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Exam 3 Political Science Flashcards - Flashcards

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Class:POLS 1301 - American Government, Organization: Online Only
Subject:POLITICAL SCIENCE
University:Texas Tech University
Term:Fall 2011
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501(c) (3) organization A tax code classification that applies to most interest groups; this designation makes donations to the group tax-deductible but limits the group's political activities.
Political action committee (PAC) An interest group or a division of an interest group that can raise money to contribute to campaigns or to spend on ads in support of candidates. The amount a PAC can recieve from each of its donors and the amount it can spend on federal campaigning are strictly limited.
527 organization

A tax-exempt group formed primarily to influence elections through voter mobilization efforts and issue ads that do not directly endorse or oppose a candidate. Unlike political action committees, 527 are not subject to contribution limits and spending caps.

 

Taking the late train An interest group strategy that involves donating money to the winning candidate an election in hopes of securing a meeting with that person when he or she takes office.
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Initiative A direct vote by citizens on a policy change proposed by fellow citizens or organized groups outside government. Getting a question on the ballot typically requires collecting a set number of signatures from registered voters in support of the proposal. There is no mechanism for a national-level initiative.
Referendum A direct vote by citizens on a policy change proposed by a legislature or another government body. Referenda are common in state and local elections, but there is no mechanism for a national-level referendum.
Salience The of familarity with an interest group's goals amoung the general population.
Bicameralism The system of having two chambers within one legislative body, like the House and Senate in the U.S. Congress.
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Pork barrel Legislative appropriations that benefit specific constituents, created with the aim of helping local representatives win reelection.
Descriptive representation When a member of Congress shares the characteristics ( such as gender, race, religion, or ethnicity) or his or her constituents.
Substantive representation When a member of Congress represents constituent's interests and policy concerns.
Trustee A member of Congres who represents constituent's interests while also taking into account national, collective, and moral concerns that sometimes cause the member to vote against the preferenceof a majority of constituents.
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Delegate (congressional role ) A member of Congress who loyally represents constituents' direct interests.
Politico A member of Congress who acts as a delegate on issues that constituents care about (such as immigration reform) and as a trustee on more complex or less salient issues ( some foreign policy regulatory matters).
Casework Assistance provided by memberts of Congress to their constituents in solving problems with the federal bureaucracy or addressing other specific concerns.
Electoral connection The idea that congressional behavior is centrally motivated by members' desire for reelection.
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Advertising Actions taken by a member of Congress that are unrelated to government issues but have the primary goal of making a positive impression on the public, like sending holiday cards to constituents and appearing in parades.
Credit claiming The acceptance of credit by a member of Congress for legislation that specically benefits his or her constituents.
Position taking A public statement in which a member of Congress makes his or her views on an issue known to his or her constituents.
Redistricting Redrawing the geographic boudaries of legislative districts. This happens every ten years to ensure that districts remain roughly equal in population.
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Apportionment The process of assigning the 435 seats in the House to the states based on increases or decreases in state population.
Gerrymandering Attempting to use the process of redrawing district boundaries to benefit a political party, protect incumbents, or change the proportion of minority voters in a district.
Gridlock An inability to enact legislation because of partisan conflict within Congess or between Congress and the president.
Incumbency advantage The relative infrequency with which members of Congress are defeated in their attempts for reelction.
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Universalism The informal congressional norm of distributing the benefits of legislation in a way that serves the interest of as many states and districts as possible.
Reciprocity The informal congressional norm whereby a member votes for a bill that he or she might not otherwise
Earmarks Federally funded local projects attached to bills passed through Congress.
Specialization The expertise of a member of Congress on a specific issue or area of policy. Specialization is more common in the House than the Senate, where members tend to be policy generalists.
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Seniority The informal congressional norm of choosing the member who has served the longest on a particular committee to be the committee chair.
Speaker of the House The elected leader of the House of Representatives.
Majority leader The elected head of the party holding the majority of seats in the House or Senate.
Whip system An organization of House leaders who work to disseminate information and promote party unity in voting on legislation.
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Minority leader The elected head of the party holding the minority of seats in the House or Senate.
President pro tempore A largely symbolic position usually held by the most senior member of the majority party in the Senate.
Roll call vote A recorded vote on legislation; members may vote yes, no, abstain, or present.
Party votes A vote in which the majority of one party opposes the position of the majority of the other party.
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Party unity The extent to which members of Congress in the same party vote together on party votes.
Standing committee

Committees that are a part of the House or Senate structure, holding more importance and authority than other committees.

 

Select committees Committees in the House or Senate created to address a specific issue for one or two terms.
Joint committees Committees that contain members of both the House and Senate but have limited authority.
Generated by Koofers.com
Conference committees Temporary committees created to negotiate differences between the House and Senate versions of a piece of legislation that has passed through both chambers.
Distributive theory The idea that members of Congress will join committees that best serve the interests of their district and that committee members will support each other's legislation.
Informational theory The idea that havingcommittees in Congress made up of experts on specific policy areas helps to ensure well-informed policy decisions.
Markup One of the steps through which a bill becomes a law, in which the final wording of the bill is determined.
Generated by Koofers.com
Veto The president's rejection of a bill that has been passed by Congress. A veto can be over-ridden by a two-thirds vote in both the House and Senate.
Pocket veto The automatic death of a bill passed by the House and Senate when the president fails to sign the bill in the last ten days of a legislative session.
Omnibus legislation Large bills that often cover several topics and may contain extraneous, or pork barrel, projects.
Suspension of the rules One way of moving a piece of legislation to the top of the agenda in the House; debate on the bill is limited to forty minutes, amendments are not allowed, and the bill must pass by a two-thirds vote.
Generated by Koofers.com
Cloture A procedure through which the Senate can limit the amount of time spent debating a bill ( cutting off a filibuster), if a supermajority of 60 senators agree.
Filibuster A tactic used by senators to block a bill by continuing to hold the floor and speak- under the Senate rule of unlimited debate- until the bill's supporters back down.
Hold An objection to considering a measure on the Senate floor.
Closed rules Conditions placed on a legislative debate by the House Rules Committee prohibiting amendments to a bill.
Generated by Koofers.com
Open rules Conditions placed on a legislative debate by the House Rules Committeeallowing relevant amendments to the bill.
Modified rules Conditions placed on a legaslative debate by the House Rules Committee allowing certain amendments to a bill while barring others.
Legislative veto A form of oversight in which Congress overturns bureaucratic decisons.
Constitutional authority (presidential) Power derived from the provisions of the Constitution that outline the president's role in government.
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Statutory authority (presidential) Powers derived from laws enacted by Congress that add to the powers given to the president in the Constitution.
Vesting clause Artice II, Section 1, of the Constitution, which states that "executive Power shall be vested in a President of the USA," making the president both the head of the government and the head of state.
Head of government One role of the president, through which he or she has authority over the executive branch.
Head of state One role of the president, through which he or she represents the country symbolically and politically.
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Recess appointment When a person is chosen by the president to fill a position, such as an ambassadorship or the head of a department, while the Senate in not in session,thereby bypassing Senate approval. Unless approved by a subsequent Senate vote, recess appointees serve only to the end of the congressional term.
Executive orders Proclamations made by the president that change governement policy without congressional approval.
Fast-track authority An expedited system for passing treaties under which support from a simple majority, rather than a two-thirds majority, is needed in both the House and Senate, and no amendments are allowed.
First-mover advantage The president's power to initiate treaty negotiations. Congress cannot initiate treaties and can only consider them once they have been negotiated.
Generated by Koofers.com
Executive agreement An agreement between the executive branch and a foreign government, which acts as a treaty but does not require Senate approval.
Two presidencies The idea that presidents have more interest in and power over foreign policy issues compared to domestic policy issues. This asymmetry is created by the president's greater influence over the making of foreign policy and the generally lower salience of foreign policy issues.
State of the Union An annual speech in which the president  addresses Congress to report on the condition of the country and recommend policies.
Executive privilege The right of the president to keep executive branch conversations and correspondence confidential from the legislative and judicial branches.
Generated by Koofers.com
Presidential approval The percentage of Americans who feel that the president is doing a good job in office.
Go public A president's use of speeches and other public communications to appeal directly to citizens about issues the president would like the House and Senate to act on.
Executive Office of the President (EOP) The group of policy-related offices that serves as suport staff to the president.
Cabinet The group of 15 executive department heads who implement the president's agenda in their respective positions.
Generated by Koofers.com
Power to persuade The theory that a president's ability to shape government policy depends more on his ability to convince members of Congress, bureaucrats, and citizens to do what he wants than is does on the formal powers conveyed to him by the Constitution.
Unilateral action (presidential) Any policy decision made and acted upon by the president and his staff without the explicit approval or consent of Comgress.
Unitary executive theory The idea that the vesting clause of the Constitution gives the president the authority to issue orders and policy directives that cannot be undone by Congress.
Signing statement A document issued by the president when signing a bill into law explaining his interpretations of the law, which often differs from the interpretation of Congress, in an attempt to influence how the law will be implemented.
Generated by Koofers.com
Impeachment A negative or checking power over the other branches that allows Congress to remove the president, vice president, or other "officers of the United States" ( including federal judges ) for abuses of power.
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 501(c) (3) organizationA tax code classification that applies to most interest groups; this designation makes donations to the group tax-deductible but limits the group's political activities.
 Political action committee (PAC)An interest group or a division of an interest group that can raise money to contribute to campaigns or to spend on ads in support of candidates. The amount a PAC can recieve from each of its donors and the amount it can spend on federal campaigning are strictly limited.
 527 organization

A tax-exempt group formed primarily to influence elections through voter mobilization efforts and issue ads that do not directly endorse or oppose a candidate. Unlike political action committees, 527 are not subject to contribution limits and spending caps.

 

 Taking the late trainAn interest group strategy that involves donating money to the winning candidate an election in hopes of securing a meeting with that person when he or she takes office.
 InitiativeA direct vote by citizens on a policy change proposed by fellow citizens or organized groups outside government. Getting a question on the ballot typically requires collecting a set number of signatures from registered voters in support of the proposal. There is no mechanism for a national-level initiative.
 ReferendumA direct vote by citizens on a policy change proposed by a legislature or another government body. Referenda are common in state and local elections, but there is no mechanism for a national-level referendum.
 SalienceThe of familarity with an interest group's goals amoung the general population.
 BicameralismThe system of having two chambers within one legislative body, like the House and Senate in the U.S. Congress.
 Pork barrelLegislative appropriations that benefit specific constituents, created with the aim of helping local representatives win reelection.
 Descriptive representationWhen a member of Congress shares the characteristics ( such as gender, race, religion, or ethnicity) or his or her constituents.
 Substantive representationWhen a member of Congress represents constituent's interests and policy concerns.
 TrusteeA member of Congres who represents constituent's interests while also taking into account national, collective, and moral concerns that sometimes cause the member to vote against the preferenceof a majority of constituents.
 Delegate (congressional role )A member of Congress who loyally represents constituents' direct interests.
 PoliticoA member of Congress who acts as a delegate on issues that constituents care about (such as immigration reform) and as a trustee on more complex or less salient issues ( some foreign policy regulatory matters).
 CaseworkAssistance provided by memberts of Congress to their constituents in solving problems with the federal bureaucracy or addressing other specific concerns.
 Electoral connectionThe idea that congressional behavior is centrally motivated by members' desire for reelection.
 AdvertisingActions taken by a member of Congress that are unrelated to government issues but have the primary goal of making a positive impression on the public, like sending holiday cards to constituents and appearing in parades.
 Credit claimingThe acceptance of credit by a member of Congress for legislation that specically benefits his or her constituents.
 Position takingA public statement in which a member of Congress makes his or her views on an issue known to his or her constituents.
 RedistrictingRedrawing the geographic boudaries of legislative districts. This happens every ten years to ensure that districts remain roughly equal in population.
 ApportionmentThe process of assigning the 435 seats in the House to the states based on increases or decreases in state population.
 GerrymanderingAttempting to use the process of redrawing district boundaries to benefit a political party, protect incumbents, or change the proportion of minority voters in a district.
 GridlockAn inability to enact legislation because of partisan conflict within Congess or between Congress and the president.
 Incumbency advantageThe relative infrequency with which members of Congress are defeated in their attempts for reelction.
 UniversalismThe informal congressional norm of distributing the benefits of legislation in a way that serves the interest of as many states and districts as possible.
 ReciprocityThe informal congressional norm whereby a member votes for a bill that he or she might not otherwise
 EarmarksFederally funded local projects attached to bills passed through Congress.
 SpecializationThe expertise of a member of Congress on a specific issue or area of policy. Specialization is more common in the House than the Senate, where members tend to be policy generalists.
 SeniorityThe informal congressional norm of choosing the member who has served the longest on a particular committee to be the committee chair.
 Speaker of the HouseThe elected leader of the House of Representatives.
 Majority leaderThe elected head of the party holding the majority of seats in the House or Senate.
 Whip systemAn organization of House leaders who work to disseminate information and promote party unity in voting on legislation.
 Minority leaderThe elected head of the party holding the minority of seats in the House or Senate.
 President pro temporeA largely symbolic position usually held by the most senior member of the majority party in the Senate.
 Roll call voteA recorded vote on legislation; members may vote yes, no, abstain, or present.
 Party votesA vote in which the majority of one party opposes the position of the majority of the other party.
 Party unityThe extent to which members of Congress in the same party vote together on party votes.
 Standing committee

Committees that are a part of the House or Senate structure, holding more importance and authority than other committees.

 

 Select committeesCommittees in the House or Senate created to address a specific issue for one or two terms.
 Joint committeesCommittees that contain members of both the House and Senate but have limited authority.
 Conference committeesTemporary committees created to negotiate differences between the House and Senate versions of a piece of legislation that has passed through both chambers.
 Distributive theoryThe idea that members of Congress will join committees that best serve the interests of their district and that committee members will support each other's legislation.
 Informational theoryThe idea that havingcommittees in Congress made up of experts on specific policy areas helps to ensure well-informed policy decisions.
 MarkupOne of the steps through which a bill becomes a law, in which the final wording of the bill is determined.
 VetoThe president's rejection of a bill that has been passed by Congress. A veto can be over-ridden by a two-thirds vote in both the House and Senate.
 Pocket vetoThe automatic death of a bill passed by the House and Senate when the president fails to sign the bill in the last ten days of a legislative session.
 Omnibus legislationLarge bills that often cover several topics and may contain extraneous, or pork barrel, projects.
 Suspension of the rulesOne way of moving a piece of legislation to the top of the agenda in the House; debate on the bill is limited to forty minutes, amendments are not allowed, and the bill must pass by a two-thirds vote.
 ClotureA procedure through which the Senate can limit the amount of time spent debating a bill ( cutting off a filibuster), if a supermajority of 60 senators agree.
 FilibusterA tactic used by senators to block a bill by continuing to hold the floor and speak- under the Senate rule of unlimited debate- until the bill's supporters back down.
 HoldAn objection to considering a measure on the Senate floor.
 Closed rulesConditions placed on a legislative debate by the House Rules Committee prohibiting amendments to a bill.
 Open rulesConditions placed on a legislative debate by the House Rules Committeeallowing relevant amendments to the bill.
 Modified rulesConditions placed on a legaslative debate by the House Rules Committee allowing certain amendments to a bill while barring others.
 Legislative vetoA form of oversight in which Congress overturns bureaucratic decisons.
 Constitutional authority (presidential)Power derived from the provisions of the Constitution that outline the president's role in government.
 Statutory authority (presidential)Powers derived from laws enacted by Congress that add to the powers given to the president in the Constitution.
 Vesting clauseArtice II, Section 1, of the Constitution, which states that "executive Power shall be vested in a President of the USA," making the president both the head of the government and the head of state.
 Head of governmentOne role of the president, through which he or she has authority over the executive branch.
 Head of stateOne role of the president, through which he or she represents the country symbolically and politically.
 Recess appointmentWhen a person is chosen by the president to fill a position, such as an ambassadorship or the head of a department, while the Senate in not in session,thereby bypassing Senate approval. Unless approved by a subsequent Senate vote, recess appointees serve only to the end of the congressional term.
 Executive ordersProclamations made by the president that change governement policy without congressional approval.
 Fast-track authorityAn expedited system for passing treaties under which support from a simple majority, rather than a two-thirds majority, is needed in both the House and Senate, and no amendments are allowed.
 First-mover advantageThe president's power to initiate treaty negotiations. Congress cannot initiate treaties and can only consider them once they have been negotiated.
 Executive agreementAn agreement between the executive branch and a foreign government, which acts as a treaty but does not require Senate approval.
 Two presidenciesThe idea that presidents have more interest in and power over foreign policy issues compared to domestic policy issues. This asymmetry is created by the president's greater influence over the making of foreign policy and the generally lower salience of foreign policy issues.
 State of the UnionAn annual speech in which the president  addresses Congress to report on the condition of the country and recommend policies.
 Executive privilegeThe right of the president to keep executive branch conversations and correspondence confidential from the legislative and judicial branches.
 Presidential approvalThe percentage of Americans who feel that the president is doing a good job in office.
 Go publicA president's use of speeches and other public communications to appeal directly to citizens about issues the president would like the House and Senate to act on.
 Executive Office of the President (EOP)The group of policy-related offices that serves as suport staff to the president.
 CabinetThe group of 15 executive department heads who implement the president's agenda in their respective positions.
 Power to persuadeThe theory that a president's ability to shape government policy depends more on his ability to convince members of Congress, bureaucrats, and citizens to do what he wants than is does on the formal powers conveyed to him by the Constitution.
 Unilateral action (presidential)Any policy decision made and acted upon by the president and his staff without the explicit approval or consent of Comgress.
 Unitary executive theoryThe idea that the vesting clause of the Constitution gives the president the authority to issue orders and policy directives that cannot be undone by Congress.
 Signing statementA document issued by the president when signing a bill into law explaining his interpretations of the law, which often differs from the interpretation of Congress, in an attempt to influence how the law will be implemented.
 ImpeachmentA negative or checking power over the other branches that allows Congress to remove the president, vice president, or other "officers of the United States" ( including federal judges ) for abuses of power.
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