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Final Exam Study Guide - Flashcards

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Class:POSC 120 - Honors: Introduction to American Government
Subject:Political Science
University:Radford University
Term:Fall 2012
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Government a formal vehicle through which affairs of state are conducted and policies are made
Citizen a person who as a member of a political community has certain rights and obligations
Empirical study gaining knowledge through direct or indirect observation or experience
What is considered an essential function of US Government? Rule of law
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What was U.S government formed to minimize? abuse of power
What did John Locke argue was directly linked? Private property and individual rights
What is American exceptionalism? the idea that american government was based upon ideals not generally considered in other countris
Why was the Declaration of Independence written? to announce to the world why the colonists wanted their independence
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What was the first constitution in the United States called? The Articles of Confederation
What event pushed the founders to decide they needed to make changes to the national government? Shay's Rebellion
What is a separation of powers? a way of dividing the powers of government among the branches to insure equality and independence of each branch
What is equity? equity occurs when individuals are guaranteed access to a certain set of processes and procedures, often referred to as due process, but are not guaranteed a particular outcome
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Due process due process occures when individuals are provided access to formal processes and procedures to ensure that their individual rights are protected
enumerated powers the seventeen powers granted specifically to Congress in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution
What determines how many representatives each state will have? The census
According to Article 1 Section 8, Congress has the power to tax, pay debts, provide for the national defense, borrow money, regulate commerce, coin money, establish post offices, declare war and pay for a military
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What are the terms of office for the different federal branches? The president for four years (amendment 25 deals with secession), representatives 2 years, senators for four years, and Judges for life
What entity is typically responsible for redrawing congressional districts? State Legislatures
What house of Congress has the sole power of impeachment and what house tries the federal public officials that have been impeached? The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeachment and the US Senate tries the federal public officials who have been impeaches
What is a filibuster? When members of the senate talk a bill to death
-has changed now to duel tracking (can lay a bill aside)
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When the Senate is considering budget and tax issues what device is used to avoid the filibuster? Budget Reconciliation (only needs 51 votes)
How Congress do most of its work? In committees and subcommittees

What device can members of congress use to pass a bill without going through the committee and subcommittee process? discharge petition
How many days does the president have to decide whether to sign or to veto a bill 10 days
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If Congress passes a bill and sends it to the president, 10 days expire, the president has not acted on the bill, and Congress has NOT adjourned, what happens to the ill? it becomes a law. If congress has adjourned, it's considered a pocket veto
Under what circumstances can a president be impeached from office? Illegal or unconstitutional actions
What is the primary function of the Whips in each House of Congress? to count votes, prepare bill summaries, and communicate with other members
What is an elected representative called who votes the way they believe is the correct way to vote? a trustee
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What role does the Office of Management and budget perform for the president? It creates the President's budget proposal, reviews executive department budgets, supplies economic forecasts, and conducts detailed analysis of rules and bills
What is the most powerful position in the House of Representatives? Speaker of the House
It's the Majority Leader in the Senate
What is gridlock? gridlock occurs when different political parties control different parts of the government resulting in an inability of the government to act
What powers does the President share with the senate? the appointment of officials and the approval of treaties
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What does is mean when we say the President can use the bully pulpit? the president uses his prestige and visibility to build public support for his agenda
What amendment established procedures for filling vacancies in the office of the president and vice-president 25th
What is the executive office of the presidency? a mini bureaucracy created in 1939 to help the president oversee the executive branch bureaucracy
What is an executive order? a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the force of law
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what is an executive agreement? formal international agreements that do not need senate approval
what package of federal legislation was primarily responsible for expanding the powers of the presidency? the new deal
who can write a federal level bill? anyone
who has the power to declare war? congress
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what is religious tolerance? when a government and a society allow different religions and different religious sects to exist within it
what is an oligarchy? a form of government that gives power to a few people based upon wealth or social status
popular sovereignty the notion that ultimate authority rests with the people
What did Hobbes say life would be like without government It would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short
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In the Declaration of Independence, the founders suggest that human beings get their power from? God
What is personal liberty? when you are free from governmental interference
direct democracy a system of government where the majority rules
political equality the principle that all citizens are the same in the eyes of the law
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social contract an agreement between people and their government signifying their consent to be governed
What were the key features of the New Jersey Plan? a one-house legislature with representatives chosen by state legislatures, the power of the legislature to raise revenue through import duties and postal fees, and a Supreme Court appointed for life by executives
What are checks and balances? a constitutionally mandated structure that gives each of the three branches of government some degree of oversight and control over the actions of the others
What is the name of the clause in the Constitution that gives congress the authority to pass all laws necessary and proper to carry out thir powers? necessary and proper clause
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What clause in the constitution ensures that judicial decrees and contracts in one state will be binding and enforceale in another state? full faith and credit clause
what type of government did the federalists favor? they favored a stronger national government and supported the Constitution
Who wrote the 85 Federalist Papers? John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison
What Supreme Court case specifically asserted the right of the S.C to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional? Marbury v. Madison
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What branch is covered in Article 1 of the US constitution? legislative
When vacancies happen in the House of Representatives, who is responsible for calling an election to fill the vacancy the state governor
To serve as a senator, how old do you have to be? 30
In the senate, who sits in place of the VP when the VP is absent? President Pro Tempore
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If a government official is impeached, what happens to them? they are removed from office
According to Article 1 Section 7 of the Constitution, where must all budget bills originate from? the house of representatives
If the president decides to veto a bill, how many votes are needed in each house of congress to overturn the veto? 2/3
Who actually selects the president of the united states? the electoral college
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What term is used to describe two house legislature? bicameral
who must sponsor a bill before it can be considered by congress? members of the house and senate
what is a member of congress called if they already hold office? an incumbent
majority party the party with the most seats in each house
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What did the Judiciary Act of 1789 do? it established the basic three tiered structure of the federal court system
appellate court a court that reviews the findings made by lower courts
what are federal courts called that try most federal criminal cases? u.s district courts
What process can be used to remove a president from office for high crimes or misdemeanors? impeachment
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what power allow the president to refuse to disclose information regarding confidential conversations or national security to Congress or the judiciary? executive privilege
presidential veto power formal constitutional authority of the president to reject bills passed by congress
War Powers Act it limits the length of time troops can be deployed without congressional approval to 60 days
inherent powers of the president powers that belong to the president because they can be inferred from the constitution
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what amendment limits the number of terms that a president can serve to two? 22nd
what is a legislative court? a court established by congress for special purposes
what chief justice firmly established the supreme court as a coequal branch of the federal government? John Marshall
jurisdiction when a court is given authority to hear a case
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criminal law codes of behaviour designed to protect property and individual safety
a brief a document containing the legal written arguments prior to a hearing or a trial
spoils system public office holders who were loyal to the elected political party
independent regulatory commissions an entity created by congress outside the executive department
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administrative discretion when a bureaucrat has choices about how to implement a law
when a federal agency makes a decision on benefits you apply for, who would be the first person or institution that would hear an appeal if you did not like the decision made by the agency and you chose to appeal? an administrative law judge at the agency
patronage when a job is given to someone based upon their support in a political campaign
a department an administrative unit with a broad area of responsibility for government operations
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rule making a quasi-legislative process that results in regulations
it is often said that the federal bureaucracy serves two masters, who are they? congress and the president
a confederation a system of government where the national government derives its powers from lower level governments
concurrent powers powers granted to both the national and state governments
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what clause and the u.s constitution affords the same rights to citizens in each state? privileges and immunities clause
dual federalism the belief that the state and federal governments operate in separate and equally powerful spheres
unitary system a system of government where lower level governments derive all their authority from a strong national government
bill of attainder a law declaring an act illegal without a trial
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what u.s. supreme court case upheld the supremacy of federal law over state law when the two are in conflict? McCullough v. Maryland
cooperative federalism the intertwined relationship between the national, state, and local governments that began with the New Deal
a mandate a command by voter's votes for party officials to carry out a platform or policy agenda
crossover voting when voter participate in a primary election of a party that they are not affiliated with
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who selects who will be a member of the electoral college? state legislatures
what does ticket splitting mean? when voters vote for candidates from different parties to fill public offices up for election
primary election an election where voters determine what candidates within a party will run in a general election
initiative an election where citizens can create law without it passing through a legislature
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midterm election an election that occurs in the middle of a presidential term
voter turnout the proportion of eligible voters who actually cast ballots in an election
sample a subset of the whole population to be questioned to gauge public opinion
stratified sampling a sample of a subgroup weighted based on demographics and the national population
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political machine a party organization that recruits voter loyalty with incentives and control
party platform it is a statement of general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party
tracking poll continuous surveys tracking the rise and fall of support for a candidate over time
margin of error a measure of accuracy of a poll
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candidate centered politics when politics focuses on candidates rather than party affiliation
What is a general decline in party identification and party loyalty in the electorate called? dealignment
judicial review power of the courts to review acts of other branches of government and the states
trial court a court of original jurisdiction where a case begins
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jurisdiction when a court is given the authority to hear a case
appellate jurisdiction the ability of a court to review and revise a lower court decision
constitutional court a court established by the constitution or congress pursuant to article III
writ of certiorari a formal request for records from a lower court
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what must the supreme court maintain to have their rulings applied? the support of the president and congress even if they do not agree completely with every court hearing
federal bureaucracy thousands of workers that implement federal laws and programs
civil service system the merit test used to hire most bureaucrats
What did the Hatch Act of 1939 prohibit? federal civil servants from political activity
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what power does congress exercise over the federal bureaucracy? it has the power of the purse and it can call bureaucrats to hearings where they must testify under oath
federal system system of government where the national government and state governments share power, derive all authority from the people, and the powers of the government are specified in a constitution
reserved police powers powers granted exclusively to the states
what clause in the constitution makes your driver's license valid in all 50 states? full faith and credit clause
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what supreme court case ruled that the due process clause of the fifth amendment did not apply to the states? barron v. baltimore (the 14th amendment ruled that it did apply to the states post civil war)
what did the sixteenth amendment do? created a national income tax
what is a categorical grant allocated federal funds to a state for a specific purpose
electorate citizens eligible to vote
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primary election an election where voters determine what candidates within a party will run in a general election
open primary a primary election where all registered voters can vote to select the nominee of a political party
recall an election where voters can remove an incumbent from office
what is unconventional political participation protesting
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prospective judgement a voter's evaluation of a candidate based upon what a candidate proposes to do
presidential coattails when the popularity of a presidential candidate encourages voters to vote for members of their party for other elected offices
straw poll an unscientific survey used to gauge public opinion on issues and policies
random sampling a method of selecting each person for a poll that gives everyone an equal chance of being selected
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political party an organization dedicated to the election of like-minded people to public office
candidate-centered politics when politics focuses on candidates rather than party affiliation
winner take all system a system where the party that receives the most votes wins an election
think tank it is an institution designed to develop policy ideas for party leaders
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social capital cooperative relationships that facilitate the resolution of collective problems
civic virtue the tendency to form small-scale associations for the public good
interest group a collection of people or organizations that tries to influence public policy
pluralist theory the theory that political power is distributed among a wide array of diverse and competing interest groups
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disturbance theory the theory that interest groups form as a result of changes in the political system
transactions theory the theory that public policies are the result of narrowly defined exchanges among political actors
collective good something of value that cannot be withheld from a nonmember of a group, for example, a tax write-off or a better environment
population ecology theory the theory that the formation of political organizations is conditional on the resources allocated to a given issue area
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public interest group an organization that seeks a collective good that will not selectively and materially benefit group members
economic interest group a group with the primary purpose of promoting the financial interests of its members
earmark funds that an appropriations bill designates  for specific projects within a state or congressional district
political action committee (PAC) officially registered fund-raising organization that represents interest groups in the political process
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lobbyist interest group representative who seeks to influence legislation  that will benefit his or her organization or client through political and/or financial persuasion
trade association a group that represents a specific industry
lobbying the activities of a group or organization that seeks to persuade political leaders to support the group's position
patron a person who finances a group or individual activity
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free rider problem potential members fail to join a group because they can get the benefit or collective good, sought by the group without contributing the effort
Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007 lobbying reform banning gifts to members of congress and their staffs, toughening disclosure requirements, and increasing time limits on moving from the federal government to the private sector
one-person, one-vote the principle that each legislature district within a state should have the same number of eligible voters so that representation is equitably based on a population
state constitution the document that describes the basic policies, procedures, and institutions of the government of a specific state, much as the U.S Constitution does for the federal government
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political machine an organization designed to solicit votes from certain neighborhoods or communities for a particular political party in return for services and jobs if that party wins
progressive movement advocated measures to destroy political machines and instead voters participate directly in the nomination of candidates and the establishment of public policy
governor chief elected executive in state government
package or general veto the authority of a chief executive to reject an entire bill that has been passed by the legislature
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line-item veto the authority of a chief executive to delete part of a bill passed by the legislature that involves taxing or spending. Ruled unconstitutional by the U.S Supreme Court
pardon an executive grant providing restoration of all rights and privileges of citizenship to a specific individual charged or convicted of a crime
commute the action of a governor to cancel all or part of the sentence of someone convicted of a crime, while keeping the conviction on the record
parole the authority of a governor to release a prisoner before his or her full sentence has been completed and to specify conditions that must be met as part of the release
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extradite to send someone against his or her will to another state to face criminal charges
term limits restrictions that exist in some states about how long an individual may serve in state or local elected offices
Missouri (merit) plan a method of selecting judges in which a governor must appoint someone from a list provided by an independent panel. Judges are then kept in office if they get a majority of "yes" votes in a general election
Dillon's Rule a court ruling that local governments do not have any inherent sovereignty but instead must be authorized by state government
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municipality a government with general responsibilities such as a city, town, or village, which is created in response to the emergence of relatively densely populated areas
charter a document that, like a constitution specifies the basic policies, procedures, and institutions of a municipality
county geographic districc created within a state with a government that has general responsibilities for land, welfare, environment, and, where appropriate rural service policies
special district a local government that is responsible for a particular function such as schools, water, sewerage, or parks
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public corporation (authority) government organization established to provide a particular service or run a particular facility that is independent of other city or state agencies and is to be operated like business. examples include a port authority or a mass transit system
commission form of local government in which several officials are elected to top positions that have both legislative and executive responsibilities
nonpartisan election a contest in which political parties do not nominate candidates and ballot do not include any party identification of those running for office
district based election election in which candidates run for an office that represents only the voters of a specific district within the jurisdiction
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at large election election in which candidates for office must compete throughout the jurisdiction as a whole
referendum an election whereby the state legislature submits proposed legislation or state constitutional amendments to the voters for approval
domestic dependent nation a type of sovereignty that places an american indian tribe in the united states outside the authority of state governments but reliant on federal government for the interpretation and application of treaty provisions
trust relationship the legal obligation of the federal government to protect the interests of american indian tribe
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progressive tax the tax level increases with the wealth or ability of an individual or business to pay
regressive tax the tax level increases as the wealth or ability of an individual or business to pay decreases
segregated funds money that comes in from a certain tax or fee and then is restricted to a specific use, such as a gasoline tax that is used for road maintenance
Essay 1: The difference between equity and equality equity occurs when individuals are guaranteed access to a certain set of processes and procedures, often referred to as due process, but are not guaranteed a particular outcome. Political equality is the principle that all citizens are the same in the eyes of the law
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Essay 2: pg 252 w/ a focus on politico, delegate, and trustee There are various ideas on how constituents' interests are best represented in a legislative body. British political philosopher Edmund Burke thought a representative should be a trustee (an elected rep should listen to the opinions of the constituents and then use best judgement to make a final decision. Whereas, a delegate vote the way constituents want, no matter what (regardless of personal opinion) and a politico either acts as a trustee or a delegate, depending on the issue
Essay 3 and Essay 4 Essay 3 is about the national disaster article. How does the disaster response system work/ what are the impacts of interpersonal relationships between officials at different levels of response. (what happens if the mayor of a city hates the governor?) Essay 4: why is government important to my life? Keep writing brevity in mind and provide specific examples.
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Governmenta formal vehicle through which affairs of state are conducted and policies are made
 Citizena person who as a member of a political community has certain rights and obligations
 Empirical studygaining knowledge through direct or indirect observation or experience
 What is considered an essential function of US Government?Rule of law
 What was U.S government formed to minimize?abuse of power
 What did John Locke argue was directly linked?Private property and individual rights
 What is American exceptionalism?the idea that american government was based upon ideals not generally considered in other countris
 Why was the Declaration of Independence written?to announce to the world why the colonists wanted their independence
 What was the first constitution in the United States called?The Articles of Confederation
 What event pushed the founders to decide they needed to make changes to the national government?Shay's Rebellion
 What is a separation of powers?a way of dividing the powers of government among the branches to insure equality and independence of each branch
 What is equity?equity occurs when individuals are guaranteed access to a certain set of processes and procedures, often referred to as due process, but are not guaranteed a particular outcome
 Due processdue process occures when individuals are provided access to formal processes and procedures to ensure that their individual rights are protected
 enumerated powersthe seventeen powers granted specifically to Congress in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution
 What determines how many representatives each state will have?The census
 According to Article 1 Section 8, Congress has the power totax, pay debts, provide for the national defense, borrow money, regulate commerce, coin money, establish post offices, declare war and pay for a military
 What are the terms of office for the different federal branches?The president for four years (amendment 25 deals with secession), representatives 2 years, senators for four years, and Judges for life
 What entity is typically responsible for redrawing congressional districts?State Legislatures
 What house of Congress has the sole power of impeachment and what house tries the federal public officials that have been impeached?The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeachment and the US Senate tries the federal public officials who have been impeaches
 What is a filibuster?When members of the senate talk a bill to death
-has changed now to duel tracking (can lay a bill aside)
 When the Senate is considering budget and tax issues what device is used to avoid the filibuster?Budget Reconciliation (only needs 51 votes)
 How Congress do most of its work?In committees and subcommittees

 What device can members of congress use to pass a bill without going through the committee and subcommittee process?discharge petition
 How many days does the president have to decide whether to sign or to veto a bill10 days
 If Congress passes a bill and sends it to the president, 10 days expire, the president has not acted on the bill, and Congress has NOT adjourned, what happens to the ill?it becomes a law. If congress has adjourned, it's considered a pocket veto
 Under what circumstances can a president be impeached from office?Illegal or unconstitutional actions
 What is the primary function of the Whips in each House of Congress?to count votes, prepare bill summaries, and communicate with other members
 What is an elected representative called who votes the way they believe is the correct way to vote?a trustee
 What role does the Office of Management and budget perform for the president?It creates the President's budget proposal, reviews executive department budgets, supplies economic forecasts, and conducts detailed analysis of rules and bills
 What is the most powerful position in the House of Representatives?Speaker of the House
It's the Majority Leader in the Senate
 What is gridlock?gridlock occurs when different political parties control different parts of the government resulting in an inability of the government to act
 What powers does the President share with the senate?the appointment of officials and the approval of treaties
 What does is mean when we say the President can use the bully pulpit?the president uses his prestige and visibility to build public support for his agenda
 What amendment established procedures for filling vacancies in the office of the president and vice-president25th
 What is the executive office of the presidency?a mini bureaucracy created in 1939 to help the president oversee the executive branch bureaucracy
 What is an executive order?a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the force of law
 what is an executive agreement?formal international agreements that do not need senate approval
 what package of federal legislation was primarily responsible for expanding the powers of the presidency?the new deal
 who can write a federal level bill?anyone
 who has the power to declare war?congress
 what is religious tolerance?when a government and a society allow different religions and different religious sects to exist within it
 what is an oligarchy?a form of government that gives power to a few people based upon wealth or social status
 popular sovereigntythe notion that ultimate authority rests with the people
 What did Hobbes say life would be like without governmentIt would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short
 In the Declaration of Independence, the founders suggest that human beings get their power from?God
 What is personal liberty?when you are free from governmental interference
 direct democracya system of government where the majority rules
 political equalitythe principle that all citizens are the same in the eyes of the law
 social contractan agreement between people and their government signifying their consent to be governed
 What were the key features of the New Jersey Plan?a one-house legislature with representatives chosen by state legislatures, the power of the legislature to raise revenue through import duties and postal fees, and a Supreme Court appointed for life by executives
 What are checks and balances?a constitutionally mandated structure that gives each of the three branches of government some degree of oversight and control over the actions of the others
 What is the name of the clause in the Constitution that gives congress the authority to pass all laws necessary and proper to carry out thir powers?necessary and proper clause
 What clause in the constitution ensures that judicial decrees and contracts in one state will be binding and enforceale in another state?full faith and credit clause
 what type of government did the federalists favor?they favored a stronger national government and supported the Constitution
 Who wrote the 85 Federalist Papers?John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison
 What Supreme Court case specifically asserted the right of the S.C to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional?Marbury v. Madison
 What branch is covered in Article 1 of the US constitution?legislative
 When vacancies happen in the House of Representatives, who is responsible for calling an election to fill the vacancythe state governor
 To serve as a senator, how old do you have to be?30
 In the senate, who sits in place of the VP when the VP is absent?President Pro Tempore
 If a government official is impeached, what happens to them?they are removed from office
 According to Article 1 Section 7 of the Constitution, where must all budget bills originate from?the house of representatives
 If the president decides to veto a bill, how many votes are needed in each house of congress to overturn the veto?2/3
 Who actually selects the president of the united states?the electoral college
 What term is used to describe two house legislature?bicameral
 who must sponsor a bill before it can be considered by congress?members of the house and senate
 what is a member of congress called if they already hold office?an incumbent
 majority partythe party with the most seats in each house
 What did the Judiciary Act of 1789 do?it established the basic three tiered structure of the federal court system
 appellate courta court that reviews the findings made by lower courts
 what are federal courts called that try most federal criminal cases?u.s district courts
 What process can be used to remove a president from office for high crimes or misdemeanors?impeachment
 what power allow the president to refuse to disclose information regarding confidential conversations or national security to Congress or the judiciary?executive privilege
 presidential veto powerformal constitutional authority of the president to reject bills passed by congress
 War Powers Actit limits the length of time troops can be deployed without congressional approval to 60 days
 inherent powers of the presidentpowers that belong to the president because they can be inferred from the constitution
 what amendment limits the number of terms that a president can serve to two?22nd
 what is a legislative court?a court established by congress for special purposes
 what chief justice firmly established the supreme court as a coequal branch of the federal government?John Marshall
 jurisdictionwhen a court is given authority to hear a case
 criminal lawcodes of behaviour designed to protect property and individual safety
 a briefa document containing the legal written arguments prior to a hearing or a trial
 spoils systempublic office holders who were loyal to the elected political party
 independent regulatory commissionsan entity created by congress outside the executive department
 administrative discretionwhen a bureaucrat has choices about how to implement a law
 when a federal agency makes a decision on benefits you apply for, who would be the first person or institution that would hear an appeal if you did not like the decision made by the agency and you chose to appeal?an administrative law judge at the agency
 patronagewhen a job is given to someone based upon their support in a political campaign
 a departmentan administrative unit with a broad area of responsibility for government operations
 rule makinga quasi-legislative process that results in regulations
 it is often said that the federal bureaucracy serves two masters, who are they?congress and the president
 a confederationa system of government where the national government derives its powers from lower level governments
 concurrent powerspowers granted to both the national and state governments
 what clause and the u.s constitution affords the same rights to citizens in each state?privileges and immunities clause
 dual federalismthe belief that the state and federal governments operate in separate and equally powerful spheres
 unitary systema system of government where lower level governments derive all their authority from a strong national government
 bill of attaindera law declaring an act illegal without a trial
 what u.s. supreme court case upheld the supremacy of federal law over state law when the two are in conflict?McCullough v. Maryland
 cooperative federalismthe intertwined relationship between the national, state, and local governments that began with the New Deal
 a mandatea command by voter's votes for party officials to carry out a platform or policy agenda
 crossover votingwhen voter participate in a primary election of a party that they are not affiliated with
 who selects who will be a member of the electoral college?state legislatures
 what does ticket splitting mean?when voters vote for candidates from different parties to fill public offices up for election
 primary electionan election where voters determine what candidates within a party will run in a general election
 initiativean election where citizens can create law without it passing through a legislature
 midterm electionan election that occurs in the middle of a presidential term
 voter turnoutthe proportion of eligible voters who actually cast ballots in an election
 samplea subset of the whole population to be questioned to gauge public opinion
 stratified samplinga sample of a subgroup weighted based on demographics and the national population
 political machinea party organization that recruits voter loyalty with incentives and control
 party platformit is a statement of general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party
 tracking pollcontinuous surveys tracking the rise and fall of support for a candidate over time
 margin of errora measure of accuracy of a poll
 candidate centered politicswhen politics focuses on candidates rather than party affiliation
 What is a general decline in party identification and party loyalty in the electorate called?dealignment
 judicial reviewpower of the courts to review acts of other branches of government and the states
 trial courta court of original jurisdiction where a case begins
 jurisdictionwhen a court is given the authority to hear a case
 appellate jurisdictionthe ability of a court to review and revise a lower court decision
 constitutional courta court established by the constitution or congress pursuant to article III
 writ of certioraria formal request for records from a lower court
 what must the supreme court maintain to have their rulings applied?the support of the president and congress even if they do not agree completely with every court hearing
 federal bureaucracythousands of workers that implement federal laws and programs
 civil service systemthe merit test used to hire most bureaucrats
 What did the Hatch Act of 1939 prohibit?federal civil servants from political activity
 what power does congress exercise over the federal bureaucracy?it has the power of the purse and it can call bureaucrats to hearings where they must testify under oath
 federal systemsystem of government where the national government and state governments share power, derive all authority from the people, and the powers of the government are specified in a constitution
 reserved police powerspowers granted exclusively to the states
 what clause in the constitution makes your driver's license valid in all 50 states?full faith and credit clause
 what supreme court case ruled that the due process clause of the fifth amendment did not apply to the states?barron v. baltimore (the 14th amendment ruled that it did apply to the states post civil war)
 what did the sixteenth amendment do?created a national income tax
 what is a categorical grantallocated federal funds to a state for a specific purpose
 electoratecitizens eligible to vote
 primary electionan election where voters determine what candidates within a party will run in a general election
 open primarya primary election where all registered voters can vote to select the nominee of a political party
 recallan election where voters can remove an incumbent from office
 what is unconventional political participationprotesting
 prospective judgementa voter's evaluation of a candidate based upon what a candidate proposes to do
 presidential coattailswhen the popularity of a presidential candidate encourages voters to vote for members of their party for other elected offices
 straw pollan unscientific survey used to gauge public opinion on issues and policies
 random samplinga method of selecting each person for a poll that gives everyone an equal chance of being selected
 political partyan organization dedicated to the election of like-minded people to public office
 candidate-centered politicswhen politics focuses on candidates rather than party affiliation
 winner take all systema system where the party that receives the most votes wins an election
 think tankit is an institution designed to develop policy ideas for party leaders
 social capitalcooperative relationships that facilitate the resolution of collective problems
 civic virtuethe tendency to form small-scale associations for the public good
 interest groupa collection of people or organizations that tries to influence public policy
 pluralist theorythe theory that political power is distributed among a wide array of diverse and competing interest groups
 disturbance theorythe theory that interest groups form as a result of changes in the political system
 transactions theorythe theory that public policies are the result of narrowly defined exchanges among political actors
 collective goodsomething of value that cannot be withheld from a nonmember of a group, for example, a tax write-off or a better environment
 population ecology theorythe theory that the formation of political organizations is conditional on the resources allocated to a given issue area
 public interest groupan organization that seeks a collective good that will not selectively and materially benefit group members
 economic interest groupa group with the primary purpose of promoting the financial interests of its members
 earmarkfunds that an appropriations bill designates  for specific projects within a state or congressional district
 political action committee (PAC)officially registered fund-raising organization that represents interest groups in the political process
 lobbyistinterest group representative who seeks to influence legislation  that will benefit his or her organization or client through political and/or financial persuasion
 trade associationa group that represents a specific industry
 lobbyingthe activities of a group or organization that seeks to persuade political leaders to support the group's position
 patrona person who finances a group or individual activity
 free rider problempotential members fail to join a group because they can get the benefit or collective good, sought by the group without contributing the effort
 Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007lobbying reform banning gifts to members of congress and their staffs, toughening disclosure requirements, and increasing time limits on moving from the federal government to the private sector
 one-person, one-votethe principle that each legislature district within a state should have the same number of eligible voters so that representation is equitably based on a population
 state constitutionthe document that describes the basic policies, procedures, and institutions of the government of a specific state, much as the U.S Constitution does for the federal government
 political machinean organization designed to solicit votes from certain neighborhoods or communities for a particular political party in return for services and jobs if that party wins
 progressive movementadvocated measures to destroy political machines and instead voters participate directly in the nomination of candidates and the establishment of public policy
 governorchief elected executive in state government
 package or general vetothe authority of a chief executive to reject an entire bill that has been passed by the legislature
 line-item vetothe authority of a chief executive to delete part of a bill passed by the legislature that involves taxing or spending. Ruled unconstitutional by the U.S Supreme Court
 pardonan executive grant providing restoration of all rights and privileges of citizenship to a specific individual charged or convicted of a crime
 commutethe action of a governor to cancel all or part of the sentence of someone convicted of a crime, while keeping the conviction on the record
 parolethe authority of a governor to release a prisoner before his or her full sentence has been completed and to specify conditions that must be met as part of the release
 extraditeto send someone against his or her will to another state to face criminal charges
 term limitsrestrictions that exist in some states about how long an individual may serve in state or local elected offices
 Missouri (merit) plana method of selecting judges in which a governor must appoint someone from a list provided by an independent panel. Judges are then kept in office if they get a majority of "yes" votes in a general election
 Dillon's Rulea court ruling that local governments do not have any inherent sovereignty but instead must be authorized by state government
 municipalitya government with general responsibilities such as a city, town, or village, which is created in response to the emergence of relatively densely populated areas
 chartera document that, like a constitution specifies the basic policies, procedures, and institutions of a municipality
 countygeographic districc created within a state with a government that has general responsibilities for land, welfare, environment, and, where appropriate rural service policies
 special districta local government that is responsible for a particular function such as schools, water, sewerage, or parks
 public corporation (authority)government organization established to provide a particular service or run a particular facility that is independent of other city or state agencies and is to be operated like business. examples include a port authority or a mass transit system
 commissionform of local government in which several officials are elected to top positions that have both legislative and executive responsibilities
 nonpartisan electiona contest in which political parties do not nominate candidates and ballot do not include any party identification of those running for office
 district based electionelection in which candidates run for an office that represents only the voters of a specific district within the jurisdiction
 at large electionelection in which candidates for office must compete throughout the jurisdiction as a whole
 referenduman election whereby the state legislature submits proposed legislation or state constitutional amendments to the voters for approval
 domestic dependent nationa type of sovereignty that places an american indian tribe in the united states outside the authority of state governments but reliant on federal government for the interpretation and application of treaty provisions
 trust relationshipthe legal obligation of the federal government to protect the interests of american indian tribe
 progressive taxthe tax level increases with the wealth or ability of an individual or business to pay
 regressive taxthe tax level increases as the wealth or ability of an individual or business to pay decreases
 segregated fundsmoney that comes in from a certain tax or fee and then is restricted to a specific use, such as a gasoline tax that is used for road maintenance
 Essay 1: The difference between equity and equalityequity occurs when individuals are guaranteed access to a certain set of processes and procedures, often referred to as due process, but are not guaranteed a particular outcome. Political equality is the principle that all citizens are the same in the eyes of the law
 Essay 2: pg 252 w/ a focus on politico, delegate, and trusteeThere are various ideas on how constituents' interests are best represented in a legislative body. British political philosopher Edmund Burke thought a representative should be a trustee (an elected rep should listen to the opinions of the constituents and then use best judgement to make a final decision. Whereas, a delegate vote the way constituents want, no matter what (regardless of personal opinion) and a politico either acts as a trustee or a delegate, depending on the issue
 Essay 3 and Essay 4Essay 3 is about the national disaster article. How does the disaster response system work/ what are the impacts of interpersonal relationships between officials at different levels of response. (what happens if the mayor of a city hates the governor?) Essay 4: why is government important to my life? Keep writing brevity in mind and provide specific examples.
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