Koofers

FINAL EXAM - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:PHIL 1320 - ETHICS & SOCIETY
Subject:Philosophy
University:Texas State University - San Marcos
Term:Spring 2011
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
FOUR CLASSIC BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY

METAPHYSICS- STUDY OF NATURAL REALITY

ETHICS- STATE OF VALUES AND MORAL DECISION MAKING

LOGIC- STUDY OF CORRECT THINKING OR ARGUMENTATION, ESTABLISHING OF RULES FOR PROPER THINKING AS OPPOSED TO FALLACIOUS THINKING

EPISTEMOLOGY- STUDY OF THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE

METAPHYSICS

STUDY OF NATURAL REALITY

ETHICS

STATE OF VALUES AND MORAL DECISION MAKING

LOGIC

STUDY OF CORRECT THINKING OR ARGUMENTATION, ESTABLISHING RULES FOR PROPER THINKING AS OPPOSED TO FALLACIOUS THINKING

Generated by Koofers.com
EPISTEMOLOGY

STUDY OF THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE

 

DESCRIPTIVE VS. NORMATIVE ETHICS

DESCRIPTIVE- MERELY DESCRIBES WHAT IT SEES AS FACT OR WHAT IT SEES AS BAD, DESCRIBES WHAT PEOPLE ACTUALLY DO OR THINK

NORMATIVE- ADDS A MORAL JUDGEMENT, EVALUATION, OR JUSTIFICATION; CONCERNED WITH CLASSIFYING ACTIONS AS RIGHT OR WRONG

DESCRIPTIVE ETHICS

MERELY DESCRIBES WHAT IT SEES AS FACT OR WHAT IT SEES AS BAD, DESCRIBES WHAT PEOPLE ACTUALLY DO OR THINK

EX: IT IS GENERALLY NOT CONSIDERED IMMORAL TO EAT MEAT

NORMATIVE ETHICS

ADDS A MORAL JUDGEMENT, EVALUATION, OR JUSTIFICATION; CONCERNED WITH CLASSIFYING ACTIONS AS RIGHT OR WRONG

EX: IT IS OKAY TO EAT MEAT BECAUSE IT IS NOURISHING

Generated by Koofers.com
ETHICAL RELATIVISM

THEORY THAT THERE IS NO UNIVERSAL MORAL CODE, EACH CULTURE HAS ITS OWN SET OF RULES THAT ARE VALID FOR THAT CULTURE AND WE HAVE NO RIGHT TO INTERFERE

MAJORITY CONSIDERS MORALLY RIGHT= MORALLY RIGHT FOR THAT CULTURE

PROBLEMS WITH ETHICAL RELATIVISM

MAJORITY RULE: FORCES US TO BOW TO MAJORITY RULE

WHAT IS A "MAJORITY"?- WHAT IS CONSIDERED MORALLY RIGHT FOR SOME MAY NOT BE CONSIDERED RIGHT FOR OTHERS IN A CULTURE

WHAT IS A "CULTURE"?- HOW CAN WE DECIDE WHAT IS NORM FOR A CULTURE IF WE DON'T KNOW WHAT A CULTURE IS

NO CRITICISM- NO RIGHT TO CRITICIZE OTHER CULTURES

PROFESSED OR ACTUAL MORALITY

CAN TOLERANCE BE A UNIVERSAL VALUE

MAJORITY RULE

FORCES US TO BOW TO MAJORITY RULE

WHAT IS A "MAJORITY"

WHAT IS CONSIDERED MORALLY RIGHT FOR SOME MAY NOT BE CONSIDERED RIGHT FOR OTHERS IN A CULTURE

Generated by Koofers.com
WHAT IS A "CULTURE"

HOW CAN WE DECIDE WHAT IS NORM FOR A CULTURE IF WE DON'T KNOW WHAT A CULTURE IS

PSYCHOLOGICAL VS. ETHICAL EGOISM

PSYCHOLOGICAL- THEORY THAT EVERYONE IS SELFISH, HOW WE ACTUALLY DO BEHAVE

ETHICAL- THEORY THAT EVERYONE OUGHT TO BE SELFISH, YOU SHOULD LOOK AFTER YOURSELF, HOW WE OUGHT TO BEHAVE

PSYCHOLOGICAL EGOISM

THEORY THAT EVERYONE IS SELFISH, HOW WE ACTUALLY DO BEHAVE

ETHICAL EGOISM

THEORY THAT EVERYONE OUGHT TO BE SELFISH, YOU SHOULD LOOK AFTER YOURSELF, HOW WE OUGHT TO BEHAVE

Generated by Koofers.com
ALTRUISM

CONCERN FOR THE INTEREST OF OTHERS

THREE SOURCES OF VALUES

VALUES ARE A RESULT OF SOCIALIZATION, REFERRED TO VENNER'S THEORY: SUGGESTS THAT PERSONAL VALUES DERIVE FROM SITUATIONS WITH THE EXTERNAL WORLD, LEARN BETWEEN RIGHT AND WRONG

VALUES ARE AN OUTCOME OF THE HUMAN CAPACITY FOR RATIONAL THOUGHT

VALUES ARE NATUALLY EMBEDDED IN OUR HUMAN CAPACITY FOR EMOTIONS, EMOTIONALISM

PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY

ALSO KNOWN AS THE GREATEST-HAPPINESS PRINCIPLE; WHEN CHOOSING A COURSE OF ACTION, ALWAYS PICK THE ONE THAT WILL MAXIMIZE HAPPINESS AND MINIMIZE UNHAPPINESS FOR THE GREATEST NUMBER OF PEOPLE

MILL'S HIGHER AND LOWER PLEASURES

SOME PLEASURES ARE MORE VALUABLE, "HIGHER" THAN OTHERS, GREATER PLEASURE IN LIFE REQUIRE SOME EFFORT, IT IS WORTH THE EFFORT BECAUSE THE PLEASURE IS GREATER, NEED TO BE EDUCATED TO GET THE HIGH PLEASURES

Generated by Koofers.com
MILL'S HARM PRINCIPLE

PEOPLE SHOULD NOT INTERFERE WITH OTHER PEOPLE'S LIVES UNLESS THOSE PEOPLE ARE DOING HARM TO OTHERS

DEONTOLOGY

ETHICAL THEORY THAT DISREGARDS THE IMPORTANCE OF CONSEQUENCES AND FOCUSES ONLY ON THE RIGHTNESS OR WRONGNESS OF THE ACT ITSELF

CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE

ABSOLUTE MORAL RULE THAT IS JUSTIFIED BECAUSE OF ITS LOGIC; MATTER OF DOING THE RIGHT THING IN TERM OF THE INTENTIONS

ASK YOURSELF WHAT IT IS YOU WANT TO DO RIGHT NOW, IMAGINE MAKING THAT ACTION INTO A RULE, ASK YOURSELF IF YOU WOULD WANT THAT RULE TO BECOME UNIVERSAL FOR EVERYONE TO FOLLOW, IF YOU DON'T AGREE TO THAT THEN YOU SHOULDN'T DO IT EITHER.

NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE RIGHTS

NEGATIVE RIGHTS- RIGHTS NOT TO BE INTERFERED WITH THAT PROTECT YOU, RIGHT TO LIFE, LIBERTY, AND PROPERTY

POSITIVE RIGHTS- RIGHTS OF ENTITLEMENT, RIGHTS TO BASIC MEANS SUCH AS FOOD, SHELTER, CLOTHING

Generated by Koofers.com
APPROACHES TO PUNISHMENT

DETERRENCE: MAY MAKE CRIMINAL CHANGE HIS/HER MIND ABOUT BREAKING LAW AGAIN, MAY MAKE OTHERS THINK TWICE BEFORE TURNING TO CRIME

REHABILITATION: PUNISHMENT TO MAKE A BETTER PERSON OUT OF THE CRIMINAL

INCAPACITATION: PUNISH THEM IN ORDER TO KEEP THEM OFF THE STREETS

DETERRENCE

MAY MAKE CRIMINAL CHANGE HIS/HER MIND ABOUT BREAKING LAW AGAIN, MAY MAKE OTHERS THINK TWICE BEFORE TURNING TO CRIME

REHABILITATION

PUNISHMENT TO MAKE A BETTER PERSON OUT OF THE CRIMINAL

INCAPACITATION

PUNISH THEM IN ORDER TO KEEP THEM OFF THE STREETS

Generated by Koofers.com
MLK'S JUST VS. UNJUST LAWS

JUST- MAN-MADE CODE THAT SQUARES WITH THE MORAL LAW OR THE LAW OF GOD; LAW THAT UPLIFTS HUMAN PERSONALITY

UNJUST- CODE THAT IS OUT OF HARMONY WITH THE MORAL LAW; HUMAN LAW THAT IS NOT ROOTED IN ETERNAL LAW AND NATURAL LAW

MLK JUST LAW

MAN-MADE CODE THAT SQUARES WITH THE MORAL LAW OR THE LAW OF GOD; LAW THAT UPLIFTS HUMAN PERRSONALITY

MLK UNJUST LAW

CODE THAT IS OUT OF HARMONY WITH THE MORAL LAW; HUMAN LAW THAT IS NOT ROOTED IN ETERNAL LAW AND NATURAL LAW

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ETHICS OF CONDUCT AND VIRTURE ETHICS

ETHICS OF CONDUCT- THEORIES THAT CONSIDER WHAT PROPER HUMAN CONDUCT IS; WHAT COURSE OF ACTION TO TAKE; "WHAT TO DO"

VITURE ETHICS- DEVELOPMENT OF WHAT WE CALL CHARACTER; "HOW TO BE"

Generated by Koofers.com
ETHICS OF CONDUCT

THEORIES THAT CONSIDER WHAT PROPER HUMAN CONDUCT ISL WHAT COURSE OF ACTION TO TAKE; "WHAT TO DO"

VIRTUE ETHICS

DEVELOPMENT OF WHAT WE CALL CHARACTER; "HOW TO BE"

PLATO'S TRIPARTITE SOUL

THE ELEMENTS OF THE SOUL ARE REASON, WILLPOWER, AND APPETITIES; WHICH CORRESPOND TO THE VIRTURES: WISDOM, COURAGE, AND TEMPERANCE

PLATO'S JUST PERSON/JUST STATE

 JUST PERSON- MIND FULLY CONTAINS REASON; BALANCE BETWEEN REASON, SPIRIT, AND APPETITES, NEVER BE UNJUST

JUST STATE- SOCIETY IN HARMONY WITH ITSELF; "PHILOSOPHER KINGS" CORRESPOND TO REASON, MILITARY/LAW ENFORCEMENT CORRESPOND TO WILLPOWER, AND GENERAL POPULATION CORRESPONDS TO OUR APPETITES

Generated by Koofers.com
JUST PERSON

JUST PERSON- MIND FULLY CONTAINS REASON; BALANCE BETWEEN REASON, SPIRIT, AND APPETITES, NEVER BE UNJUST

JUST STATE

SOCIETY IN HARMONY WITH ITSELF; "PHILOSOPHER KINGS" CORRESPOND TO REASON, MILITARY/LAW ENFORCEMENT CORRESPOND TO WILLPOWER, AND GENERAL POPULATION CORRESPOND TO OUR APPETITES

TELEOLOGY

CONCEPT OF PURPOSE; FOR ARISTOTLE, EVERYTHING THAT EXIST HAS A PURPOSE WHICH IS REASON

ARISTOTLES'S GOLDEN MEAN

GREEK IDEA OF MODERATION; BELIEVES HE DESCRIBES THE "GOOD FOR MAN"-- WHERE A HUMAN CAN EXCEL, WHAT A HUMAN IS MEANT TO DO, AND WHERE A HUMAN WILL FIND HAPPINESS

ACTION/FEELING RESPONDING TO A PARTICULAR SITUATION AT THE RIGHT TIME, IN THE RIGHT WAY, IN THE RIGHT AMOUNT, FOR THE RIGHT REASON

BEING COURAGEOUS

Generated by Koofers.com
EXISTENTIALISM

BELIEVES ALL HUMANS HAVE FREEDOM OF THE WILL TO DETERMINE THEIR OWN LIFE, AUTHENTICITY

THERE IS ONLY ONE WAY TO LIVE PROPERLY AND ONLY ONE VIRTUE TO STRIVE FOR

AUTHENTICITY FROM EXISTENTIALISTS

LEVINAS- FOCUSES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ONESELF AND THE OTHER; SERVE THE OTHER FOR NO REWARD AT ALL

SARTES- DEALS WITH ONE'S RELATIONSHIP TO ONESELF AS A PERSON MAKING MORAL CHOICES, "CONDEMNED TO BE FREE"

JOHN MCCAIN'S CONCEPT OF COURAGE

-WITHOUT COURAGE, ALL VIRTUE IS FRAGILE

-WITHOUT COURAGE, WE ARE CORRUPTIBLE

-NEED MORAL COURAGE TO BE HONEST ALL THE TIME, IT'S THE ENFORCING VIRTUE THAT MAKES ALL OTHERS POSSIBLE

-SUGGESTS WE TEACH OUR CHILDREN ABOUT MORAL COURAGE BY TEACHING THEM TO "DO THEIR NEAREST DUTY"

HUME'S VIEW ON ETHICAL MOTIVATIONS

BELIEVED HUMANS ARE NATUALLY COMPASSIONATE TOWARD ONE ANOTHER, HELD THAT EVEN A SELFISH PERSON WILL FEEL BENEVOLENCE TOWARDS STRANGERS WHENEVER SELF-INTEREST NOT INVOLVED

Generated by Koofers.com
HALLIE'S DIFFERENCES ON NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE COMMANDS

NEGATIVE- IF YOU JUST REFRAIN FROM DOING HARM, "DO NOT CAUSE HARM"

POSITIVE- "HELP OTHERS IN NEED"

MUCH HARDER TO FOLLOW A POSITIVE MORAL RULE THAN A NEGATIVE ONE, WHICH JUST REQUIRES YOU TO DO NOTHING

NEGATIVE COMMAND

IF YOU JUST REFRAIN FROM DOING HARM, "DO NOT CAUSE HARM"

POSITIVE COMMAND

"HELP OTHERS IN NEED"

CONFUSCIUS' SUPERIOR MAN

SUPERIOR MAN IS SOMEONE WHO IS WISE, COURAGEOUS, AND HUMANE, SOMEONE WHO THINKS WELL AND ACTS ACCORDINGLY, WHO MODELS HIS BEHAVIOR AFTER VIRTUOUS MEN OF THE PAST AND UNDERSTANDS THAT LIFE IS A LONG LEARNING PROCESS

Generated by Koofers.com
JEN, LI, YI

JEN- HAVING A CARING ATTITUDE TOWARDS OTHERS

LI- UNDERSTANDING AND PERFORMING RITUALS CORRECTLY

YI- UNDERSTANDING WHAT IS PROPER AND APPROPRIATE

JEN

HAVING A CARING ATTITUDE TOWARDS OTHERS

LI

UNDERSTANDING AND PERFORMING RITUALS CORRECTLY

YI

UNDERSTANDING WHAT IS PROPER AND APPROPRIATE

Generated by Koofers.com
OCCAM'S RAZOR

THEORY GAINS IN STRENGTH IF UNNECESSARY ELEMENTS ARE CUT AWAY

JANE ENGLISH/ YUTANG VIEW ON PARENTING

ENGLISH- YOU OWE YOUR PARENTS NOTHING, THINKS MAIN PROBLEM BETWEEN CHILDREN AND PARENTS IS COMMON PARENTAL ATTITUDE THAT THEIR CHILDREN ARE SOMEHOW INDEBT TO THEM

YUTANG- FIRMLY BELIEVES YOU SHOULD RESPECT YOUR PARENTS, ESP. YOUR ELDERS; THEY LEARN THIS BEHAVIOR AND SEE ELDERS NOT AS HELPLESS BUT RESPECTED THE OLDER YOU ARE, THE MORE RESPECT YOU DESERVE

ENGLISH VIEW

YOU OWE YOUR PARENTS NOTHING; THINKS MAIN PROBLEM BETWEEN CHILDREN AND PARENTS IS COMMON PARENTAL ATTITUDE THAT THEIR CHILDREN ARE SOMEHOW INDEBT TO THEM

YUTANG

FIRMLY BELIEVES YOU SHOULD RESPECT YOUR PARENTS, ESP. YOUR ELDERS; THEY LEARN THIS BEHAVIOR AND SEE ELDERS NOT AS HELPLESS BUT RESPECTED, THE OLDER YOU ARE, THE MORE RESPECT YOU DESERVE

Generated by Koofers.com
CLASSICAL, DIFFERENCE, RADICAL, AND EQUITY

CLASSICAL- CALLS FOR MEN AND WOMEN TO BE CONSIDERED AS PERSONS FIRST AND GENDERED BEINGS SECOND

DIFFERENCE- WOMAN AND MEN POSSESS FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT QUALITIES AND THAT BOTH GENDERS SHOULD LEARN FROM EACH OTHER

RADICAL- SEEK OUT AND EXPOSE THE ROOT OF THE PROBLEM OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION

EQUITY- BATTLE FOR EQUALITY HAS BEEN WON, CAN ADOPT ANY KIND OF GENDER ROLES WE LIKE BECAUSE GENDER DISCRIMINATION IS AN ISSUE OF THE PAST

CLASSICAL

CALLS FOR MEN AND WOMEN TO BE CONSIDERED AS PERSONS FIRST AND GENDERED BEINGS SECOND

DIFFERENCE

WOMAN AND MEN POSSESS FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT QUALITIES AND THAT BOTH GENDERS SHOULD LEARN FROM EACH OTHER

RADICAL

SEEK OUT AND EXPOSE THE ROOT OF THE PROBLEM OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION

Generated by Koofers.com
EQUITY THE BATTLE FOR EQUALITY HAS BEEN WON, WE CAN NOW ADOPT ANY KIND OF GENDER ROLES WE LIKE BECAUSE GENDER DISCRIMINATOIN IS A THING OF THE PAST
LOGICAL FALLACIES

HASTY GENERALIZATION

APPEAL TO AUTHORITY

BEGGING THE QUESTION

SLIPPERY SLOPE

FALSE DICHOTOMY

RED HERRING

AD MISERICORDIAM

AD BACULUM

AD HOMINEM

STRAW MAN

HASTY GENERALIZATION

HAVE YOU HEARD SOMEONE CLAIM THAT BECAUSE SHE HAS BEEN CHEATED BY TWO AUTO MECHANICS, NO AUTO MECHANICS CAN BE TRUSTED?

 

APPEAL TO AUTHORITY

SOMEONE WHO IS AN EXPERT IN ONE FIELD AND CLAIM TO BE AN AUTHORITY IN ANOTHER

 

EX: CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS

Generated by Koofers.com
BEGGING THE QUESTION

WHEN SOMEONE TRIED TO PROVE A POINT JUST BY REPHASING IT 

 

EX: "IM RIGHT BECAUSE I AM NEVER WRONG"

ARGUING IN A CIRCLE

SLIPPERY SLOPE

ASSUMING DRASTIC CONSEQUENCES WILL FOLLOW A CERTAIN POLICY

 

EX: "IF WE CONTINUE TO ALLOW WOMEN TO HAVE ABORTIONS THEN PRETTY SOON NOBODY WILL GIVE BIRTH AND THE HUMAN RACE WILL DIE OUT"

FALSE DICHOTOMY

PRESENTING AN EITHER/OR SITUATION THAT ISN'T AN EITHER/OR SITUATION

 

EX: BEING PREGNANT, EITHER YOU ARE OR YOUR NOT

 

 

BIFURCATING- GIVING TWO OPTIONS

RED HERRING

DEFLECTION AWAY FROM THE TRUTH; DISTRACTION

 

EX: CHANGING THE SUBJECT

Generated by Koofers.com
AD MISERICORDIAM

APPEAL TO PITY; NOTHING BUT EXCUSES

 

EX: "PLEASE CAN I GET AN EXTENSION ON MY PAPER? MY BACKPACK GOT STOLEN...  MY CAT RAN AWAY...MY GRANDMA IS IN THE HOSPITAL..."

AD BACULUM

USING PHYSICAL THREATS

 

EX: "IF YOU DON'T GIVE ME YOUR LUNCH MONEY THEN I WILL PUNCH YOU IN THE BABYMAKER"

AD HOMINEM

ASSUMES THAT WHO A PERSON IS DETERMINES THE CORRECTNESS OR INCORRECTNESS OF WHAT HE OR SHE SAYS

 

EX: "YOU CAN'T BELIEVE WHAT HE SAYS, HE IS A GUY"

STRAW MAN

INVENTING A VIEWPOINT SO RADICAL THAT HARDLY ANYONE HOLDS IT, SO YOU CAN KNOCK IT DOWN

 

EX: "GUN ADVOCATES WANT TO ALLOW CRIMINALS AND CHILDREN TO OWN WEAPONS, SO WE SHOULD WORK TOWARD A GUN BAN"

Generated by Koofers.com
FOUR MAJOR PATHS ON MORAL DIFFERENCES

 

MORAL NIHILISM, SKEPTICISM, SUBJECTIVISM

ETHICAL RELATIVISM

SOFT UNIVERSALISM

HARD UNIVERSALISM

 

MORAL NIHILISM

VIEW THAT THERE IS NO ULTIMATE RIGHT OR WRONG; DIFFICULT POSITION TO UPHOLD BECAUSE IT IS SO EXTREME

 

EX: IF SOMEONE BREAKS INTO YOUR HOUSE AND STEALS THINGS THAT ARE VALIABLE TO YOU, YOUR GOING TO WANT THE THIEF CAUGHT, REGARDLESS OF HOW MUCH WE BELIEVE THAT THERE IS NO RIGHT OR WRONG.

SKEPTICISM & SUBJECTIVISM

WE CAN'T KNOW WHETHER THERE ARE ANY MORAL TRUTHS

 

SUPPORTS THAT MORAL VIEWS ARE SIMPLY INNER STATES IN A PERSON AND THAT THEY CAN'T BE COMPARED TO THE INNER STATES OF ANOTHER PERSON, SO A MORAL VIEW POINT IS VALID FOR THE PERSON WHO HOLDS IT

 

 

ALL THREE HAVE NO CONFLICT-SOLVING CAPACITY, GIVEN UP ON IDEA OF FINDING COMMON MORAL GROUND

 

ETHICAL RELATIVISM

EMPHASIZES THAT THERE IS NO UNIVERSAL MORAL TRUTH, THAT EACH CULTURE HAS ITS OWN SET OF RULES THAT ARE VALIF FOR THAT CULTURE AND WE HAVE NO RIGHT TO INTERFERE

 

WHAT IS MORALLY RIGHT IS DETERMINED BY THE MAJORITY OF A CULTURE

Generated by Koofers.com
SOFT UNIVERSALISM

THIS IS THE BELIEF IN THE EXISTENCE OF A FEW UNIVERSAL MORAL TRUTHS

HARD UNIVERSALISM

THERE IS ONE UNIVERSAL MORAL CODE; ATTUTUDE TOWARD MORALS IN EVERDAY LIFE TO WHICH MANY PEOPLE RELATE TO; DOESN'T ACKNOWLEDGE THE POSSIBILITY OR THE LEGITIMACY OF MORE THAN ONE SET OF MORAL CODES

 

 

NO CRITICISM OR PRAISE FROM OTHER CULTURES PREVENTED FROM CRITICIZING ANOTHER CULTURE'S DOINGS, BUT ALSO CANNOT PRAISE AND LEARN FROM THE CULTURE
PROFESSED OR ACTUAL MORALITY

WHAT IS "NORMAL"? IT IS THE PROFESSED MORALITY OF THE GROUP OR THE ACTUAL MORALITY?

 

EX: THE MAJORITY OF A CULTURAL GROUP, WHEN ASKED ABOUT THEIR MORAL VIEWPOINTS, CLAIM THAT THEY BELIEVE INFIDELITY IS WRONG, HOWEVER, IN THAT SOCIETY, INFIDELITY IS A COMMON PRACTICE. IS THE MORALITY OF THAT CULTURE WHAT THE MAJORITY SAY THEY OUGHT TO DO OR WHAT THEY ACTUALLY DO?

Generated by Koofers.com
CAN TOLERANCE BE A UNIVERSAL VALUE SOMEONE WHO BELIEVES IN ETHICAL RELATIVISM CLAIMS THAT TOLERANCE IS SOMETHING THAT EVERYONE SHOULD HAVE. SO CAN A RELAVIST SAY THAT TOLERANCE IS UNIVERSALLY GOOD? TOLERANCE MAY BE GOOD FOR US BUT WHO IS TO SAY IF IT IS GOOD FOR OTHER GROUPS!
INCLUSIVE MULTICULTURALISM

(PLURALISM) TO INTEGRATE EVERYONE INTO ALL ASPECTS OF SOCIETY

 

SALAD BOWL- METAPHOR FOR INCLUSIVE MULTICULTURALISM MEANING EACH GROUP MAINTAINS ITS ORIGINAL FLAVOR BUT THAT THE GROUPS ALSO RELATE TO ONE ANOTHER

EXCLUSIVE MULTICULTURALISM

(PARTICULARISM)  FOSTERS CULTURAL IDENTITY, YOU SHOULD SEPARATE PEOPLE INTO THEIR OWN CULTURES

 

HELPED CHILDREN REGAIN SEL-ESTEEM

 

MAY BECOME NEW FORM OF SEGREGATION?

SHORTCOMINGS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EGOISM

FALSIFICATION IS NOT POSSIBLE

IS DOING WHAT WE WANT ALWAYS SELFISH?

PROBLEMS OF LANGUAGE

Generated by Koofers.com
FALSIFICATION IS NOT POSSIBLE

IT ALWAYS LOOKS FOR SELFISH MOTIVES AND REFUSES TO RECOGNIZE ANY OTHER KIND

A GOOD THEORY IS NOT ONE THAT CAN'T BE PROVEN WRONG BUT ONE THAT ALLOWS FOR THE POSSIBLITY OF COUNTER EXAMPLES

IS DOING WHAT WE WANT ALWAYS SELFISH? IT IS WHAT YOU WANT THAT MATTERS, NOT JUST THE FACT THAT YOU WANT SOMETHING
PROBLEMS OF LANGUAGE CHANGING THE LANGUAGE TO THE EXTENT THAT IT GOES AGAINST OUR COMMON SENSE (BY CLAIMING THAT THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS UNSELFISH BUT THAT IT IS ACCEPTABLE TO USE THE TERM LESS SELFISH) DOES NOT MAKE PSYCHOLOGICAL EGOISM CORRECT
ETHICAL EGOISM OF HOBBES AND RAND

RAND- WROEE THE VIRTUE OF SELFISHNESS: THE ETHICS OF EMERGENCIES; ADVOCATED THAT PEOPLE HAVE A RIGHT, EVEN A DUTY, TO LOOK AFTER THEMSELVES AND SEEK THEIR OWN HAPPINESS

 

HOBBES- WROTE LEVIATHAN; HUMANS ARE SELFISH BY NATURE, AND SOCIETY IS OUR BEST WAY TO PROTECT OURSELVES FROM ONE ANOTHER

Generated by Koofers.com
SHORTCOMINGS OF ETHICAL EGOISM

SELF CONTRADICTORY

CARRIES NO WEIGHT AS A SOLVER OF MORAL CONFLICTS

DOESN'T WORK IN PRACTICE

EMOTIONAL COMPONENT

SELF CONTRADICTORY

IF YOU ARE SUPPOSE TO LOOK AFTER YOURSELF AND YOUR COLLEAGUE IS SUPPOSE TO LOOK AFTER HERSELF AND IF LOOKING ADTER YOURSELF WILL MEAN STEALING HER FILES THEN YOU AND SHE WILL BE WORKING AT CROSS-PURPOSES: YOUR DUTY WILL BE TO STEAL HER FILES FROM HER AND HER DUTY WILL BE TO PROTECT HER FILES

 

CAN'T HAVE MORAL THEORY THAT SAYS ONE'S DUTY SHOULD BE SOMETHING THAT CONFLICTS WITH SOMEONE ELSE'S DUTY, SO THEREFORE INCONSISTENT

CARRIES NO WEIGHT AS A SOLVER OF MORAL CONFLICTS IF YOU AND I DISAGREE ABOUT THE CORRECT COURSE OF ACTION, WHO IS TO SAY WHO IS RIGHT?
DOESN'T WORK IN PRACTICE IN A SHORT WHILE, YOU WILL REALIZE THAT EVERYONE LOOKING OUT FOR THEMSELVES IS NOT GOING TO BE TO YOUR ADVANTAGE BECAUSE OTHERS WILL BE OUT THERE GRABBING FOR THEMSELVES AND YOU WILL HAVE FIRECE COMPETITION
Generated by Koofers.com
EMOTIONAL COMPONENT HAS TO DO WITH FEELINGS; DOESNT TAKE OUR FEELINGS INTO ACCOUNT, WHAT IS A MORAL SENSE WITHOUT THE INVOLVEMENT OF OUR FEELINGS?
BENTHAM AND HEDONISTIC CALCULUS

BELIEVED THAT WHAT IS GOOD IS WHAT IS PLEASURABLE AND WHAT IS BAD IS WHAT IS PAINFUL (HEDONISM- PLEASURE SEEKING)

MUST CALCULATE THE PROBABLE CONSEQUENCES OF OUR ACTIONS

1.INTENSITY 2. DURATION 3. ITS CERTAINTY OR UNCERTAINTY 4.REMOTENESS 5. FECUNDITY 6. PURITY 7. EXTENT

SUM OF ALL THE PLEASURES/PAINS ON EACH SIDES, TAKE BALANCE, HIGHEST NUMBER IS YOUR DECISION

INTRINSIC VS. INSTRUMENTAL VALUES

INTRINSIC VALUE- VALUE THAT SOMETHING HAS FOR ITS OWN SAKE; WE WANT IT BECAUSE WE WANT IT

 

EX: WE WANT TO BE HEALTHY

 

INSTRUMENTAL VALUES- ONE THAT CAN BE USED AS AN INSTRUMENT OR A TOOL TO GET SOMETHING ELSE THAT WE WANT

 

EX: IF WE WANT TO GO TO SCHOOL, THEN WE NEED A CAR

QUANTITY VS. QUALITY

 

BENTHAM AND HIS HEDONISTOC CALCULUS REFERS TO QUANTITY; APPLICANTS ARE RATED ACCORDING TO THEIR QUALIFICATIONS AND THOSE QUALIFICATIONS ARE ASSIGNED NUMERAL VALUES

 

MILL'S AND HIS THEORY REFERRING TO HAPPINESS BEING IMPORTANT REFERS TO QUALITY;WAITING A REASONABLE AMOUNT OF TIME FOR SOMETHING

Generated by Koofers.com
PROBLEMS OF NUMBERS

WHAT DOES IT MEAN FOR OUR DECISION IF THE HAPPINESS OF SOME CAN BE OBTAINED ONLY AT THE COST OF SUFFERING OF OTHERS?

 

 

*********************************

CLASSICAL LIBERALISM EMPHASIZE ON PERSONAL LIBERTY
EGALITARIAN LIBERALISM

CIVIL LIBERTIES

 

THE RIGHTS OF CITIZENS, GOV'T ENSURING THAT AS LITTLE HARM AND AS MUCH HAPPINESS AS POSSIBLE IS CREATED FOR AS MANY PEOPLE AS POSSIBLE

ACT UTILITARIANISM

CLASSICAL; PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY

 

ALWAYS DO WHATEVER ACT WILL CREATE THE GREATEST HAPPINESS FOR THE GREATEST NUMBER OF PEOPLE

 

SPECIFIC ACT

Generated by Koofers.com
RULE UTILITARIANISM ALWAYS DO WHATEVER TYPE OF ACT THAT WILL CREATE THE GREATEST HAPPINESS FOR THE GREATEST NUMBER OF PEOPLE; SOLVES PROBLEMS OF SHEER NUMBERS
KANT'S GOOD WILL

STRICTLY DO THINGS FOR THE SAKE OF THE PRINCIPLE OF DOING THE RIGHT THING; THE PRESENCE OF A GOOD WILL IS WHAT MAKES AN ACTION MORALLY GOOD, REGARDLESS OF ITS CONSEQUENCES

 

OBSERVE THE "MORAL LAW" IN YOUR INTENTIONS

CRITICISMS OF THE CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE

CONSEQUENCES COUNT

CONFLICT BETWEEN DUTIES

THE LOOPHOLE

WHAT IS RATIONALITY

NO EXCEPTIONS?

CONSEQUENCES COUNT WHAT IS EVERYONE BORROWED MONEY AND DIDN'T PAY IT BACK? MUST WORRY ABOUT CONSEQENCES OF ACTIONS IF EVERYONE DOES IT
Generated by Koofers.com
CONFLICT OF DUTIES

TWO IMPORTANT THINGS TO DO AT THE SAME TIME= IMPORTANT

WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO

 

EX: TAKING INVENTORY AT OUR WORKPLACE THE NIGHT BEFORE WE HAVE A FINAL EXAM FOR WHICH WE SHOULD BE STUDYING

THE LOOPHOLE

IF THE SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES APPLY ONLY IN OUR CASE, THEN WE'VE FOUND A LOOPHOLE

 

 

 

EX: JOE HAS NO JOB, 20 YRS OLD, OUT OF WORK FOR SEVEN MONTHS, LIKES TO WEAR DENIM, PARENTS FICORVED, DATING A CASHIER..... NEEDS MONEY SO THEY CAN GET MARRIED

EVERYTIME I AM BROKE AND CAN'T GET A LOAN, I WILL ROB A BANK

WHAT IS RATIONALITY EVERYONE CONSIDERED RATIONALITY DIFFERENTLY
NO EXCEPTIONS

A MORAL RULE ALLOWS FOR NO EXCEPTIONS

 

EX: KILLER IS STALKING YOUR FRIEND, SHE COMES TO YOU AND YOU HIDE HER IN THE BROOM CLOSET. KILLER COMES TO YOUR HOUSE AND ASK WHERE SHE IS, YOU TELL HIM IN THE BROOM CLOSET.

 

PRIMARILY OBLIGATION IS TRUTH, IF WE BREAK A RULE THEN WE MUST FACE THE CONSEQUENCES

Generated by Koofers.com
DEFINITIOIN OF PERSON SOMEONE WHO IS CAPABLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL INTERACTION WITH OTHERS, CAPABLE OF DECIDING ON A COURSE OF ACTION AND BEING HELD RESPONSIBLE FOR THAT ACTION; A MOTAL AGENT; A NORMATIVE CONCEPT- WHAT A PERSON OUGHT TO BE AND DO, TO BE CALLED A PERSON
EQUALITY

FINDAMENTAL EQUALITY- UNALIENABLE RIGHTS' PEOPLE SHOULD BE TREATED AS EQUALS BY THEIR GOVT

 

SOCIAL EQUALITY- REFERS TO PEOPLE BEING EQUAL WITH A SOCIAL SETTING, RIGHT TO VOTE OR STAND FOR PUBLIC OFFICE

 

EQUAL TREATMENT FOR EQUALS- TREAT PEOPLE IN YOUR SOCIAL CLASS AS YOU WOULD WANT TO BE TREATED

RAWLS AND DISTRIBUTION JUSTICE

THEORIES ON HOW TO DISTRIBUTE THE GOODS OF SOCIETY FAIRLY

 

EMPHASIZES THE NECESSITY FOR POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE RIGHTS BECAUSE WE CANT APPRECIATE NEGATIVE RIGHTS UNLESS WE HAVE POSITIVE RIGHTS

 

WHEN MAKING A RULE, WE SHOULD CONSIDER WHO IT AFFECTS EVERYONE

RETRIBUTION

APPROACH TO PUNISHMENT

 

PUNISHMENT SHOULD BE IN PROPORTION TO THAT CRIME

Generated by Koofers.com
VENGEANCE

PRIVATE ACT THAT COULD POSSIBLY TAKE ANGER OUT ON OTHER INDIVIUALS BESIDES THE CRIMINAL

 

MAY GO BEYOND AND EXCEED THE DAMAGE DONE BY THE CRIMINAL

SOCRATES VERSION OF A GOOD LIFE

REASON IS A WAY TO A GOOD LIFE.

BEING TRUE TO YOUR PRINCIPLES NO MATTER HOW OTHERS MAY FEEL ABOUT IT

 

GOOD LIFE IS A LIFE THAT QUESTIONS AND THINKS ABOUT THINGS; IT IS A LIFE OF CONTEMPLATION, SELF-EXAMINATION, AND OPEN-MINDED WONDERING

STRENUOUS BUT GRATIFYING IN ITS OWN WAY BECAUSE ONE KNOWS THAT ONE SEEKS AND SEES THE TRUTH AND ONE IS IN COTROL OF ONESELF, NOT SWAYED BY OTHER OPINIONS

PLATOS FORM OF GOOD

MOST IMPORTANT FORM AND ALSO AS THE FORM FROM WHICH EVERYTHING ELSE DERIVES

 

HIGHEST FORM OF KNOWLEDGE

 

FORMS REPRESENT AN ORDERLY REALITY AND ARE ORDERED ACCORDING TO THEIR IMPORTANCE AND ACCORDING TO THEIR DEPENDENCE ON OTHER FORMS

PLATOS INFLUENCE ON AUGUSTINE WAS INFLUENCED BY THE THOUGHTS THAT CHRISTIANITY BECAME A RELIGION THAT LOOKED TO THE AFTERLIFE AS THE TRUE REASON FOR HUMAN EXISTENCE
Generated by Koofers.com
ARISTOTLE AS AN EMPIRICAL THINKER

COMBINED THE CONCEPTS AND LOGIC WERE COMBINED

AUTHOR OF CLASSICAL LOGIC

LAID THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE CLASSIFICATIONS OF BIOLOGY

WROTE MANY BOOKS

INTRODUCED THE CONCEPT OF EMPIRICAL SCIENCE AND METAPHYSICS

 

HUMAN PURPOSE ACCORDING TO ARISTOTLE

OUR PURPOSE IS REASON

 

THE PURPOSE FOR MAN IS TO THINK RATIONALLY AND TO DEVELOP A RATIONAL CHARACTER

SAME AS MORAL GOODNESS

ARISTOTLES INFLUENCE ON AQUINAS

HIS IDEAS BECAME THE CORNERSTONE OF THE THEOLOGY OF CATHOLICISM THROUGH THE WORKS OF AQUINAS

 

CONCEPT OF TELEOLOGY

ARISTOTLE SAID VIRTUE IS...

TO ACT WITH EXCELLENCE

 

EVERYTHING ON THIS EARTH HAS ITS OWN VIRTUE, MEANING THAT IF IT "PERFORMS" THE WAY IT IS SUPPOSED TO BY ITS NATURE, THEN IT IS VIRTUOUS

 

VIRTUE NOT RESERVED FOR HUMANS

Generated by Koofers.com
EXISTENTIALISTS AND AUTHENTICITY VIEWS

THE ONLY WAY TO LIVE PROPERLY AND THE ONLY VIRTUE TO STRIVE FOR

KIEREGAARD'S AUTHENTICITY- CONCEIVED AS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ONESELF AND GOD

 

HEIDEGGER'S AUTHENTICITY- DEALS WITH ONE'S RELATIONSHIP TO ONE'S OWN FOR OF EXISTENCE

 

SARTRE- DEALS WITH ONE'S RELATIONSHIP TO ONESELF AS A PERSON MAKING MORAL CHOICES ("CONDEMNED TO BE FREE")

ANGUISH

ANXIETY, EXTREME MENTAL DISTRESS; TO DREAD

 

PHILOSOPHY BELIEVEES THAT WE CREATE OUR OWN ANGUISH

 

A MAN IS IN ANGUISH WHEN A MAN COMMITS HIMSELF TO ANYTHING, FULLY REALIZING THAT HE IS NOT ONLY CHOOSING WHAT HE WILL BE BUT IS THEREBY AT THE SAME TIME A LEGISLATOR DECIDING FOR THE WHOLE MANKIND; A MAN CANNOT ESCAPE FROM THE SENSE OF COMPLETE AND PROFOUND RESPONSIBILITY

PHYSICAL COURAGE

VISIBLE

 

DISREGARDING PHYSICAL DANGER FOR THE SAKE OF OTHER'S LIVES

 

 

MORAL COURAGE

NOT AS NOTICED AS PHYSICAL

 

THE KIND WHERE YOU STAND BY YOUR FIREND WHEN IT WOULD BE MORE CONVENIENT TO DISTANCE YOURSELF FROM HIM OR HER

Generated by Koofers.com
HUME, ROUSSEAU, MENCUIS ON COMPASSION

H/R BELIEVED THAT HUMANS ARE NATURALLY COMPASSIONATE TOWARD ONE ANOTHER

 

MENICUS- HUMANS ARE COMPASSIONATE BUT CORRUPTED BY THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF EVERDAY LIFE

COMMON CONCLUSION TO THE 5 STUDIES

AN EMPATHY CENTER IN THE BRAIN- SERVES AS A BUFFER FOR DECISIONS THAT ARE LIKELY TO HARM OTHER HUMANS

MIRROR NEURONS- WE HAVE A NATURAL CAPACITY FOR UNDERSTANDING WHAT OTHERS FEEL THROUGH CERTAIN NEURONS LABELED MIRROR NEURONS

THOUGHTS OF HARM CAUSE NEGATIVE EMOTIONS

A GRAMMAR OF MORALS HAS EVOLVED

ALTRUISM FEELS GOOD- DOING GOOD FOR OTHERS FEELS GOOD

TRUE MORAL VALUE ACCORDING TO RICHARD TAYLOR

REASON HAD NO ROLE TO PLAY IN MAKING THE RIGHT MORAL CHOICE

 

MORAL PRINCIPLES ARE USELESS BECAUSE WE CAN ALWAYS FIND EXCEPTIONS

 

PRO COMPASSION

GOLDEN RULE

TREAT OTHERS AS YOU WOULD WANT TO BE TREATED

PROBS: DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF CORRECT BEHAVIOR

Generated by Koofers.com
PLATINUM RULE

TREAT OTHERS AS THEY WANT TO BE TREATED

 

MCCAIN'S POINT "WITHOUT COURAGE ALL VIRTUE IS FRAGILE"

ADMIRED, SOUGHT, PROFESSED BUT HELD CHEAPLY AND SURRENDERED WITHOUT A FIGHT; WE ARE CORRUPTIBLE WITHOUT IT

 

NEED IT TO BE HONEST ALL THE TIME

ENFORCING VIRTUE THAT MAKES ALL THE OTHERS POSSIBLE

 

FOCUSING ON ONE'S PERSONAL OBLIGATIONS  BY TEACHING OUR CHILDREN ABOUT MORAL COURAGE BY TEACHING THEM TO "DO THEIR NEAREST DUTY"

GENDER EQUALITY

GOAL OF EQUALITY OF SEXES

 

EVERYONE SHOULD BE TREATED AS EQUALS UNLESS SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES APPLY

BEAUVOIR ON GENDER

WE EXIST AND THEN WE START TO DEFINE WHO WE ARE

 

WOMEN SEEN AS THE SECOND SEX, REMOVE CULTURALLY GIVEN RULE, FIGHT THE TRAPS OF GENDER ROLES AND THEIR ASSUMPTION THAT THIS IS HOW WE HAVE TO BE

 

POOR EXCUSE FOR NOT MAKING OUR OWN CHOICES

Generated by Koofers.com
GILLIGAN ON GENDER

MEN ARE CONSIDERED NORMAL GENDER AND WOMEN HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED NOT-QUITE NORMAL

 

BELIEVES THERE IS A BASIC DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MORAL ATTITUDES OF MALES AND FEMALES

 

BOYS TEND TO FOCUS ON AN ETHIC OF JUSTICE (PERSONAL GAIN AND STRIVING TO BECOME A DEVELOPED INDIVIDUAL) WHILE WOMEN FOCUS ON ETHICS OF CARE (CARING FOR PEOPLE)

DWORKIN ON GENDER

WOMAN ALL HAVE A COMMON CONDITION- WOMEN ARE SUBORDINATE TO MEN, SEXUALLY COLONIZED IN A SEXUAL SYSTEM OF DOMINANCE AND SUBMISSION, DENIED RIGHTS ON THE BASIS OF SEX, GENERALLY CONSIDERED BIOLOGICALLY INFERIOR, CONFINED TO SEX AND REPRODUCTION

 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH ALL WOMEN LIVE

TANNEN AND GURIAN- BRIDGE BUILDERS GOAL IS TO MAKE IT POSSIBLE FOR WOMEN AND MEN TO UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER, NOT TO BECOME LIKE EACH OTHER OR TO COMPETE AGAINST EACH OTHER
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 135 Print
 
Front
Back
 FOUR CLASSIC BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY

METAPHYSICS- STUDY OF NATURAL REALITY

ETHICS- STATE OF VALUES AND MORAL DECISION MAKING

LOGIC- STUDY OF CORRECT THINKING OR ARGUMENTATION, ESTABLISHING OF RULES FOR PROPER THINKING AS OPPOSED TO FALLACIOUS THINKING

EPISTEMOLOGY- STUDY OF THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE

 METAPHYSICS

STUDY OF NATURAL REALITY

 ETHICS

STATE OF VALUES AND MORAL DECISION MAKING

 LOGIC

STUDY OF CORRECT THINKING OR ARGUMENTATION, ESTABLISHING RULES FOR PROPER THINKING AS OPPOSED TO FALLACIOUS THINKING

 EPISTEMOLOGY

STUDY OF THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE

 

 DESCRIPTIVE VS. NORMATIVE ETHICS

DESCRIPTIVE- MERELY DESCRIBES WHAT IT SEES AS FACT OR WHAT IT SEES AS BAD, DESCRIBES WHAT PEOPLE ACTUALLY DO OR THINK

NORMATIVE- ADDS A MORAL JUDGEMENT, EVALUATION, OR JUSTIFICATION; CONCERNED WITH CLASSIFYING ACTIONS AS RIGHT OR WRONG

 DESCRIPTIVE ETHICS

MERELY DESCRIBES WHAT IT SEES AS FACT OR WHAT IT SEES AS BAD, DESCRIBES WHAT PEOPLE ACTUALLY DO OR THINK

EX: IT IS GENERALLY NOT CONSIDERED IMMORAL TO EAT MEAT

 NORMATIVE ETHICS

ADDS A MORAL JUDGEMENT, EVALUATION, OR JUSTIFICATION; CONCERNED WITH CLASSIFYING ACTIONS AS RIGHT OR WRONG

EX: IT IS OKAY TO EAT MEAT BECAUSE IT IS NOURISHING

 ETHICAL RELATIVISM

THEORY THAT THERE IS NO UNIVERSAL MORAL CODE, EACH CULTURE HAS ITS OWN SET OF RULES THAT ARE VALID FOR THAT CULTURE AND WE HAVE NO RIGHT TO INTERFERE

MAJORITY CONSIDERS MORALLY RIGHT= MORALLY RIGHT FOR THAT CULTURE

 PROBLEMS WITH ETHICAL RELATIVISM

MAJORITY RULE: FORCES US TO BOW TO MAJORITY RULE

WHAT IS A "MAJORITY"?- WHAT IS CONSIDERED MORALLY RIGHT FOR SOME MAY NOT BE CONSIDERED RIGHT FOR OTHERS IN A CULTURE

WHAT IS A "CULTURE"?- HOW CAN WE DECIDE WHAT IS NORM FOR A CULTURE IF WE DON'T KNOW WHAT A CULTURE IS

NO CRITICISM- NO RIGHT TO CRITICIZE OTHER CULTURES

PROFESSED OR ACTUAL MORALITY

CAN TOLERANCE BE A UNIVERSAL VALUE

 MAJORITY RULE

FORCES US TO BOW TO MAJORITY RULE

 WHAT IS A "MAJORITY"

WHAT IS CONSIDERED MORALLY RIGHT FOR SOME MAY NOT BE CONSIDERED RIGHT FOR OTHERS IN A CULTURE

 WHAT IS A "CULTURE"

HOW CAN WE DECIDE WHAT IS NORM FOR A CULTURE IF WE DON'T KNOW WHAT A CULTURE IS

 PSYCHOLOGICAL VS. ETHICAL EGOISM

PSYCHOLOGICAL- THEORY THAT EVERYONE IS SELFISH, HOW WE ACTUALLY DO BEHAVE

ETHICAL- THEORY THAT EVERYONE OUGHT TO BE SELFISH, YOU SHOULD LOOK AFTER YOURSELF, HOW WE OUGHT TO BEHAVE

 PSYCHOLOGICAL EGOISM

THEORY THAT EVERYONE IS SELFISH, HOW WE ACTUALLY DO BEHAVE

 ETHICAL EGOISM

THEORY THAT EVERYONE OUGHT TO BE SELFISH, YOU SHOULD LOOK AFTER YOURSELF, HOW WE OUGHT TO BEHAVE

 ALTRUISM

CONCERN FOR THE INTEREST OF OTHERS

 THREE SOURCES OF VALUES

VALUES ARE A RESULT OF SOCIALIZATION, REFERRED TO VENNER'S THEORY: SUGGESTS THAT PERSONAL VALUES DERIVE FROM SITUATIONS WITH THE EXTERNAL WORLD, LEARN BETWEEN RIGHT AND WRONG

VALUES ARE AN OUTCOME OF THE HUMAN CAPACITY FOR RATIONAL THOUGHT

VALUES ARE NATUALLY EMBEDDED IN OUR HUMAN CAPACITY FOR EMOTIONS, EMOTIONALISM

 PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY

ALSO KNOWN AS THE GREATEST-HAPPINESS PRINCIPLE; WHEN CHOOSING A COURSE OF ACTION, ALWAYS PICK THE ONE THAT WILL MAXIMIZE HAPPINESS AND MINIMIZE UNHAPPINESS FOR THE GREATEST NUMBER OF PEOPLE

 MILL'S HIGHER AND LOWER PLEASURES

SOME PLEASURES ARE MORE VALUABLE, "HIGHER" THAN OTHERS, GREATER PLEASURE IN LIFE REQUIRE SOME EFFORT, IT IS WORTH THE EFFORT BECAUSE THE PLEASURE IS GREATER, NEED TO BE EDUCATED TO GET THE HIGH PLEASURES

 MILL'S HARM PRINCIPLE

PEOPLE SHOULD NOT INTERFERE WITH OTHER PEOPLE'S LIVES UNLESS THOSE PEOPLE ARE DOING HARM TO OTHERS

 DEONTOLOGY

ETHICAL THEORY THAT DISREGARDS THE IMPORTANCE OF CONSEQUENCES AND FOCUSES ONLY ON THE RIGHTNESS OR WRONGNESS OF THE ACT ITSELF

 CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE

ABSOLUTE MORAL RULE THAT IS JUSTIFIED BECAUSE OF ITS LOGIC; MATTER OF DOING THE RIGHT THING IN TERM OF THE INTENTIONS

ASK YOURSELF WHAT IT IS YOU WANT TO DO RIGHT NOW, IMAGINE MAKING THAT ACTION INTO A RULE, ASK YOURSELF IF YOU WOULD WANT THAT RULE TO BECOME UNIVERSAL FOR EVERYONE TO FOLLOW, IF YOU DON'T AGREE TO THAT THEN YOU SHOULDN'T DO IT EITHER.

 NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE RIGHTS

NEGATIVE RIGHTS- RIGHTS NOT TO BE INTERFERED WITH THAT PROTECT YOU, RIGHT TO LIFE, LIBERTY, AND PROPERTY

POSITIVE RIGHTS- RIGHTS OF ENTITLEMENT, RIGHTS TO BASIC MEANS SUCH AS FOOD, SHELTER, CLOTHING

 APPROACHES TO PUNISHMENT

DETERRENCE: MAY MAKE CRIMINAL CHANGE HIS/HER MIND ABOUT BREAKING LAW AGAIN, MAY MAKE OTHERS THINK TWICE BEFORE TURNING TO CRIME

REHABILITATION: PUNISHMENT TO MAKE A BETTER PERSON OUT OF THE CRIMINAL

INCAPACITATION: PUNISH THEM IN ORDER TO KEEP THEM OFF THE STREETS

 DETERRENCE

MAY MAKE CRIMINAL CHANGE HIS/HER MIND ABOUT BREAKING LAW AGAIN, MAY MAKE OTHERS THINK TWICE BEFORE TURNING TO CRIME

 REHABILITATION

PUNISHMENT TO MAKE A BETTER PERSON OUT OF THE CRIMINAL

 INCAPACITATION

PUNISH THEM IN ORDER TO KEEP THEM OFF THE STREETS

 MLK'S JUST VS. UNJUST LAWS

JUST- MAN-MADE CODE THAT SQUARES WITH THE MORAL LAW OR THE LAW OF GOD; LAW THAT UPLIFTS HUMAN PERSONALITY

UNJUST- CODE THAT IS OUT OF HARMONY WITH THE MORAL LAW; HUMAN LAW THAT IS NOT ROOTED IN ETERNAL LAW AND NATURAL LAW

 MLK JUST LAW

MAN-MADE CODE THAT SQUARES WITH THE MORAL LAW OR THE LAW OF GOD; LAW THAT UPLIFTS HUMAN PERRSONALITY

 MLK UNJUST LAW

CODE THAT IS OUT OF HARMONY WITH THE MORAL LAW; HUMAN LAW THAT IS NOT ROOTED IN ETERNAL LAW AND NATURAL LAW

 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ETHICS OF CONDUCT AND VIRTURE ETHICS

ETHICS OF CONDUCT- THEORIES THAT CONSIDER WHAT PROPER HUMAN CONDUCT IS; WHAT COURSE OF ACTION TO TAKE; "WHAT TO DO"

VITURE ETHICS- DEVELOPMENT OF WHAT WE CALL CHARACTER; "HOW TO BE"

 ETHICS OF CONDUCT

THEORIES THAT CONSIDER WHAT PROPER HUMAN CONDUCT ISL WHAT COURSE OF ACTION TO TAKE; "WHAT TO DO"

 VIRTUE ETHICS

DEVELOPMENT OF WHAT WE CALL CHARACTER; "HOW TO BE"

 PLATO'S TRIPARTITE SOUL

THE ELEMENTS OF THE SOUL ARE REASON, WILLPOWER, AND APPETITIES; WHICH CORRESPOND TO THE VIRTURES: WISDOM, COURAGE, AND TEMPERANCE

 PLATO'S JUST PERSON/JUST STATE

 JUST PERSON- MIND FULLY CONTAINS REASON; BALANCE BETWEEN REASON, SPIRIT, AND APPETITES, NEVER BE UNJUST

JUST STATE- SOCIETY IN HARMONY WITH ITSELF; "PHILOSOPHER KINGS" CORRESPOND TO REASON, MILITARY/LAW ENFORCEMENT CORRESPOND TO WILLPOWER, AND GENERAL POPULATION CORRESPONDS TO OUR APPETITES

 JUST PERSON

JUST PERSON- MIND FULLY CONTAINS REASON; BALANCE BETWEEN REASON, SPIRIT, AND APPETITES, NEVER BE UNJUST

 JUST STATE

SOCIETY IN HARMONY WITH ITSELF; "PHILOSOPHER KINGS" CORRESPOND TO REASON, MILITARY/LAW ENFORCEMENT CORRESPOND TO WILLPOWER, AND GENERAL POPULATION CORRESPOND TO OUR APPETITES

 TELEOLOGY

CONCEPT OF PURPOSE; FOR ARISTOTLE, EVERYTHING THAT EXIST HAS A PURPOSE WHICH IS REASON

 ARISTOTLES'S GOLDEN MEAN

GREEK IDEA OF MODERATION; BELIEVES HE DESCRIBES THE "GOOD FOR MAN"-- WHERE A HUMAN CAN EXCEL, WHAT A HUMAN IS MEANT TO DO, AND WHERE A HUMAN WILL FIND HAPPINESS

ACTION/FEELING RESPONDING TO A PARTICULAR SITUATION AT THE RIGHT TIME, IN THE RIGHT WAY, IN THE RIGHT AMOUNT, FOR THE RIGHT REASON

BEING COURAGEOUS

 EXISTENTIALISM

BELIEVES ALL HUMANS HAVE FREEDOM OF THE WILL TO DETERMINE THEIR OWN LIFE, AUTHENTICITY

THERE IS ONLY ONE WAY TO LIVE PROPERLY AND ONLY ONE VIRTUE TO STRIVE FOR

 AUTHENTICITY FROM EXISTENTIALISTS

LEVINAS- FOCUSES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ONESELF AND THE OTHER; SERVE THE OTHER FOR NO REWARD AT ALL

SARTES- DEALS WITH ONE'S RELATIONSHIP TO ONESELF AS A PERSON MAKING MORAL CHOICES, "CONDEMNED TO BE FREE"

 JOHN MCCAIN'S CONCEPT OF COURAGE

-WITHOUT COURAGE, ALL VIRTUE IS FRAGILE

-WITHOUT COURAGE, WE ARE CORRUPTIBLE

-NEED MORAL COURAGE TO BE HONEST ALL THE TIME, IT'S THE ENFORCING VIRTUE THAT MAKES ALL OTHERS POSSIBLE

-SUGGESTS WE TEACH OUR CHILDREN ABOUT MORAL COURAGE BY TEACHING THEM TO "DO THEIR NEAREST DUTY"

 HUME'S VIEW ON ETHICAL MOTIVATIONS

BELIEVED HUMANS ARE NATUALLY COMPASSIONATE TOWARD ONE ANOTHER, HELD THAT EVEN A SELFISH PERSON WILL FEEL BENEVOLENCE TOWARDS STRANGERS WHENEVER SELF-INTEREST NOT INVOLVED

 HALLIE'S DIFFERENCES ON NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE COMMANDS

NEGATIVE- IF YOU JUST REFRAIN FROM DOING HARM, "DO NOT CAUSE HARM"

POSITIVE- "HELP OTHERS IN NEED"

MUCH HARDER TO FOLLOW A POSITIVE MORAL RULE THAN A NEGATIVE ONE, WHICH JUST REQUIRES YOU TO DO NOTHING

 NEGATIVE COMMAND

IF YOU JUST REFRAIN FROM DOING HARM, "DO NOT CAUSE HARM"

 POSITIVE COMMAND

"HELP OTHERS IN NEED"

 CONFUSCIUS' SUPERIOR MAN

SUPERIOR MAN IS SOMEONE WHO IS WISE, COURAGEOUS, AND HUMANE, SOMEONE WHO THINKS WELL AND ACTS ACCORDINGLY, WHO MODELS HIS BEHAVIOR AFTER VIRTUOUS MEN OF THE PAST AND UNDERSTANDS THAT LIFE IS A LONG LEARNING PROCESS

 JEN, LI, YI

JEN- HAVING A CARING ATTITUDE TOWARDS OTHERS

LI- UNDERSTANDING AND PERFORMING RITUALS CORRECTLY

YI- UNDERSTANDING WHAT IS PROPER AND APPROPRIATE

 JEN

HAVING A CARING ATTITUDE TOWARDS OTHERS

 LI

UNDERSTANDING AND PERFORMING RITUALS CORRECTLY

 YI

UNDERSTANDING WHAT IS PROPER AND APPROPRIATE

 OCCAM'S RAZOR

THEORY GAINS IN STRENGTH IF UNNECESSARY ELEMENTS ARE CUT AWAY

 JANE ENGLISH/ YUTANG VIEW ON PARENTING

ENGLISH- YOU OWE YOUR PARENTS NOTHING, THINKS MAIN PROBLEM BETWEEN CHILDREN AND PARENTS IS COMMON PARENTAL ATTITUDE THAT THEIR CHILDREN ARE SOMEHOW INDEBT TO THEM

YUTANG- FIRMLY BELIEVES YOU SHOULD RESPECT YOUR PARENTS, ESP. YOUR ELDERS; THEY LEARN THIS BEHAVIOR AND SEE ELDERS NOT AS HELPLESS BUT RESPECTED THE OLDER YOU ARE, THE MORE RESPECT YOU DESERVE

 ENGLISH VIEW

YOU OWE YOUR PARENTS NOTHING; THINKS MAIN PROBLEM BETWEEN CHILDREN AND PARENTS IS COMMON PARENTAL ATTITUDE THAT THEIR CHILDREN ARE SOMEHOW INDEBT TO THEM

 YUTANG

FIRMLY BELIEVES YOU SHOULD RESPECT YOUR PARENTS, ESP. YOUR ELDERS; THEY LEARN THIS BEHAVIOR AND SEE ELDERS NOT AS HELPLESS BUT RESPECTED, THE OLDER YOU ARE, THE MORE RESPECT YOU DESERVE

 CLASSICAL, DIFFERENCE, RADICAL, AND EQUITY

CLASSICAL- CALLS FOR MEN AND WOMEN TO BE CONSIDERED AS PERSONS FIRST AND GENDERED BEINGS SECOND

DIFFERENCE- WOMAN AND MEN POSSESS FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT QUALITIES AND THAT BOTH GENDERS SHOULD LEARN FROM EACH OTHER

RADICAL- SEEK OUT AND EXPOSE THE ROOT OF THE PROBLEM OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION

EQUITY- BATTLE FOR EQUALITY HAS BEEN WON, CAN ADOPT ANY KIND OF GENDER ROLES WE LIKE BECAUSE GENDER DISCRIMINATION IS AN ISSUE OF THE PAST

 CLASSICAL

CALLS FOR MEN AND WOMEN TO BE CONSIDERED AS PERSONS FIRST AND GENDERED BEINGS SECOND

 DIFFERENCE

WOMAN AND MEN POSSESS FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT QUALITIES AND THAT BOTH GENDERS SHOULD LEARN FROM EACH OTHER

 RADICAL

SEEK OUT AND EXPOSE THE ROOT OF THE PROBLEM OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION

 EQUITYTHE BATTLE FOR EQUALITY HAS BEEN WON, WE CAN NOW ADOPT ANY KIND OF GENDER ROLES WE LIKE BECAUSE GENDER DISCRIMINATOIN IS A THING OF THE PAST
 LOGICAL FALLACIES

HASTY GENERALIZATION

APPEAL TO AUTHORITY

BEGGING THE QUESTION

SLIPPERY SLOPE

FALSE DICHOTOMY

RED HERRING

AD MISERICORDIAM

AD BACULUM

AD HOMINEM

STRAW MAN

 HASTY GENERALIZATION

HAVE YOU HEARD SOMEONE CLAIM THAT BECAUSE SHE HAS BEEN CHEATED BY TWO AUTO MECHANICS, NO AUTO MECHANICS CAN BE TRUSTED?

 

 APPEAL TO AUTHORITY

SOMEONE WHO IS AN EXPERT IN ONE FIELD AND CLAIM TO BE AN AUTHORITY IN ANOTHER

 

EX: CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS

 BEGGING THE QUESTION

WHEN SOMEONE TRIED TO PROVE A POINT JUST BY REPHASING IT 

 

EX: "IM RIGHT BECAUSE I AM NEVER WRONG"

ARGUING IN A CIRCLE

 SLIPPERY SLOPE

ASSUMING DRASTIC CONSEQUENCES WILL FOLLOW A CERTAIN POLICY

 

EX: "IF WE CONTINUE TO ALLOW WOMEN TO HAVE ABORTIONS THEN PRETTY SOON NOBODY WILL GIVE BIRTH AND THE HUMAN RACE WILL DIE OUT"

 FALSE DICHOTOMY

PRESENTING AN EITHER/OR SITUATION THAT ISN'T AN EITHER/OR SITUATION

 

EX: BEING PREGNANT, EITHER YOU ARE OR YOUR NOT

 

 

BIFURCATING- GIVING TWO OPTIONS

 RED HERRING

DEFLECTION AWAY FROM THE TRUTH; DISTRACTION

 

EX: CHANGING THE SUBJECT

 AD MISERICORDIAM

APPEAL TO PITY; NOTHING BUT EXCUSES

 

EX: "PLEASE CAN I GET AN EXTENSION ON MY PAPER? MY BACKPACK GOT STOLEN...  MY CAT RAN AWAY...MY GRANDMA IS IN THE HOSPITAL..."

 AD BACULUM

USING PHYSICAL THREATS

 

EX: "IF YOU DON'T GIVE ME YOUR LUNCH MONEY THEN I WILL PUNCH YOU IN THE BABYMAKER"

 AD HOMINEM

ASSUMES THAT WHO A PERSON IS DETERMINES THE CORRECTNESS OR INCORRECTNESS OF WHAT HE OR SHE SAYS

 

EX: "YOU CAN'T BELIEVE WHAT HE SAYS, HE IS A GUY"

 STRAW MAN

INVENTING A VIEWPOINT SO RADICAL THAT HARDLY ANYONE HOLDS IT, SO YOU CAN KNOCK IT DOWN

 

EX: "GUN ADVOCATES WANT TO ALLOW CRIMINALS AND CHILDREN TO OWN WEAPONS, SO WE SHOULD WORK TOWARD A GUN BAN"

 FOUR MAJOR PATHS ON MORAL DIFFERENCES

 

MORAL NIHILISM, SKEPTICISM, SUBJECTIVISM

ETHICAL RELATIVISM

SOFT UNIVERSALISM

HARD UNIVERSALISM

 

 MORAL NIHILISM

VIEW THAT THERE IS NO ULTIMATE RIGHT OR WRONG; DIFFICULT POSITION TO UPHOLD BECAUSE IT IS SO EXTREME

 

EX: IF SOMEONE BREAKS INTO YOUR HOUSE AND STEALS THINGS THAT ARE VALIABLE TO YOU, YOUR GOING TO WANT THE THIEF CAUGHT, REGARDLESS OF HOW MUCH WE BELIEVE THAT THERE IS NO RIGHT OR WRONG.

 SKEPTICISM & SUBJECTIVISM

WE CAN'T KNOW WHETHER THERE ARE ANY MORAL TRUTHS

 

SUPPORTS THAT MORAL VIEWS ARE SIMPLY INNER STATES IN A PERSON AND THAT THEY CAN'T BE COMPARED TO THE INNER STATES OF ANOTHER PERSON, SO A MORAL VIEW POINT IS VALID FOR THE PERSON WHO HOLDS IT

 

 

ALL THREE HAVE NO CONFLICT-SOLVING CAPACITY, GIVEN UP ON IDEA OF FINDING COMMON MORAL GROUND

 

 ETHICAL RELATIVISM

EMPHASIZES THAT THERE IS NO UNIVERSAL MORAL TRUTH, THAT EACH CULTURE HAS ITS OWN SET OF RULES THAT ARE VALIF FOR THAT CULTURE AND WE HAVE NO RIGHT TO INTERFERE

 

WHAT IS MORALLY RIGHT IS DETERMINED BY THE MAJORITY OF A CULTURE

 SOFT UNIVERSALISM

THIS IS THE BELIEF IN THE EXISTENCE OF A FEW UNIVERSAL MORAL TRUTHS

 HARD UNIVERSALISM

THERE IS ONE UNIVERSAL MORAL CODE; ATTUTUDE TOWARD MORALS IN EVERDAY LIFE TO WHICH MANY PEOPLE RELATE TO; DOESN'T ACKNOWLEDGE THE POSSIBILITY OR THE LEGITIMACY OF MORE THAN ONE SET OF MORAL CODES

 

 

 NO CRITICISM OR PRAISE FROM OTHER CULTURESPREVENTED FROM CRITICIZING ANOTHER CULTURE'S DOINGS, BUT ALSO CANNOT PRAISE AND LEARN FROM THE CULTURE
 PROFESSED OR ACTUAL MORALITY

WHAT IS "NORMAL"? IT IS THE PROFESSED MORALITY OF THE GROUP OR THE ACTUAL MORALITY?

 

EX: THE MAJORITY OF A CULTURAL GROUP, WHEN ASKED ABOUT THEIR MORAL VIEWPOINTS, CLAIM THAT THEY BELIEVE INFIDELITY IS WRONG, HOWEVER, IN THAT SOCIETY, INFIDELITY IS A COMMON PRACTICE. IS THE MORALITY OF THAT CULTURE WHAT THE MAJORITY SAY THEY OUGHT TO DO OR WHAT THEY ACTUALLY DO?

 CAN TOLERANCE BE A UNIVERSAL VALUESOMEONE WHO BELIEVES IN ETHICAL RELATIVISM CLAIMS THAT TOLERANCE IS SOMETHING THAT EVERYONE SHOULD HAVE. SO CAN A RELAVIST SAY THAT TOLERANCE IS UNIVERSALLY GOOD? TOLERANCE MAY BE GOOD FOR US BUT WHO IS TO SAY IF IT IS GOOD FOR OTHER GROUPS!
 INCLUSIVE MULTICULTURALISM

(PLURALISM) TO INTEGRATE EVERYONE INTO ALL ASPECTS OF SOCIETY

 

SALAD BOWL- METAPHOR FOR INCLUSIVE MULTICULTURALISM MEANING EACH GROUP MAINTAINS ITS ORIGINAL FLAVOR BUT THAT THE GROUPS ALSO RELATE TO ONE ANOTHER

 EXCLUSIVE MULTICULTURALISM

(PARTICULARISM)  FOSTERS CULTURAL IDENTITY, YOU SHOULD SEPARATE PEOPLE INTO THEIR OWN CULTURES

 

HELPED CHILDREN REGAIN SEL-ESTEEM

 

MAY BECOME NEW FORM OF SEGREGATION?

 SHORTCOMINGS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EGOISM

FALSIFICATION IS NOT POSSIBLE

IS DOING WHAT WE WANT ALWAYS SELFISH?

PROBLEMS OF LANGUAGE

 FALSIFICATION IS NOT POSSIBLE

IT ALWAYS LOOKS FOR SELFISH MOTIVES AND REFUSES TO RECOGNIZE ANY OTHER KIND

A GOOD THEORY IS NOT ONE THAT CAN'T BE PROVEN WRONG BUT ONE THAT ALLOWS FOR THE POSSIBLITY OF COUNTER EXAMPLES

 IS DOING WHAT WE WANT ALWAYS SELFISH?IT IS WHAT YOU WANT THAT MATTERS, NOT JUST THE FACT THAT YOU WANT SOMETHING
 PROBLEMS OF LANGUAGECHANGING THE LANGUAGE TO THE EXTENT THAT IT GOES AGAINST OUR COMMON SENSE (BY CLAIMING THAT THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS UNSELFISH BUT THAT IT IS ACCEPTABLE TO USE THE TERM LESS SELFISH) DOES NOT MAKE PSYCHOLOGICAL EGOISM CORRECT
 ETHICAL EGOISM OF HOBBES AND RAND

RAND- WROEE THE VIRTUE OF SELFISHNESS: THE ETHICS OF EMERGENCIES; ADVOCATED THAT PEOPLE HAVE A RIGHT, EVEN A DUTY, TO LOOK AFTER THEMSELVES AND SEEK THEIR OWN HAPPINESS

 

HOBBES- WROTE LEVIATHAN; HUMANS ARE SELFISH BY NATURE, AND SOCIETY IS OUR BEST WAY TO PROTECT OURSELVES FROM ONE ANOTHER

 SHORTCOMINGS OF ETHICAL EGOISM

SELF CONTRADICTORY

CARRIES NO WEIGHT AS A SOLVER OF MORAL CONFLICTS

DOESN'T WORK IN PRACTICE

EMOTIONAL COMPONENT

 SELF CONTRADICTORY

IF YOU ARE SUPPOSE TO LOOK AFTER YOURSELF AND YOUR COLLEAGUE IS SUPPOSE TO LOOK AFTER HERSELF AND IF LOOKING ADTER YOURSELF WILL MEAN STEALING HER FILES THEN YOU AND SHE WILL BE WORKING AT CROSS-PURPOSES: YOUR DUTY WILL BE TO STEAL HER FILES FROM HER AND HER DUTY WILL BE TO PROTECT HER FILES

 

CAN'T HAVE MORAL THEORY THAT SAYS ONE'S DUTY SHOULD BE SOMETHING THAT CONFLICTS WITH SOMEONE ELSE'S DUTY, SO THEREFORE INCONSISTENT

 CARRIES NO WEIGHT AS A SOLVER OF MORAL CONFLICTSIF YOU AND I DISAGREE ABOUT THE CORRECT COURSE OF ACTION, WHO IS TO SAY WHO IS RIGHT?
 DOESN'T WORK IN PRACTICEIN A SHORT WHILE, YOU WILL REALIZE THAT EVERYONE LOOKING OUT FOR THEMSELVES IS NOT GOING TO BE TO YOUR ADVANTAGE BECAUSE OTHERS WILL BE OUT THERE GRABBING FOR THEMSELVES AND YOU WILL HAVE FIRECE COMPETITION
 EMOTIONAL COMPONENTHAS TO DO WITH FEELINGS; DOESNT TAKE OUR FEELINGS INTO ACCOUNT, WHAT IS A MORAL SENSE WITHOUT THE INVOLVEMENT OF OUR FEELINGS?
 BENTHAM AND HEDONISTIC CALCULUS

BELIEVED THAT WHAT IS GOOD IS WHAT IS PLEASURABLE AND WHAT IS BAD IS WHAT IS PAINFUL (HEDONISM- PLEASURE SEEKING)

MUST CALCULATE THE PROBABLE CONSEQUENCES OF OUR ACTIONS

1.INTENSITY 2. DURATION 3. ITS CERTAINTY OR UNCERTAINTY 4.REMOTENESS 5. FECUNDITY 6. PURITY 7. EXTENT

SUM OF ALL THE PLEASURES/PAINS ON EACH SIDES, TAKE BALANCE, HIGHEST NUMBER IS YOUR DECISION

 INTRINSIC VS. INSTRUMENTAL VALUES

INTRINSIC VALUE- VALUE THAT SOMETHING HAS FOR ITS OWN SAKE; WE WANT IT BECAUSE WE WANT IT

 

EX: WE WANT TO BE HEALTHY

 

INSTRUMENTAL VALUES- ONE THAT CAN BE USED AS AN INSTRUMENT OR A TOOL TO GET SOMETHING ELSE THAT WE WANT

 

EX: IF WE WANT TO GO TO SCHOOL, THEN WE NEED A CAR

 QUANTITY VS. QUALITY

 

BENTHAM AND HIS HEDONISTOC CALCULUS REFERS TO QUANTITY; APPLICANTS ARE RATED ACCORDING TO THEIR QUALIFICATIONS AND THOSE QUALIFICATIONS ARE ASSIGNED NUMERAL VALUES

 

MILL'S AND HIS THEORY REFERRING TO HAPPINESS BEING IMPORTANT REFERS TO QUALITY;WAITING A REASONABLE AMOUNT OF TIME FOR SOMETHING

 PROBLEMS OF NUMBERS

WHAT DOES IT MEAN FOR OUR DECISION IF THE HAPPINESS OF SOME CAN BE OBTAINED ONLY AT THE COST OF SUFFERING OF OTHERS?

 

 

*********************************

 CLASSICAL LIBERALISMEMPHASIZE ON PERSONAL LIBERTY
 EGALITARIAN LIBERALISM

CIVIL LIBERTIES

 

THE RIGHTS OF CITIZENS, GOV'T ENSURING THAT AS LITTLE HARM AND AS MUCH HAPPINESS AS POSSIBLE IS CREATED FOR AS MANY PEOPLE AS POSSIBLE

 ACT UTILITARIANISM

CLASSICAL; PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY

 

ALWAYS DO WHATEVER ACT WILL CREATE THE GREATEST HAPPINESS FOR THE GREATEST NUMBER OF PEOPLE

 

SPECIFIC ACT

 RULE UTILITARIANISMALWAYS DO WHATEVER TYPE OF ACT THAT WILL CREATE THE GREATEST HAPPINESS FOR THE GREATEST NUMBER OF PEOPLE; SOLVES PROBLEMS OF SHEER NUMBERS
 KANT'S GOOD WILL

STRICTLY DO THINGS FOR THE SAKE OF THE PRINCIPLE OF DOING THE RIGHT THING; THE PRESENCE OF A GOOD WILL IS WHAT MAKES AN ACTION MORALLY GOOD, REGARDLESS OF ITS CONSEQUENCES

 

OBSERVE THE "MORAL LAW" IN YOUR INTENTIONS

 CRITICISMS OF THE CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE

CONSEQUENCES COUNT

CONFLICT BETWEEN DUTIES

THE LOOPHOLE

WHAT IS RATIONALITY

NO EXCEPTIONS?

 CONSEQUENCES COUNTWHAT IS EVERYONE BORROWED MONEY AND DIDN'T PAY IT BACK? MUST WORRY ABOUT CONSEQENCES OF ACTIONS IF EVERYONE DOES IT
 CONFLICT OF DUTIES

TWO IMPORTANT THINGS TO DO AT THE SAME TIME= IMPORTANT

WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO

 

EX: TAKING INVENTORY AT OUR WORKPLACE THE NIGHT BEFORE WE HAVE A FINAL EXAM FOR WHICH WE SHOULD BE STUDYING

 THE LOOPHOLE

IF THE SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES APPLY ONLY IN OUR CASE, THEN WE'VE FOUND A LOOPHOLE

 

 

 

EX: JOE HAS NO JOB, 20 YRS OLD, OUT OF WORK FOR SEVEN MONTHS, LIKES TO WEAR DENIM, PARENTS FICORVED, DATING A CASHIER..... NEEDS MONEY SO THEY CAN GET MARRIED

EVERYTIME I AM BROKE AND CAN'T GET A LOAN, I WILL ROB A BANK

 WHAT IS RATIONALITYEVERYONE CONSIDERED RATIONALITY DIFFERENTLY
 NO EXCEPTIONS

A MORAL RULE ALLOWS FOR NO EXCEPTIONS

 

EX: KILLER IS STALKING YOUR FRIEND, SHE COMES TO YOU AND YOU HIDE HER IN THE BROOM CLOSET. KILLER COMES TO YOUR HOUSE AND ASK WHERE SHE IS, YOU TELL HIM IN THE BROOM CLOSET.

 

PRIMARILY OBLIGATION IS TRUTH, IF WE BREAK A RULE THEN WE MUST FACE THE CONSEQUENCES

 DEFINITIOIN OF PERSONSOMEONE WHO IS CAPABLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL INTERACTION WITH OTHERS, CAPABLE OF DECIDING ON A COURSE OF ACTION AND BEING HELD RESPONSIBLE FOR THAT ACTION; A MOTAL AGENT; A NORMATIVE CONCEPT- WHAT A PERSON OUGHT TO BE AND DO, TO BE CALLED A PERSON
 EQUALITY

FINDAMENTAL EQUALITY- UNALIENABLE RIGHTS' PEOPLE SHOULD BE TREATED AS EQUALS BY THEIR GOVT

 

SOCIAL EQUALITY- REFERS TO PEOPLE BEING EQUAL WITH A SOCIAL SETTING, RIGHT TO VOTE OR STAND FOR PUBLIC OFFICE

 

EQUAL TREATMENT FOR EQUALS- TREAT PEOPLE IN YOUR SOCIAL CLASS AS YOU WOULD WANT TO BE TREATED

 RAWLS AND DISTRIBUTION JUSTICE

THEORIES ON HOW TO DISTRIBUTE THE GOODS OF SOCIETY FAIRLY

 

EMPHASIZES THE NECESSITY FOR POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE RIGHTS BECAUSE WE CANT APPRECIATE NEGATIVE RIGHTS UNLESS WE HAVE POSITIVE RIGHTS

 

WHEN MAKING A RULE, WE SHOULD CONSIDER WHO IT AFFECTS EVERYONE

 RETRIBUTION

APPROACH TO PUNISHMENT

 

PUNISHMENT SHOULD BE IN PROPORTION TO THAT CRIME

 VENGEANCE

PRIVATE ACT THAT COULD POSSIBLY TAKE ANGER OUT ON OTHER INDIVIUALS BESIDES THE CRIMINAL

 

MAY GO BEYOND AND EXCEED THE DAMAGE DONE BY THE CRIMINAL

 SOCRATES VERSION OF A GOOD LIFE

REASON IS A WAY TO A GOOD LIFE.

BEING TRUE TO YOUR PRINCIPLES NO MATTER HOW OTHERS MAY FEEL ABOUT IT

 

GOOD LIFE IS A LIFE THAT QUESTIONS AND THINKS ABOUT THINGS; IT IS A LIFE OF CONTEMPLATION, SELF-EXAMINATION, AND OPEN-MINDED WONDERING

STRENUOUS BUT GRATIFYING IN ITS OWN WAY BECAUSE ONE KNOWS THAT ONE SEEKS AND SEES THE TRUTH AND ONE IS IN COTROL OF ONESELF, NOT SWAYED BY OTHER OPINIONS

 PLATOS FORM OF GOOD

MOST IMPORTANT FORM AND ALSO AS THE FORM FROM WHICH EVERYTHING ELSE DERIVES

 

HIGHEST FORM OF KNOWLEDGE

 

FORMS REPRESENT AN ORDERLY REALITY AND ARE ORDERED ACCORDING TO THEIR IMPORTANCE AND ACCORDING TO THEIR DEPENDENCE ON OTHER FORMS

 PLATOS INFLUENCE ON AUGUSTINEWAS INFLUENCED BY THE THOUGHTS THAT CHRISTIANITY BECAME A RELIGION THAT LOOKED TO THE AFTERLIFE AS THE TRUE REASON FOR HUMAN EXISTENCE
 ARISTOTLE AS AN EMPIRICAL THINKER

COMBINED THE CONCEPTS AND LOGIC WERE COMBINED

AUTHOR OF CLASSICAL LOGIC

LAID THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE CLASSIFICATIONS OF BIOLOGY

WROTE MANY BOOKS

INTRODUCED THE CONCEPT OF EMPIRICAL SCIENCE AND METAPHYSICS

 

 HUMAN PURPOSE ACCORDING TO ARISTOTLE

OUR PURPOSE IS REASON

 

THE PURPOSE FOR MAN IS TO THINK RATIONALLY AND TO DEVELOP A RATIONAL CHARACTER

SAME AS MORAL GOODNESS

 ARISTOTLES INFLUENCE ON AQUINAS

HIS IDEAS BECAME THE CORNERSTONE OF THE THEOLOGY OF CATHOLICISM THROUGH THE WORKS OF AQUINAS

 

CONCEPT OF TELEOLOGY

 ARISTOTLE SAID VIRTUE IS...

TO ACT WITH EXCELLENCE

 

EVERYTHING ON THIS EARTH HAS ITS OWN VIRTUE, MEANING THAT IF IT "PERFORMS" THE WAY IT IS SUPPOSED TO BY ITS NATURE, THEN IT IS VIRTUOUS

 

VIRTUE NOT RESERVED FOR HUMANS

 EXISTENTIALISTS AND AUTHENTICITY VIEWS

THE ONLY WAY TO LIVE PROPERLY AND THE ONLY VIRTUE TO STRIVE FOR

KIEREGAARD'S AUTHENTICITY- CONCEIVED AS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ONESELF AND GOD

 

HEIDEGGER'S AUTHENTICITY- DEALS WITH ONE'S RELATIONSHIP TO ONE'S OWN FOR OF EXISTENCE

 

SARTRE- DEALS WITH ONE'S RELATIONSHIP TO ONESELF AS A PERSON MAKING MORAL CHOICES ("CONDEMNED TO BE FREE")

 ANGUISH

ANXIETY, EXTREME MENTAL DISTRESS; TO DREAD

 

PHILOSOPHY BELIEVEES THAT WE CREATE OUR OWN ANGUISH

 

A MAN IS IN ANGUISH WHEN A MAN COMMITS HIMSELF TO ANYTHING, FULLY REALIZING THAT HE IS NOT ONLY CHOOSING WHAT HE WILL BE BUT IS THEREBY AT THE SAME TIME A LEGISLATOR DECIDING FOR THE WHOLE MANKIND; A MAN CANNOT ESCAPE FROM THE SENSE OF COMPLETE AND PROFOUND RESPONSIBILITY

 PHYSICAL COURAGE

VISIBLE

 

DISREGARDING PHYSICAL DANGER FOR THE SAKE OF OTHER'S LIVES

 

 

 MORAL COURAGE

NOT AS NOTICED AS PHYSICAL

 

THE KIND WHERE YOU STAND BY YOUR FIREND WHEN IT WOULD BE MORE CONVENIENT TO DISTANCE YOURSELF FROM HIM OR HER

 HUME, ROUSSEAU, MENCUIS ON COMPASSION

H/R BELIEVED THAT HUMANS ARE NATURALLY COMPASSIONATE TOWARD ONE ANOTHER

 

MENICUS- HUMANS ARE COMPASSIONATE BUT CORRUPTED BY THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF EVERDAY LIFE

 COMMON CONCLUSION TO THE 5 STUDIES

AN EMPATHY CENTER IN THE BRAIN- SERVES AS A BUFFER FOR DECISIONS THAT ARE LIKELY TO HARM OTHER HUMANS

MIRROR NEURONS- WE HAVE A NATURAL CAPACITY FOR UNDERSTANDING WHAT OTHERS FEEL THROUGH CERTAIN NEURONS LABELED MIRROR NEURONS

THOUGHTS OF HARM CAUSE NEGATIVE EMOTIONS

A GRAMMAR OF MORALS HAS EVOLVED

ALTRUISM FEELS GOOD- DOING GOOD FOR OTHERS FEELS GOOD

 TRUE MORAL VALUE ACCORDING TO RICHARD TAYLOR

REASON HAD NO ROLE TO PLAY IN MAKING THE RIGHT MORAL CHOICE

 

MORAL PRINCIPLES ARE USELESS BECAUSE WE CAN ALWAYS FIND EXCEPTIONS

 

PRO COMPASSION

 GOLDEN RULE

TREAT OTHERS AS YOU WOULD WANT TO BE TREATED

PROBS: DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF CORRECT BEHAVIOR

 PLATINUM RULE

TREAT OTHERS AS THEY WANT TO BE TREATED

 

 MCCAIN'S POINT "WITHOUT COURAGE ALL VIRTUE IS FRAGILE"

ADMIRED, SOUGHT, PROFESSED BUT HELD CHEAPLY AND SURRENDERED WITHOUT A FIGHT; WE ARE CORRUPTIBLE WITHOUT IT

 

NEED IT TO BE HONEST ALL THE TIME

ENFORCING VIRTUE THAT MAKES ALL THE OTHERS POSSIBLE

 

FOCUSING ON ONE'S PERSONAL OBLIGATIONS  BY TEACHING OUR CHILDREN ABOUT MORAL COURAGE BY TEACHING THEM TO "DO THEIR NEAREST DUTY"

 GENDER EQUALITY

GOAL OF EQUALITY OF SEXES

 

EVERYONE SHOULD BE TREATED AS EQUALS UNLESS SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES APPLY

 BEAUVOIR ON GENDER

WE EXIST AND THEN WE START TO DEFINE WHO WE ARE

 

WOMEN SEEN AS THE SECOND SEX, REMOVE CULTURALLY GIVEN RULE, FIGHT THE TRAPS OF GENDER ROLES AND THEIR ASSUMPTION THAT THIS IS HOW WE HAVE TO BE

 

POOR EXCUSE FOR NOT MAKING OUR OWN CHOICES

 GILLIGAN ON GENDER

MEN ARE CONSIDERED NORMAL GENDER AND WOMEN HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED NOT-QUITE NORMAL

 

BELIEVES THERE IS A BASIC DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MORAL ATTITUDES OF MALES AND FEMALES

 

BOYS TEND TO FOCUS ON AN ETHIC OF JUSTICE (PERSONAL GAIN AND STRIVING TO BECOME A DEVELOPED INDIVIDUAL) WHILE WOMEN FOCUS ON ETHICS OF CARE (CARING FOR PEOPLE)

 DWORKIN ON GENDER

WOMAN ALL HAVE A COMMON CONDITION- WOMEN ARE SUBORDINATE TO MEN, SEXUALLY COLONIZED IN A SEXUAL SYSTEM OF DOMINANCE AND SUBMISSION, DENIED RIGHTS ON THE BASIS OF SEX, GENERALLY CONSIDERED BIOLOGICALLY INFERIOR, CONFINED TO SEX AND REPRODUCTION

 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH ALL WOMEN LIVE

 TANNEN AND GURIAN- BRIDGE BUILDERSGOAL IS TO MAKE IT POSSIBLE FOR WOMEN AND MEN TO UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER, NOT TO BECOME LIKE EACH OTHER OR TO COMPETE AGAINST EACH OTHER
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"