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Christianity - Flashcards

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Class:PHL 104 - World Religions
Subject:Philosophy
University:Sauk Valley Community College
Term:Fall 2011
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Augustinian refers to views of St. Augustine, for example, his view of the separation of church and state, in which the state is answerable to the church in religious matters while the church is answerable to the state in secular matters – yet both exist to promote the spread of the Gospel.
Catholic those churches that define their Christian authenticity through apostolic succession.
Christ from Greek translation of the Hebrew word meaning “messiah” or “anointed one”, the title Christians apply to Jesus of Nazareth.
Constantinian/Constantinianism view of the unity of church and state attributed to the first Christian Roman Emperor, Constantine, in which the state exists to rule over and protect the church as the official religion of the empire.
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deism enlightenment view that God created the world the way a watchmaker creates a clock and leaves it to run on its own without interference.
evangelical refers to pietistic Christian movements that arose in response to the Enlightenment and also dogmatic divisions within Protestantism; emphasizes the unifying power of conversion as an emotional transformation rather than a rational/dogmatic one.
fundamentalist term first emerged to refer to evangelical Protestants who believed that certain fundamental truths of the Gospel were threatened by modern interpreters; in general, fundamentalist movements in all religions see modernity as corrupting the fundamental truths and practices as they were expressed in the pre-modern stage of their respective traditions.
Gospel literally, "good news"; usually refers to the four Gospels of the New Testament, which retell the words and deeds of Jesus of Nazareth; can also refer to other, similar ancient writings not included in the Christian scriptures.
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grace expresses the idea of unmerited divine love and assistance given to humans.
heresy comes from the Greek term that means "choice"; came to be used as a negative term for choosing to believe doctrines viewed as erroneous by those who considered themselves to be "more orthodox".
homoousios/homoiousios first term was used to assert that the Word of God through which all things were created is "the same as" God; second term was used to assert that this Word was "like God"; Council of Nicaea (325 CE) affirmed the first and rejected the second.
incarnation the eternal word of God is embodied in the flesh of Jesus during his earthly life. There were two basic formulations of this: "the word became flesh" and "the word dwells in the flesh" of Jesus.
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justification by faith Protestant Reformation doctrine formulated by Martin Luther, asserting that humans are saved by faith as a gift rather than through works of obedience to the law.
Kingdom of God the kingdom occurs whenever humans live in accord with the will of God and especially at the end of time, when God will be all in all.
original sin the sin of Adam and Eve, who disobeyed the command of God not to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil; said to have affected all human beings by corrupting their will so that they are often unable to do the good they intend.
Pentecostal refers to churches that emphasize possession by the Holy Spirit and speaking in tongues.
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Protestant the churches, beginning at the time of Martin Luther, that reject the mediation of the church through apostolic succession as necessary for salvation in favor of a direct personal relationship with God in Christ.
Protestant ethic term coined by sociologist Max Weber, who noted that the Calvinist branch of the Reformation fostered a belief in working hard and living simply for the glory of God and as proof that one was among those destined to be saved; such an attitude, Weber said, contributed to the accumulation of wealth needed for investments and fueled the Industrial Revolution and the flourishing of capitalist societies.
redemption root meaning is "to be rescued or freed", especially from slavery; used in both a literal and a metaphorical sense; God redeemed Israel from slavery in Egypt and exile in Babylonia; God redeems sinners from punishment and death due to sin.
sacraments ritual actions, such as baptism and Holy Communion, said to impart the grace of God to Christians, usually through the mediation of ordained clergy
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Second Coming belief that Jesus, who died on the cross, arose from the dead, and ascended into heaven, will return at the end of time to raise the dead and establish a new heaven and a new earth.
Son of God title applied to Jesus of Nazareth.
syncretistic the identification of the gods of one religion with the gods of another so that one's own gods are seen as the same as those of the other's religion but under different names.
Trinity God as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; meant to suggest that the transcendent God can be immanent in the world without losing his transcendence - when God acts in the world (as Son or Spirit), God does not cease to be father and Creator of the universe; therefore God is not many gods but one God in three persons.
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two natures, one person doctrine affirmed by Council of Chalcedon (451 CE); in the one person of Jesus are two natures (divine and human) said to coexist in unity but without confusion or mixture, so Jesus is fully human in everything except sin, and yet the fullness of God is also present in him and united to him.
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 Augustinianrefers to views of St. Augustine, for example, his view of the separation of church and state, in which the state is answerable to the church in religious matters while the church is answerable to the state in secular matters – yet both exist to promote the spread of the Gospel.
 Catholicthose churches that define their Christian authenticity through apostolic succession.
 Christfrom Greek translation of the Hebrew word meaning “messiah” or “anointed one”, the title Christians apply to Jesus of Nazareth.
 Constantinian/Constantinianismview of the unity of church and state attributed to the first Christian Roman Emperor, Constantine, in which the state exists to rule over and protect the church as the official religion of the empire.
 deismenlightenment view that God created the world the way a watchmaker creates a clock and leaves it to run on its own without interference.
 evangelicalrefers to pietistic Christian movements that arose in response to the Enlightenment and also dogmatic divisions within Protestantism; emphasizes the unifying power of conversion as an emotional transformation rather than a rational/dogmatic one.
 fundamentalistterm first emerged to refer to evangelical Protestants who believed that certain fundamental truths of the Gospel were threatened by modern interpreters; in general, fundamentalist movements in all religions see modernity as corrupting the fundamental truths and practices as they were expressed in the pre-modern stage of their respective traditions.
 Gospelliterally, "good news"; usually refers to the four Gospels of the New Testament, which retell the words and deeds of Jesus of Nazareth; can also refer to other, similar ancient writings not included in the Christian scriptures.
 graceexpresses the idea of unmerited divine love and assistance given to humans.
 heresycomes from the Greek term that means "choice"; came to be used as a negative term for choosing to believe doctrines viewed as erroneous by those who considered themselves to be "more orthodox".
 homoousios/homoiousiosfirst term was used to assert that the Word of God through which all things were created is "the same as" God; second term was used to assert that this Word was "like God"; Council of Nicaea (325 CE) affirmed the first and rejected the second.
 incarnationthe eternal word of God is embodied in the flesh of Jesus during his earthly life. There were two basic formulations of this: "the word became flesh" and "the word dwells in the flesh" of Jesus.
 justification by faithProtestant Reformation doctrine formulated by Martin Luther, asserting that humans are saved by faith as a gift rather than through works of obedience to the law.
 Kingdom of Godthe kingdom occurs whenever humans live in accord with the will of God and especially at the end of time, when God will be all in all.
 original sinthe sin of Adam and Eve, who disobeyed the command of God not to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil; said to have affected all human beings by corrupting their will so that they are often unable to do the good they intend.
 Pentecostalrefers to churches that emphasize possession by the Holy Spirit and speaking in tongues.
 Protestantthe churches, beginning at the time of Martin Luther, that reject the mediation of the church through apostolic succession as necessary for salvation in favor of a direct personal relationship with God in Christ.
 Protestant ethicterm coined by sociologist Max Weber, who noted that the Calvinist branch of the Reformation fostered a belief in working hard and living simply for the glory of God and as proof that one was among those destined to be saved; such an attitude, Weber said, contributed to the accumulation of wealth needed for investments and fueled the Industrial Revolution and the flourishing of capitalist societies.
 redemptionroot meaning is "to be rescued or freed", especially from slavery; used in both a literal and a metaphorical sense; God redeemed Israel from slavery in Egypt and exile in Babylonia; God redeems sinners from punishment and death due to sin.
 sacramentsritual actions, such as baptism and Holy Communion, said to impart the grace of God to Christians, usually through the mediation of ordained clergy
 Second Comingbelief that Jesus, who died on the cross, arose from the dead, and ascended into heaven, will return at the end of time to raise the dead and establish a new heaven and a new earth.
 Son of Godtitle applied to Jesus of Nazareth.
 syncretisticthe identification of the gods of one religion with the gods of another so that one's own gods are seen as the same as those of the other's religion but under different names.
 TrinityGod as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; meant to suggest that the transcendent God can be immanent in the world without losing his transcendence - when God acts in the world (as Son or Spirit), God does not cease to be father and Creator of the universe; therefore God is not many gods but one God in three persons.
 two natures, one persondoctrine affirmed by Council of Chalcedon (451 CE); in the one person of Jesus are two natures (divine and human) said to coexist in unity but without confusion or mixture, so Jesus is fully human in everything except sin, and yet the fullness of God is also present in him and united to him.
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