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Final Exam - Flashcards

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Class:POLS 2302 - American Public Policy: Online Only
Subject:POLITICAL SCIENCE
University:Texas Tech University
Term:Fall 2010
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Fee For Service Health Care separate fees used to be assigned to separate services. For example, blood work costs X, X-Ray costs Y, and the check-up costs Z.
Managed Care The idea is to hold down health care prices through negotiation. Patients were only permitted to see certain providers through either an HMO or PPO. This was designed to keep health care costs down, but a negative attitude has developed since.
Nationalized Health Care system where all of health care is run by the government (all nurses, doctors, surgeons, etc work for the government). England uses this system.
Difference between US health care policy/insurance and the rest of the world... the main difference is that the US doesn't force everyone to have health insurance. The rest of the world requires citizens to have either public or private health insurance.
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Health Care Alternatives Most Similar to Obama's Healthcare Reform Law Single Payer Option (Public Option) and Universal Employment Based Insurance Plan
HMO Health Maintenance Organization
PPO Preferred Provider Organization
What groups of people have harder times getting quality healthcare? poor rural residents
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Why is healthcare so expensive in general? it relies heavily on technology which costs a lot to maintain, operate, and repair. This also requires a lot of labor costs as 2 employees are needed for every patient, on average.
Medicare a supplement to social security for the elderly
Problems with Medicare High cost to the government and the cost is constantly increasing. Also, it's only a supplemental insurance for senior citizens.
medicaid Public healthcare revenue funded by the government for the very poor (high costs for the government to provide free health care)
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SCHIP State Children Health Insurance Program designed to cover half of all uninsured children in America. This is funded through block grants to each state to administer it.
Employment Based Insurance Plan This would require employers to provide health care to all full and part time employees. Employer and employee would have to pay into this, most likely at a 80/20 ratio (employer pays 80%, employee pays 20%). Subsidies would be provided for employers/employees who can't afford the program.
Health Savings Account an alternative to health care reform where individuals buy high deductible health insurance and can add up to $4,500 per year. The money earned in this account is tax free and can be rolled over to the next year if not used.
Problems with Health Savings Account This is only feasible for people with reasonably stable finances and is not feasible for those with chronic conditions requiring regular doctor's attention.
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If any law is deemed Unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court.... It is no longer considered law.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 A federal law that provided limited assistance to local schools for textbooks, libraries, and other instructional materials. The federal government has increased its assistance to public schools in the past 50 years.
Who primarily funds public schools? Federal government still has a minimal involvement in public school funding and most schools are mainly funded by state and local tax dollars. In most states, 40% of public school revenue is made up by State's Property Tax.
Why are there differences in public education based upon funding? wealthy school districts generally have higher property values around them, so these districts have a lower property tax and still receive ample amount of funding. Less wealthy school districts generally have lower property values surrounding them, resulting in the opposite effect. (Higher property values=higher funding)
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Merit Pay for Teachers paying teachers for their performance on students, but problems arise for the low pay that teachers are currently receiving.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed major forms of discrimination against minorities
Racial Preference Using race as a factor to select from an open applicant pool.
Affirmative Action Federal policies requiring businesses and educational institutions guilty of past discrimination or in receipt of federal funding to demonstrate by positive action that they attempt to hire and admit minorities and women. (essentially choosing a minority for a job b/c they are a minority, not because of their qualifications)
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Arguments FOR Affirmative Action this makes up for discrimination in the past as well as the discrimination still faced by minorities; minorities have a more difficult time getting a job/getting promoted in a job; this promoted diversity and helps put an end to stereotypes.
Arguments AGAINST Affirmative Action it rewards/penalizes people based on their race/gender and this is still discrimination; more qualified people don't always get the job because of need to fill minority quotas; only helps a select group of minorities.
Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 paid farmers not to grow certain crops that were in surplus in an effort to raise the price of certain crops.
Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 Established first price supports for US crops and established the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.
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Federal Crop Insurance Corporation The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) is a wholly owned Government corporation managed by the Risk Management Agency of the U.S.
How long do most farm bills last? about 5 years
How much is the current farm bill worth? $307 billion
What percentage of the farm bill goes to the farmers? less than 17%
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What percentage of the farm bill goes to Food Stamps/School Lunches? 74%
Direct Payments based upon crop base that has been established for certain crops. (higher yielding land gets more money)
Counter Cyclical Payments True price supports where a target price is set for each subsidized commodity and if the price for that commodity at harvest time is less than the set target price, the farmer receives a check for the difference. If the target is at or above target, the farmer does not receive a check.
What role does cotton play in the Lubbock area? 4.5 million bales are raised in South Plains every year on average and this equates to over $6 billion pumped into the South Plains economy. there are 207,000 acres of lands specifically for cotton in Lubbock. Lubbock is 2nd in cotton production in Texas and in the top 5 in the United States.
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Obama's Healthcare Bill (passed in 2010) Aids small businesses, helps early retirees (ages 55-64) through a reinsurance program to offset health costs, helps Medicare beneficiaries in the "Class D Prescription Drug" category with a $250 rebate and 50% discount on namebrand prescription medications, insurance companies' policies on coverage are changed, and funding is given for more health care professionals. Those who make $200,000+ or jointly $250,000+ will pay 3.8% more on taxes to cover this as well as 2.34% towards Medicare taxes on income.
Definition
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 Fee For Service Health Careseparate fees used to be assigned to separate services. For example, blood work costs X, X-Ray costs Y, and the check-up costs Z.
 Managed CareThe idea is to hold down health care prices through negotiation. Patients were only permitted to see certain providers through either an HMO or PPO. This was designed to keep health care costs down, but a negative attitude has developed since.
 Nationalized Health Caresystem where all of health care is run by the government (all nurses, doctors, surgeons, etc work for the government). England uses this system.
 Difference between US health care policy/insurance and the rest of the world...the main difference is that the US doesn't force everyone to have health insurance. The rest of the world requires citizens to have either public or private health insurance.
 Health Care Alternatives Most Similar to Obama's Healthcare Reform LawSingle Payer Option (Public Option) and Universal Employment Based Insurance Plan
 HMOHealth Maintenance Organization
 PPOPreferred Provider Organization
 What groups of people have harder times getting quality healthcare?poor rural residents
 Why is healthcare so expensive in general?it relies heavily on technology which costs a lot to maintain, operate, and repair. This also requires a lot of labor costs as 2 employees are needed for every patient, on average.
 Medicarea supplement to social security for the elderly
 Problems with MedicareHigh cost to the government and the cost is constantly increasing. Also, it's only a supplemental insurance for senior citizens.
 medicaidPublic healthcare revenue funded by the government for the very poor (high costs for the government to provide free health care)
 SCHIPState Children Health Insurance Program designed to cover half of all uninsured children in America. This is funded through block grants to each state to administer it.
 Employment Based Insurance PlanThis would require employers to provide health care to all full and part time employees. Employer and employee would have to pay into this, most likely at a 80/20 ratio (employer pays 80%, employee pays 20%). Subsidies would be provided for employers/employees who can't afford the program.
 Health Savings Accountan alternative to health care reform where individuals buy high deductible health insurance and can add up to $4,500 per year. The money earned in this account is tax free and can be rolled over to the next year if not used.
 Problems with Health Savings AccountThis is only feasible for people with reasonably stable finances and is not feasible for those with chronic conditions requiring regular doctor's attention.
 If any law is deemed Unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court....It is no longer considered law.
 Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965A federal law that provided limited assistance to local schools for textbooks, libraries, and other instructional materials. The federal government has increased its assistance to public schools in the past 50 years.
 Who primarily funds public schools?Federal government still has a minimal involvement in public school funding and most schools are mainly funded by state and local tax dollars. In most states, 40% of public school revenue is made up by State's Property Tax.
 Why are there differences in public education based upon funding?wealthy school districts generally have higher property values around them, so these districts have a lower property tax and still receive ample amount of funding. Less wealthy school districts generally have lower property values surrounding them, resulting in the opposite effect. (Higher property values=higher funding)
 Merit Pay for Teacherspaying teachers for their performance on students, but problems arise for the low pay that teachers are currently receiving.
 Civil Rights Act of 1964outlawed major forms of discrimination against minorities
 Racial PreferenceUsing race as a factor to select from an open applicant pool.
 Affirmative ActionFederal policies requiring businesses and educational institutions guilty of past discrimination or in receipt of federal funding to demonstrate by positive action that they attempt to hire and admit minorities and women. (essentially choosing a minority for a job b/c they are a minority, not because of their qualifications)
 Arguments FOR Affirmative Actionthis makes up for discrimination in the past as well as the discrimination still faced by minorities; minorities have a more difficult time getting a job/getting promoted in a job; this promoted diversity and helps put an end to stereotypes.
 Arguments AGAINST Affirmative Actionit rewards/penalizes people based on their race/gender and this is still discrimination; more qualified people don't always get the job because of need to fill minority quotas; only helps a select group of minorities.
 Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933paid farmers not to grow certain crops that were in surplus in an effort to raise the price of certain crops.
 Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938Established first price supports for US crops and established the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.
 Federal Crop Insurance CorporationThe Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) is a wholly owned Government corporation managed by the Risk Management Agency of the U.S.
 How long do most farm bills last?about 5 years
 How much is the current farm bill worth?$307 billion
 What percentage of the farm bill goes to the farmers?less than 17%
 What percentage of the farm bill goes to Food Stamps/School Lunches?74%
 Direct Paymentsbased upon crop base that has been established for certain crops. (higher yielding land gets more money)
 Counter Cyclical PaymentsTrue price supports where a target price is set for each subsidized commodity and if the price for that commodity at harvest time is less than the set target price, the farmer receives a check for the difference. If the target is at or above target, the farmer does not receive a check.
 What role does cotton play in the Lubbock area?4.5 million bales are raised in South Plains every year on average and this equates to over $6 billion pumped into the South Plains economy. there are 207,000 acres of lands specifically for cotton in Lubbock. Lubbock is 2nd in cotton production in Texas and in the top 5 in the United States.
 Obama's Healthcare Bill (passed in 2010)Aids small businesses, helps early retirees (ages 55-64) through a reinsurance program to offset health costs, helps Medicare beneficiaries in the "Class D Prescription Drug" category with a $250 rebate and 50% discount on namebrand prescription medications, insurance companies' policies on coverage are changed, and funding is given for more health care professionals. Those who make $200,000+ or jointly $250,000+ will pay 3.8% more on taxes to cover this as well as 2.34% towards Medicare taxes on income.
  Definition
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