# FINAL EXAM REVIEW! - Flashcards

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 Class: PHY 1455 - Descriptive Astronomy Subject: Physics University: Baylor University Term: Spring 2010
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 Aristotle Most associated with the ancient greek worldview Aristarchus rejected the geocentric worldview Ptolemy wrote Almagest Geocentric model of the Universe Earth in the center
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 Heliocentric model of the Universe sun in the center Copernicus Heliocentric worldview Tycho Brahe Last astronomer without a telescope. Provided Kepler with the data needed in order to develop his three Laws Johannes Kepler Three Laws of Planetary Motion
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 3 Laws of Planetary Motion 1. The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at a focus. 2. A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time. (planets move faster the closer they are to the sun) 3. The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. (The father they are, the longer they take) Galileo Used a telescope and challenged the conventional wisdom of the motion of objects. And the nature of the heavens Galileo's Telescope observations a) Phases of Venus b) Moons of Jupiter c) Sunspots d) Mountians on the Moon Newton Three Laws of Motion and universal Law of Gravity
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 Newton's Three Laws of Motion 1. In the absence of a net force, the center of mass of a body either is at rest or moves at a constant velocity. 2. A body experiencing a force F experiences an acceleration a related to F by F = ma, where m is the mass of the body. Alternatively, force is equal to the time derivative of momentum. 3. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body, the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Universal Law of Gravity Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. The force is directly proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the point masses. Wave Nature of Light Light moves like a wave Short Wavelenght= High frequency Long wavelength= Low frequency Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. Radio, Infared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-Ray, Gamma Ray
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 Frequency x Wavelength = velocity of light Light is one type of electromagnetic wave true Blackbody idealized object that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation falling on it. If heated= glow Wien's Law Wavelength gets shorter as it gets hotter
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 Stefan Boltzmann's Law Intensity and brightness with temperature Continuous Spectrum Produced by hot high density gas from a black body hot solid, liquid, or gas under high pressure Emission Line spectrum Produced by hot gas under low pressure Absorption Line Spectrum seen when source of continuous spectrum is viewed behind a cooled gas under pressure
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 Kirchhoff's Laws Kirchhoff's Laws are: A hot solid, liquid or gas, under high pressure, gives off a continuous spectrum. A hot gas under low pressure produces a bright-line or emission line spectrum. A dark line or absorption line spectrum is seen when a source of a continuous spectrum is viewed behind a cool gas under pressure. The wavelength of the emission or absorption lines depends on what atoms are molecules are found in the object under study. What atoms or molecules exist depend on: temperature chemical composition. Each atom or molecule exhibits a different pattern of lines (rather like a fingerprint or DNA signature). Doppler Effect the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. Red shift, blue shift Used to measure distance Earth's Average Density 5500kg/m3 Earth's Interior Core- Hot(6000K) Iron Rich Highest Density
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 Earth's surface Oceans and Continents Earth's Atmosphere Nitrogen - 78% Oxygen - 21% Moon's Density 3300 Kg/m3 Moon's Unusual Motion synchronous rotation
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 Moon's Interior cool (relative to Earth's core) not iron rich Moon's Crust thicker on far side thinner on Earth side Moon's Major geologic activity impact cratering Moon's Main features of the surface of the Moon Maria, Highlands
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 Mercury's Density 5400 Kg/m3 Mercury's Unusual motion resonance rotation Mercury's Interior cool iron rich core Caloris Basin large impact crater= Mercury
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 Jumbled terrain unusual formation on opposite side of the planet from Caloris Basin= Mercury Intercrater plains smoothed surface regions possibly from lava flow covering the craters in that region= Mercury Scarps Huge cliffs thought to have form as the planet cooled and contracted= Mercury Other Mercury Features No Atmospheres. No Moons
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 Density of Venus 5300 kg/m3 Unusual motion of Venus retrograde rotation Maxwell Montes Maxwell Montes is a mountain massif on the planet Venus, part of which contains the highest point on the planet's surface. largest mountain on Venus Aprhodite Terra largest highlands
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 Isthar Terra, Alpha Regio, Beta Regio other highland regions Beta regio Beta Regio is a region of the planet Venus known as a volcanic rise. Atmosphere of Venus Weather: Temperature: Constant clould cover VERY HOT 730K Sulfuric acid clouds at 50 km Pressure: about 90 times Earth's Chemical Comp. - CO2 - 95.3% Nitrogen - 3.5% Unusual Motion Period of a day is 24.6 hours (similar to Earth's)
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 Tilt angle of rotation axis of Mars 24.0 degrees (again similar to Earth's) This means Mars has seasons Density of Mars 3900 kg/m3 Interior of Mars small cool slightly iron rich core Olympus Mons Shield volcano - largest mountain in the solar system
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 Valles Mariners Enormous Valley that runs along the equator of Mars Polar Icecaps Frozen water and carbon dioxide Other Mars Features Evidence of water flow in the past. Red dust on the surface is Iron Oxide (rust) In terms of plate tectonics Mars is described as having starting the formation of plate (Valles Marineris is a huge rift valley). The planet cooled too rapidly and the process stopped. Mars' Atmosphere Global dust storms Temperature: About 50K cooler than on Earth Pressure: 1/100 of Earth's Chemical comp. - CO2 - 95.3%, Nitrogen - 2.7%
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 Mars' Moons Phobos and Deimos, small irregular shapes, not like our moon, more like captured asteroids. Unusual motion of Jupiter Fast Differential rotation density of jupiter 1330kg/m3 Interior of Jupiter rocky core, metallic hydrogen (currents here produce the magnetic field)
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 Surface of Jupiter The fast rotation causes the clouds to form bands around the planet. Surface of Jupiter The fast rotation causes the clouds to form bands around the planet. Other features of the cloud layers - typical colors are bright yellow, orange and red the great red spot - a 'hurricane' on Jupiter that is stable and always present Unusual Motion Similar to Jupiter's Density of Saturn 700 kg/m3
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 Interior of Saturn Similar to Jupiter's Surface of Saturn again very similar to Jupiter but more subdued. Not 'hurricane' like the Great Red Spot is observed. Other Features of Saturn Unique feature about Saturn is a mechanism for internal heating. In addition to the heat remaining from the planet's formation, heat is also generated by Helium precipitation. Ring System - All the Jovian Planets have ring systems but Saturn's is by far the most spectacular. Vocabulary associated with the rings' Cassini division. Roche limit, shepherd satellites. Color of Uranus and Neptune Blue-Green color due to methane The temeperatures are too cold for the chemicals
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 Unique feature of Uranus tilt of rotation axis is about 90 degrees. Unique features of Neptune Great dark spot ( like great Red spot on Jupiter) Pluto is a planet? Y or N N. Dwarf Planet Density of Pluto 2000 kg/m3
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 Unusual motion of Pluto Unusual motion due to its elliptical orbit, Pluto is sometimes closer to the Sun than is Neptune. Physical properties of Pluto most like those of the ice moons around the Jovian planets. Identify Regions of the Hertzsprung Russell Diagram --Main Sequence --Yellow Giant/Horizontal Branch --Red Giant Region -- White Dwarf Region
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## List View: Terms & Definitions

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AristotleMost associated with the ancient greek worldview
Aristarchusrejected the geocentric worldview
Ptolemywrote Almagest
Geocentric model of the UniverseEarth in the center
Heliocentric model of the Universesun in the center
CopernicusHeliocentric worldview
Tycho BraheLast astronomer without a telescope. Provided Kepler with the data needed in order to develop his three Laws
Johannes KeplerThree Laws of Planetary Motion
3 Laws of Planetary Motion1. The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at a focus.

2. A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
(planets move faster the closer they are to the sun)

3. The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.
(The father they are, the longer they take)
GalileoUsed a telescope and challenged the conventional wisdom of the motion of objects. And the nature of the heavens
Galileo's Telescope observationsa) Phases of Venus
b) Moons of Jupiter
c) Sunspots
d) Mountians on the Moon
NewtonThree Laws of Motion and universal Law of Gravity
Newton's Three Laws of Motion1. In the absence of a net force, the center of mass of a body either is at rest or moves at a constant velocity.
2. A body experiencing a force F experiences an acceleration a related to F by F = ma, where m is the mass of the body. Alternatively, force is equal to the time derivative of momentum.
3. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body, the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
Universal Law of GravityEvery point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. The force is directly proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the point masses.
Wave Nature of LightLight moves like a wave
Short Wavelenght= High frequency
Long wavelength= Low frequency
Electromagnetic SpectrumThe electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

Radio, Infared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-Ray, Gamma Ray
Frequency x Wavelength =velocity of light
Light is one type of electromagnetic wavetrue
Blackbodyidealized object that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation falling on it.
If heated= glow
Wien's LawWavelength gets shorter as it gets hotter
Stefan Boltzmann's LawIntensity and brightness with temperature
Continuous SpectrumProduced by hot high density gas from a black body
hot solid, liquid, or gas under high pressure
Emission Line spectrumProduced by hot gas under low pressure
Absorption Line Spectrumseen when source of continuous spectrum is viewed behind a cooled gas under pressure
Kirchhoff's LawsKirchhoff's Laws are:

A hot solid, liquid or gas, under high pressure, gives off a continuous spectrum.

A hot gas under low pressure produces a bright-line or emission line spectrum.

A dark line or absorption line spectrum is seen when a source of a continuous spectrum is viewed behind a cool gas under pressure.

The wavelength of the emission or absorption lines depends on what atoms are molecules are found in the object under study.
What atoms or molecules exist depend on:
temperature
chemical composition.
Each atom or molecule exhibits a different pattern of lines (rather like a fingerprint or DNA signature).
Doppler Effectthe change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave.

Red shift, blue shift

Used to measure distance
Earth's Average Density 5500kg/m3
Earth's InteriorCore- Hot(6000K) Iron Rich Highest Density
Earth's surfaceOceans and Continents
Earth's AtmosphereNitrogen - 78%
Oxygen - 21%
Moon's Density3300 Kg/m3
Moon's Unusual Motionsynchronous rotation
Moon's Interiorcool (relative to Earth's core) not iron rich
Moon's Crustthicker on far side thinner on Earth side
Moon's Major geologic activityimpact cratering
Moon's Main features of the surface of the MoonMaria, Highlands
Mercury's Density5400 Kg/m3
Mercury's Unusual motion resonance rotation
Mercury's Interiorcool iron rich core
Caloris Basinlarge impact crater= Mercury
Jumbled terrainunusual formation on opposite side of the planet from Caloris Basin= Mercury
Intercrater plains smoothed surface regions possibly from lava flow covering the craters in that region= Mercury
ScarpsHuge cliffs thought to have form as the planet cooled and contracted= Mercury
Other Mercury FeaturesNo Atmospheres.
No Moons
Density of Venus5300 kg/m3
Maxwell MontesMaxwell Montes is a mountain massif on the planet Venus, part of which contains the highest point on the planet's surface.
largest mountain on Venus
Aprhodite Terralargest highlands
Isthar Terra, Alpha Regio, Beta Regioother highland regions
Beta regioBeta Regio is a region of the planet Venus known as a volcanic rise.
Atmosphere of VenusWeather: Temperature:
Constant clould cover VERY HOT 730K
Sulfuric acid clouds at 50 km
Chemical Comp. - CO2 - 95.3%
Nitrogen - 3.5%
Unusual MotionPeriod of a day is 24.6 hours (similar to Earth's)
Tilt angle of rotation axis of Mars24.0 degrees (again similar to Earth's) This means Mars has seasons
Density of Mars3900 kg/m3
Interior of Marssmall cool slightly iron rich core
Olympus MonsShield volcano - largest mountain in the solar system
Valles MarinersEnormous Valley that runs along the equator of Mars
Polar IcecapsFrozen water and carbon dioxide
Other Mars FeaturesEvidence of water flow in the past.
Red dust on the surface is Iron Oxide (rust)
In terms of plate tectonics Mars is described as having starting the formation of plate (Valles Marineris is a huge rift valley). The planet cooled too rapidly and the process stopped.
Mars' AtmosphereGlobal dust storms
Temperature: About 50K cooler than on Earth
Pressure: 1/100 of Earth's
Chemical comp. - CO2 - 95.3%, Nitrogen - 2.7%
Mars' MoonsPhobos and Deimos, small irregular shapes, not like our moon, more like captured asteroids.
Unusual motion of JupiterFast Differential rotation
density of jupiter1330kg/m3
Interior of Jupiterrocky core, metallic hydrogen (currents here produce the magnetic field)
Surface of JupiterThe fast rotation causes the clouds to form bands around the planet.
Surface of JupiterThe fast rotation causes the clouds to form bands around the planet.
Other features of the cloud layers -
typical colors are bright yellow, orange and red
the great red spot - a 'hurricane' on Jupiter that is stable and always present
Unusual MotionSimilar to Jupiter's
Density of Saturn700 kg/m3
Interior of SaturnSimilar to Jupiter's
Surface of Saturnagain very similar to Jupiter but more subdued. Not 'hurricane' like the Great Red Spot is observed.
Other Features of SaturnUnique feature about Saturn is a mechanism for internal heating. In addition to the heat remaining from the planet's formation, heat is also generated by Helium precipitation.

Ring System - All the Jovian Planets have ring systems but Saturn's is by far the most spectacular.

Vocabulary associated with the rings' Cassini division. Roche limit, shepherd satellites.
Color of Uranus and NeptuneBlue-Green color due to methane
The temeperatures are too cold for the chemicals
Unique feature of Uranustilt of rotation axis is about 90 degrees.
Unique features of NeptuneGreat dark spot ( like great Red spot on Jupiter)
Pluto is a planet? Y or NN.
Dwarf Planet
Density of Pluto 2000 kg/m3
Unusual motion of PlutoUnusual motion due to its elliptical orbit, Pluto is sometimes closer to the Sun than is Neptune.
Physical properties of Pluto most like those of the ice moons around the Jovian planets.
Identify Regions of the Hertzsprung Russell Diagram--Main Sequence
--Yellow Giant/Horizontal Branch
--Red Giant Region
-- White Dwarf Region