values are a result of socialization: suggests that values derive from situations with the external world.
    2. Values are an outcome of the human capacity for rational thought.
    3. Values are naturally embedded in our human capacity for emotions; emotionalism.
State the principle of utility, p. 225, p.256-258
    1. Also known as the greatest happiness principle. 
    2. When choosing a course of action, always pick the one that maximizes your happiness and minimizes unhappiness for the greatest number of people.
Bentham and hedonistic calculus, p. 225-229
    1. Said good and bad is a personal choice for everyone and can be calculated using:
      1. Intensity- how intense will the pleasure or pain be?
      2. Duration- how long will it last?
      3. Certainty- how sure are we of the consequences?
      4. Remoteness- how far is it, in time and space?
      5. Fecundity- How big are the chances that it will be followed by a similar pleasure or a similar pain?
      6. Purity- how big are the chances that it will not be followed by the opposite sensation, like pain after pleasure?
      7. Extent- how many people will be affected by our decision?
Intrinsic vs. Instrumental values, p. 229
    1. Intrinsic Value- we value them for their own sake, we want them because we want them. EX: we want to be healthy
    2. Instrumental Value- one that can be used as an instrument or a tool to get something else that we want. EX: we want a car so we can get to a job.
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Quantity vs. quality, p. 230-231
    1. Quantity- Bentham and his Hedonistic calculus refers to quantity; applicants are rated according to their qualifications and those qualifications are assigned numeral values.
    2. Quality- Mills and his theory referring to happiness being important refers to quality, waiting a reasonable amount of time for something.
Problems of numbers, p. 233-240
    1. “If we could limit terrible consequences for a large number of people by sacrificing a few innocent people, would the decision be acceptable, even if we happened to be among the unfortunate few ourselves?”
Mill’s higher and lower pleasures, p. 240-247, p. 258-261
    1. Some pleasures are more valuable, “higher” than others.
    2. Greater pleasure in life requires more effort, it is worth the effort because the pleasure is greater. 
Mill’s harm principle, p. 247-253
    1. Idea that one should not interfere with other people’s lives unless those people are doing harm to others.
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Classical and egalitarian liberalism, p. 249
    1. Classical liberalism- emphasis on personal liberties
    2. Egalitarian liberalism- civil liberties; rights of citizens to do what they please as long as it causes no harm and have government ensure that as little harm and as much happiness is created for as many people as possible.
Act vs. Rule Utilitarianism, p. 253-255
    1. Act Utilitarianism- Classical, principle of utility.
    2. Rule Utilitarianism- always do whatever TYPE of act that will create the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people, solves problems of sheer numbers.
Deontology, p. 275
    1. Theory of moral obligation, concerned with our intentions.
    2. Ethical theory that disregards the importance of consequences and focuses only on the rightness or wrongness of the act itself.
Kant’s good will, p. 275-278
    1. Strictly do things for the sake of the principle of doing the right thing; the presence of a good will is what makes an action morally good, regardless of it’s consequences.
    2. Observe the “Moral Law” in your intentions.
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State The Categorical Imperative, p. 278-281, p. 297-301
    1. Absolute moral rule that is justified because of its logic.
    2. Ask yourself what you want to do right now. Then imagine making that action a universal rule. Next, ask yourself whether you would want it to become a universal rule for everyone to follow. If you think everyone shouldn’t do it, you shouldn’t either.
Criticisms of the Categorical Imperative, p. 282-287
    1. Consequences count- what if everyone borrowed money and didn’t pay it back? must worry about consequences of actions if everyone does it.
    2. Conflict of Duties- two important things to do at the same time. 
    3. The Loophole-If the special circumstances apply only in our case, then we’ve found a loophole.
    4. What is Rationality?- Everyone considers rationality differently
    5. No Exceptions?- A moral rule allows for no exceptions.
Definition of Person, p. 312-319
    1. Someone who is capable of psychological and social interaction with others, capable of deciding on a course of action and being held responsible for that action, a moral agent; a normative concept, what a person ought to be and do to be called a person.
Equality, p. 329-331
    1. Fundamental equality- unalienable rights, people should be treated as equals by their government.
    2. Social equality- refers to people being equal within a social setting, right to vote or stand for public office.
    3. Equal treatment for equals- treat people in your social class as you would want to be treated.
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Negative and positive rights, p. 334-339
    1. Negative rights- rights not to be interfered with; right to life, liberty, and property.
    2. Positive rights- rights of entitlement; right to means of food, shelter, education...
Rawls and Distributive Justice, p. 339-346, p. 358-359
    1. Theories on how to distribute the goods of society fairly.
    2. Emphasizes the necessity for positive and negative rights because we can’t appreciate negative rights unless we have positive rights.
    3. When making a rule, we should consider if it affects everyone.
Five approaches to punishment, p. 348-351
    1. Deterrence- may make the criminal change his/her mind about breaking the law again, may make others think twice before turning to crime.
    2. Rehabilitation- punishment to make a better person out of the criminal.
    3. Incapacitation- punish them in order to keep them off the streets.
    4. Retribution- punishment should be in proportion to the crime.
    5. Vengeance- may go beyond and exceed the damage done by the criminal.
MLK’s just vs. unjust laws, p. 360-361
    1. Just- man made code that squares with moral law or the law of God; any law that uplifts human personality.
    2. Unjust- code that is out of harmony with the moral law. Any law that degrades human personality.
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Understand difference between ethics of conduct and virtue ethics, p. 385
    1. Ethics of conduct- theories that consider what proper human conduct is.
    2. Virtue ethics- theories involving the questions of how to be a virtuous person, development of what we call character.
Socrates’ version of the good life is…, p. 400-401
    1. Reason is a way to a good life. Being true to your principles no matter how others may feel about it.
    2. A good life is a life that questions and thinks about things; it is a life of contemplation, self-examination, and open-minded wondering.
The Tripartite Soul, p. 402-405
    1. Elements of the soul consisting of: Reason, Willpower, and Appetite.
    2. These correspond to the virtues: Wisdom, Courage, and Temperance.
    3. Reason = Wisdom
    4. Willpower = Courage
    5. Appetite = Temperance
Plato’s Form of the Good, p. 408-410
    1. Most important form and also the form from which everything else derives.
    2. Highest form of knowledge.
    3. Forms represent an orderly reality and are ordered according to their importance and according to their dependence on other forms.
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Plato’s influence on Augustine, p. 410
    1. Was influenced by the thoughts that Christianity became a religion that looked to afterlife as the true reason for human existence.
Characteristics of a just person and just state, p. 412-414
    1. Just person- mind fully contains reason, balance between reason, spirit and appetite.
    2. Just state- society in harmony with itself
      1. Reason- “philosopher kings”
      2. Willpower- Military/Law enforcement
      3. Appetites- General population
Explain Aristotle as an empirical thinker (scientist), p. 432-434
    1. Combined concepts and logic
    2. Author of classical logic
    3. Laid the foundations of the classifications of biology
    4. Wrote many books
    5. Introduced the concept of empirical science and metaphysics.
Define teleology, p. 436
    1. Concept of purpose, Aristotle believed that everything that exists has a purpose which is reason.
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Human purpose according to Aristotle, p. 437-440
    1. Our purpose is reason.
    2. The purpose for man is to think rationally and to develop a rational character same as moral goodness.
Golden Mean, p. 440-447
    1. Describes the “Good for man”- where a human can excel, what a human is meant to do, and where a human will find happiness
    2. Action of a feeling responding to a particular situation at the right time, in the right way, in the right amount, for the right reason.
Aristotle’s influence on Aquinas, p. 449
    1. His ideas became the cornerstone of the theology of Catholicism through the works of Aquinas.
    2. Concept of Teleology.
Aristotle said virtue is…, p. 453-454
    1. To act with excellence
    2. Everything on this earth has it’s own virtue, meaning that if it performs the way it is supposed to by it’s nature, then it is virtuous.
    3. Virtue is not reserved for humans.
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Define Existentialism, p. 483
    1. Believes all humans have freedom of the will to determine their own life, authenticity; thought that there is only one way to live properly and only one virtue to strive for.
Explain what the existentialist mean by Authenticity, p. 483
    1. The only way to live properly and the only virtue to strive for.
Kierkegaard’s authenticity, p. 487-489
    1. Conceived as a relationship between oneself and God.
Heidegger’s authenticity, p. 493
    1. Deals with one’s relationship to one’s self for our existence.
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Sartre’s authenticity, p. 498
    1. Deals with one’s relationship to oneself as a person making moral choices.
    2. “Condemned to be free”.
Levinas’ authenticity, p. 504
    1. Focuses on the relationship between oneself and the other; serve the other for no reward at all.
Define anguish, p. 509
    1. Anxiety, extreme mental distress; to dread
    2. Philosophy believes that we create our own anguish
Explain physical and moral courage, p. 528
    1. Physical courage- visible, disregarding physical danger for the sake of other’s lives.
    2. Moral courage- invisible, the kind where you stand by your friend when it would be more convenient to distance yourself from him/her.
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Hume, Rousseau, and Mencius on Compassion, p. 531
    1. Hume & Rousseau believed that humans are naturally compassionate towards one another.
    2. Mencius- humans are compassionate but corrupted by the circumstances of everyday life.
Common conclusion to the five studies on p. 532
    1. An empathy center in the brain- serves as a buffer for decisions that are likely to harm other humans.
    2. Mirror neurons- we have a natural capacity for understanding what others feel through certain neurons labeled mirror neurons.
    3. Thoughts of harm cause negative emotions.
    4. A grammar of morals has evolved.
    5. Altruism feels good- doing good for others feels good.
Explain why Hallie emphasizes the diff between negative and positive commands, p. 536
    1. Negative- If you just refrain from doing harm, “do not cause harm”.
    2. Positive- “help others in need”.
    3. It is much harder to follow a positive moral rule than a negative one, which just requires you to do nothing.
True moral value according to R. Taylor, p. 536-539
    1. Reason had no role to play in making the right moral choice, moral principles are useless because we can always find exceptions, pro compassion.
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Explain Confuscius’ superior man, p. 541
    1. Someone who is wise, courageous, and humane. 
    2. Someone who thinks well and acts accordingly.
    3. Models his behavior after virtuous men of the past.
    4. Understands that life is a long learning process.
Define jen, li, and yi, p. 542
    1. Jen- having a caring attitude towards others.
    2. Li- understanding and performing rituals correctly.
    3. Yi- understanding what is proper and appropriate.
Jane English’s view on parental-debt, p. 548
    1. You owe your parents nothing.
    2. Thinks main problem between children and their parents is the common parental attitude that their children are somehow in debt to them.
Define Occam’s Razor, p. 557
    1. Theory gains in strength if unnecessary elements are cut away.
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Understand Golden Rule and Platinum Rule issues, p. 184, 554, and 557
    1. Golden Rule- treat others as you would want to be treated. Problems- different versions of correct behavior
    2. Platinum rule- treat others as they want to be treated.
Explain McCain’s point “without courage all virtue is fragile”, p. 563-564
    1. Without courage, all virtue is fragile.
    2. Without courage, we are corruptible.
    3. We need moral courage to be honest all the time.
    4. We teach our children about moral courage by teaching them to “do their nearest duty”.
Yutang’s view of gratitude toward parents, p. 566-567
    1. Firmly believes you should respect your parents, especially your elders; learn this behavior and see elders not as helpless but respected.
Define gender equality, p. 588
    1. Goal of equality of sexes. Everyone should be treated as equals unless special circumstances apply.
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Define classical, difference, radical, and equity feminism, p. 602
    1. Classical- Calls for men & women to be considered as persons first and gendered beings second.
    2. Difference- Women & men possess fundamentally different qualities and both genders should learn from each other.
    3. Radical- Seek out and expose the root of the problem of gender discrimination.
    4. Equity- Battle for equality has been won, we can adopt any kind of gender roles we like because gender discrimination is an issue of the past.
Beauvoir on gender, p. 604-607
    1. We exist and then we start to define who we are.
    2. Women seen as the second sex, remove culturally given rule, fight the traps of gender roles and their assumption that this is how we have to be.
    3. Poor excuse for not making our own choices.
Gilligan on gender, p. 610-612
    1. Men are considered normal gender and women have been considered not quite normal.
    2. Believes there is a basic difference between moral attitudes of males and females.
    3. Boys tend to focus on an ethic of justice (personal gain and striving to become a developed individual) while women focus on ethics of care (caring for people)
Ethic of Care and Ethic of Justice, p. 611
    1. Ethic of Care- caring for people.
    2. Ethic of Justice- personal gain and striving to become a developed individual.
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Dworkin on gender, p. 614-615
    1. Women all have a common condition- women are subordinate to men, sexually colonized in a sexual system of dominance and submission, denied rights on the basis of sex, generally considered biologically inferior, confined to sex and reproduction.
    2. General description of social environment in which all women live.
Explain Tannen and Gurian as Bridge Builders, p. 615-616
    1. Goal is to make it possible for women and men to understand each other, not to become like each other or to compete against each other.
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 Be able to define the four classic branches of Philosophy, p. 15
    1. Metaphysics- study of natural reality
    2. Ethics- state of values and moral decision making
    3. Logic- study of correct thinking or argumentative, establishing rules for proper thinking as opposed to fallacious thinking
    4. Epistemology- study of theories of knowledge
 Definitions of the logical fallacies, p21
    1. Hasty Generalization- logical fallacy of making a generalization based on a single or small event. EX: a woman was cheated by two auto mechanics, therefore no mechanics can be trusted.
    2. Appeal to Authority- logical fallacy that affirms that because the person is an expert in one area, then they must always be correct.
    3. Begging the Question- logical fallacy when someone tries to prove a point just by rephrasing it. EX: I am right because I am never wrong.
    4. Ad Baculum- Latin for “by the stick”; logical fallacy of using physical threats.
    5. Ad Hominem- logical fallacy which assumes that who a person is determines the correctness or incorrectness of what he or she says.
    6. Slippery Slope argument- logical fallacy that assumes that drastic consequences will follow a certain policy.
    7. Straw Man- fallacy that invents a viewpoint so radical that hardly anyone holds it, so you can knock it down. EX: gun advocates want to allow criminals and children to own weapons, so we should work toward a gun ban”.
    8. Bifurcating- logical fallacy in which you say there are only two options, creating a false dichotomy (saying there are only two options when there are actually more).
    9. Red Herring- logical fallacy that is a deflection away from the truth. EX: much like changing the subject when it gets uncomfortable.
    10. Ad Misericordiam- logical fallacy of bad excuses (only if something is solely an excuse and not a legitimate reason for something).
 Four major paths to deal with moral differences, p. 115-118
    1. Moral Nihilism, Skepticism, and Subjectivism
      1. Moral Nihilism
        1. there are no morally right or wrong viewpoints
        2. difficult position to uphold because it is so extreme
        3. no conflict solving ability
      2. Moral Skepticism
        1. we can’t know whether there are any moral truths
        2. no conflict solving ability
      3. Moral Subjectivism
        1. moral views are merely inner states in a person and that they can’t be compared to the inner state of another person
        2. no conflict solving ability
    2. Ethical Relativism
      1. there is no universal moral truth
      2. moral truths exist but are relative to their time and place
      3. can solve problems within a culture
      4. whatever the majority deems to be the moral rule is the right rule to follow
      5. intercultural moral disagreements can rarely be solved
      6. no goal of mutual understanding
    3. Soft Universalism
      1. perceives that there are some universal moral rules; soft because it is not as radical as hard universalism or absolutism.
    4. Hard Universalism
      1. attitude that most often is supported in ethical theories
      2. there is one universal moral code
      3. does not acknowledge the possibility or legitimacy of more than one set of moral codes
 Descriptive vs. normative ethics, p. 121
    1. Descriptive- merely describes what it sees as fact or what it sees as bad, describes what people actually do or think. EX: It is generally not considered immoral to eat meat.
    2. Normative- adds a moral judgement, evaluation, or justification; classifies actions as right or wrong. EX: It is okay to eat meat because it is nourishing.
 Ethical relativism, p. 120-123
    1. Theory that there is no universal moral code, each culture has its own set of rules that are valid for that culture and we have no right to interfere.
    2. If the majority considers it morally right, it is morally right for that culture.
 Six problems of ethical relativism, p. 125-131
    1. No criticism or praise of other cultures
    2. Majority rule- whatever the majority believes is right
    3. Professed or Actual Morality?- is what is right what the majority of population believes or what they actually do?
    4. What is a “majority”?
    5. What is a “culture”?
    6. Can tolerance be a universal value?
 Inclusive and exclusive multiculturalism, p. 139-140
    1. Inclusive multiculturalism- integrate everyone onto all aspects of our society; to break through the “glass ceiling” that prevents minorities from reaching top positions, to become sensitized to what others may find offensive, and if we hear something that is offensive, to speak up for ourselves. 
    2. Exclusive multiculturalism- intended to help children of minority groups retain or regain their self-esteem; they were to be isolated in their groups and taught about their culture, but many felt this was a new form of segregation
 Define psychological egoism, p. 163
    1. Theory that we are all selfish; help others ultimately because of the personal benefits.
 Explain the shortcomings of Psychological Egoism, p. 177-181
    1. Falsification isn’t possible (doesn’t allow for the possibility that it is wrong).
    2. Is doing what we want always selfish? (Is it what you want that matters, not just the fact that you want something?).
    3. Problems of Language (there is a difference between what psychological egoists call normal selfish behavior and really selfish behavior, so it would be illogical to call both selfish.
 Explain ethical egoism of Hobbes and Rand, p. 181-185, p. 206-210

    1. Hobbes
      1. wrote Leviathan
      2. humans are selfish by nature, and society is our best way to protect ourselves from one another.
    2. Rand
      1. advocated the idea that people have a right, even a duty, to look after themselves and seek their own happiness.
      2. It is “moral cannibalism” to advocate altruistic theories wherein humans are supposed to feel obligated to help those who have no wish to help themselves.
 Shortcomings of ethical egoism, p. 185-188
    1. Self contradictory
    2. Inconsistent
    3. Isn’t able to solve problems
    4. Doesn’t work in practice
    5. Doesn’t take emotions into consideration
 Define altruism, p. 188-190
    1. Concern for the interest of others.
 Explain the three major schools of thought on source of values, p. 191
    1. Values are a result of socialization: suggests that values derive from situations with the external world.
    2. Values are an outcome of the human capacity for rational thought.
    3. Values are naturally embedded in our human capacity for emotions; emotionalism.
 State the principle of utility, p. 225, p.256-258
    1. Also known as the greatest happiness principle. 
    2. When choosing a course of action, always pick the one that maximizes your happiness and minimizes unhappiness for the greatest number of people.
 Bentham and hedonistic calculus, p. 225-229
    1. Said good and bad is a personal choice for everyone and can be calculated using:
      1. Intensity- how intense will the pleasure or pain be?
      2. Duration- how long will it last?
      3. Certainty- how sure are we of the consequences?
      4. Remoteness- how far is it, in time and space?
      5. Fecundity- How big are the chances that it will be followed by a similar pleasure or a similar pain?
      6. Purity- how big are the chances that it will not be followed by the opposite sensation, like pain after pleasure?
      7. Extent- how many people will be affected by our decision?
 Intrinsic vs. Instrumental values, p. 229
    1. Intrinsic Value- we value them for their own sake, we want them because we want them. EX: we want to be healthy
    2. Instrumental Value- one that can be used as an instrument or a tool to get something else that we want. EX: we want a car so we can get to a job.
 Quantity vs. quality, p. 230-231
    1. Quantity- Bentham and his Hedonistic calculus refers to quantity; applicants are rated according to their qualifications and those qualifications are assigned numeral values.
    2. Quality- Mills and his theory referring to happiness being important refers to quality, waiting a reasonable amount of time for something.
 Problems of numbers, p. 233-240
    1. “If we could limit terrible consequences for a large number of people by sacrificing a few innocent people, would the decision be acceptable, even if we happened to be among the unfortunate few ourselves?”
 Mill’s higher and lower pleasures, p. 240-247, p. 258-261
    1. Some pleasures are more valuable, “higher” than others.
    2. Greater pleasure in life requires more effort, it is worth the effort because the pleasure is greater. 
 Mill’s harm principle, p. 247-253
    1. Idea that one should not interfere with other people’s lives unless those people are doing harm to others.
 Classical and egalitarian liberalism, p. 249
    1. Classical liberalism- emphasis on personal liberties
    2. Egalitarian liberalism- civil liberties; rights of citizens to do what they please as long as it causes no harm and have government ensure that as little harm and as much happiness is created for as many people as possible.
 Act vs. Rule Utilitarianism, p. 253-255
    1. Act Utilitarianism- Classical, principle of utility.
    2. Rule Utilitarianism- always do whatever TYPE of act that will create the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people, solves problems of sheer numbers.
 Deontology, p. 275
    1. Theory of moral obligation, concerned with our intentions.
    2. Ethical theory that disregards the importance of consequences and focuses only on the rightness or wrongness of the act itself.
 Kant’s good will, p. 275-278
    1. Strictly do things for the sake of the principle of doing the right thing; the presence of a good will is what makes an action morally good, regardless of it’s consequences.
    2. Observe the “Moral Law” in your intentions.
 State The Categorical Imperative, p. 278-281, p. 297-301
    1. Absolute moral rule that is justified because of its logic.
    2. Ask yourself what you want to do right now. Then imagine making that action a universal rule. Next, ask yourself whether you would want it to become a universal rule for everyone to follow. If you think everyone shouldn’t do it, you shouldn’t either.
 Criticisms of the Categorical Imperative, p. 282-287
    1. Consequences count- what if everyone borrowed money and didn’t pay it back? must worry about consequences of actions if everyone does it.
    2. Conflict of Duties- two important things to do at the same time. 
    3. The Loophole-If the special circumstances apply only in our case, then we’ve found a loophole.
    4. What is Rationality?- Everyone considers rationality differently
    5. No Exceptions?- A moral rule allows for no exceptions.
 Definition of Person, p. 312-319
    1. Someone who is capable of psychological and social interaction with others, capable of deciding on a course of action and being held responsible for that action, a moral agent; a normative concept, what a person ought to be and do to be called a person.
 Equality, p. 329-331
    1. Fundamental equality- unalienable rights, people should be treated as equals by their government.
    2. Social equality- refers to people being equal within a social setting, right to vote or stand for public office.
    3. Equal treatment for equals- treat people in your social class as you would want to be treated.
 Negative and positive rights, p. 334-339
    1. Negative rights- rights not to be interfered with; right to life, liberty, and property.
    2. Positive rights- rights of entitlement; right to means of food, shelter, education...
 Rawls and Distributive Justice, p. 339-346, p. 358-359
    1. Theories on how to distribute the goods of society fairly.
    2. Emphasizes the necessity for positive and negative rights because we can’t appreciate negative rights unless we have positive rights.
    3. When making a rule, we should consider if it affects everyone.
 Five approaches to punishment, p. 348-351
    1. Deterrence- may make the criminal change his/her mind about breaking the law again, may make others think twice before turning to crime.
    2. Rehabilitation- punishment to make a better person out of the criminal.
    3. Incapacitation- punish them in order to keep them off the streets.
    4. Retribution- punishment should be in proportion to the crime.
    5. Vengeance- may go beyond and exceed the damage done by the criminal.
 MLK’s just vs. unjust laws, p. 360-361
    1. Just- man made code that squares with moral law or the law of God; any law that uplifts human personality.
    2. Unjust- code that is out of harmony with the moral law. Any law that degrades human personality.
 Understand difference between ethics of conduct and virtue ethics, p. 385
    1. Ethics of conduct- theories that consider what proper human conduct is.
    2. Virtue ethics- theories involving the questions of how to be a virtuous person, development of what we call character.
 Socrates’ version of the good life is…, p. 400-401
    1. Reason is a way to a good life. Being true to your principles no matter how others may feel about it.
    2. A good life is a life that questions and thinks about things; it is a life of contemplation, self-examination, and open-minded wondering.
 The Tripartite Soul, p. 402-405
    1. Elements of the soul consisting of: Reason, Willpower, and Appetite.
    2. These correspond to the virtues: Wisdom, Courage, and Temperance.
    3. Reason = Wisdom
    4. Willpower = Courage
    5. Appetite = Temperance
 Plato’s Form of the Good, p. 408-410
    1. Most important form and also the form from which everything else derives.
    2. Highest form of knowledge.
    3. Forms represent an orderly reality and are ordered according to their importance and according to their dependence on other forms.
 Plato’s influence on Augustine, p. 410
    1. Was influenced by the thoughts that Christianity became a religion that looked to afterlife as the true reason for human existence.
 Characteristics of a just person and just state, p. 412-414
    1. Just person- mind fully contains reason, balance between reason, spirit and appetite.
    2. Just state- society in harmony with itself
      1. Reason- “philosopher kings”
      2. Willpower- Military/Law enforcement
      3. Appetites- General population
 Explain Aristotle as an empirical thinker (scientist), p. 432-434
    1. Combined concepts and logic
    2. Author of classical logic
    3. Laid the foundations of the classifications of biology
    4. Wrote many books
    5. Introduced the concept of empirical science and metaphysics.
 Define teleology, p. 436
    1. Concept of purpose, Aristotle believed that everything that exists has a purpose which is reason.
 Human purpose according to Aristotle, p. 437-440
    1. Our purpose is reason.
    2. The purpose for man is to think rationally and to develop a rational character same as moral goodness.
 Golden Mean, p. 440-447
    1. Describes the “Good for man”- where a human can excel, what a human is meant to do, and where a human will find happiness
    2. Action of a feeling responding to a particular situation at the right time, in the right way, in the right amount, for the right reason.
 Aristotle’s influence on Aquinas, p. 449
    1. His ideas became the cornerstone of the theology of Catholicism through the works of Aquinas.
    2. Concept of Teleology.
 Aristotle said virtue is…, p. 453-454
    1. To act with excellence
    2. Everything on this earth has it’s own virtue, meaning that if it performs the way it is supposed to by it’s nature, then it is virtuous.
    3. Virtue is not reserved for humans.
 Define Existentialism, p. 483
    1. Believes all humans have freedom of the will to determine their own life, authenticity; thought that there is only one way to live properly and only one virtue to strive for.
 Explain what the existentialist mean by Authenticity, p. 483
    1. The only way to live properly and the only virtue to strive for.
 Kierkegaard’s authenticity, p. 487-489
    1. Conceived as a relationship between oneself and God.
 Heidegger’s authenticity, p. 493
    1. Deals with one’s relationship to one’s self for our existence.
 Sartre’s authenticity, p. 498
    1. Deals with one’s relationship to oneself as a person making moral choices.
    2. “Condemned to be free”.
 Levinas’ authenticity, p. 504
    1. Focuses on the relationship between oneself and the other; serve the other for no reward at all.
 Define anguish, p. 509
    1. Anxiety, extreme mental distress; to dread
    2. Philosophy believes that we create our own anguish
 Explain physical and moral courage, p. 528
    1. Physical courage- visible, disregarding physical danger for the sake of other’s lives.
    2. Moral courage- invisible, the kind where you stand by your friend when it would be more convenient to distance yourself from him/her.
 Hume, Rousseau, and Mencius on Compassion, p. 531
    1. Hume & Rousseau believed that humans are naturally compassionate towards one another.
    2. Mencius- humans are compassionate but corrupted by the circumstances of everyday life.
 Common conclusion to the five studies on p. 532
    1. An empathy center in the brain- serves as a buffer for decisions that are likely to harm other humans.
    2. Mirror neurons- we have a natural capacity for understanding what others feel through certain neurons labeled mirror neurons.
    3. Thoughts of harm cause negative emotions.
    4. A grammar of morals has evolved.
    5. Altruism feels good- doing good for others feels good.
 Explain why Hallie emphasizes the diff between negative and positive commands, p. 536
    1. Negative- If you just refrain from doing harm, “do not cause harm”.
    2. Positive- “help others in need”.
    3. It is much harder to follow a positive moral rule than a negative one, which just requires you to do nothing.
 True moral value according to R. Taylor, p. 536-539
    1. Reason had no role to play in making the right moral choice, moral principles are useless because we can always find exceptions, pro compassion.
 Explain Confuscius’ superior man, p. 541
    1. Someone who is wise, courageous, and humane. 
    2. Someone who thinks well and acts accordingly.
    3. Models his behavior after virtuous men of the past.
    4. Understands that life is a long learning process.
 Define jen, li, and yi, p. 542
    1. Jen- having a caring attitude towards others.
    2. Li- understanding and performing rituals correctly.
    3. Yi- understanding what is proper and appropriate.
 Jane English’s view on parental-debt, p. 548
    1. You owe your parents nothing.
    2. Thinks main problem between children and their parents is the common parental attitude that their children are somehow in debt to them.
 Define Occam’s Razor, p. 557
    1. Theory gains in strength if unnecessary elements are cut away.
 Understand Golden Rule and Platinum Rule issues, p. 184, 554, and 557
    1. Golden Rule- treat others as you would want to be treated. Problems- different versions of correct behavior
    2. Platinum rule- treat others as they want to be treated.
 Explain McCain’s point “without courage all virtue is fragile”, p. 563-564
    1. Without courage, all virtue is fragile.
    2. Without courage, we are corruptible.
    3. We need moral courage to be honest all the time.
    4. We teach our children about moral courage by teaching them to “do their nearest duty”.
 Yutang’s view of gratitude toward parents, p. 566-567
    1. Firmly believes you should respect your parents, especially your elders; learn this behavior and see elders not as helpless but respected.
 Define gender equality, p. 588
    1. Goal of equality of sexes. Everyone should be treated as equals unless special circumstances apply.
 Define classical, difference, radical, and equity feminism, p. 602
    1. Classical- Calls for men & women to be considered as persons first and gendered beings second.
    2. Difference- Women & men possess fundamentally different qualities and both genders should learn from each other.
    3. Radical- Seek out and expose the root of the problem of gender discrimination.
    4. Equity- Battle for equality has been won, we can adopt any kind of gender roles we like because gender discrimination is an issue of the past.
 Beauvoir on gender, p. 604-607
    1. We exist and then we start to define who we are.
    2. Women seen as the second sex, remove culturally given rule, fight the traps of gender roles and their assumption that this is how we have to be.
    3. Poor excuse for not making our own choices.
 Gilligan on gender, p. 610-612
    1. Men are considered normal gender and women have been considered not quite normal.
    2. Believes there is a basic difference between moral attitudes of males and females.
    3. Boys tend to focus on an ethic of justice (personal gain and striving to become a developed individual) while women focus on ethics of care (caring for people)
 Ethic of Care and Ethic of Justice, p. 611
    1. Ethic of Care- caring for people.
    2. Ethic of Justice- personal gain and striving to become a developed individual.
 Dworkin on gender, p. 614-615
    1. Women all have a common condition- women are subordinate to men, sexually colonized in a sexual system of dominance and submission, denied rights on the basis of sex, generally considered biologically inferior, confined to sex and reproduction.
    2. General description of social environment in which all women live.
 Explain Tannen and Gurian as Bridge Builders, p. 615-616
    1. Goal is to make it possible for women and men to understand each other, not to become like each other or to compete against each other.
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