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EXAM 1 REVIEW - Terms and Concepts - Flashcards

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Class:POSI 2320 - FUNCT AMER GOVT
Subject:Political Science
University:Texas State University - San Marcos
Term:Fall 2010
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Politics Process by which we choose government officials and make decisions about public policy (pg. 3)
Government The body or bodies charged with making official policies for its citizens – formal institutions through which a land/people is ruled
Public Policy What gov decides to do or not to do (pg. 379) – governmental rules, laws, or expenditures that express the gov’s goals.
Democracy ruled by the people. 1) Direct Democracy – citizens participate 2) Representative Democracy – vote for people to represent us
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Monarchy ruled by an inherited leader. 1) Constitutional monarchy – Queen is figure head and parliament rules
Oligarchy ruled by the few
Ideology and Ideologies ideas, values, and beliefs about how gov should operate (pg 7) – ordered set of political beliefs
Robert Dahl’s Ideals of Democracy 1) Effective Participation 2) Voting Equality 3) Enlightened Understanding 4) Control of the Agenda 5) Inclusion o f Adults
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Robert Dahl’s Institutions of Democracy “real” 1) Elected officials 2) Free, fair, and frequent elections (to keep elected officials accountable) 3) Freedom of Expression 4) Alternative sources of information 5) Associational autonomy 6) Inclusive citizenship
Political socialization People adopt attitudes, values, beliefs, and/or opinions of their political culture (pg 129)
Agents of socialization 1) Family 2) Education 3) Religious Institutions 4) Voluntary Associations 5) Media 6) Government
Political Culture the dominant values, beliefs, and attitudes of a political community. Political Culture in the U.S. 1) Liberty 2) Individualism 3) Equality 4) Private Property 5) Democracy
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State Political Culture (pg 134) 1) Moralistic – citizens work with gov to achieve same goals of the community 2) Individualistic – limited gov primarily for safety/security 3) Traditionalistic – dominated by elites; limited role for gov; traditional values
Public Opinion Definition
Types of Surveys and Polls (pg 135) 1) Benchmark surveys – before race; get a feel 2) Trial heat surveys – person vs. person; top 5 3) Tracking polls – they track ‘during’; week to week 4) Push polls – phone/mail; unfair; try to change your opinion of something/someone 5) Exit Polls – as you leave the voting booth: who did you vote for? 6) Approval ratings – how well a candidate is doing
Dimensions of Public Opinion 1) Direction – agree/disagree; favor 2) Salience – importance of an issue (to you) 3) Intensity – how strong you feel about a topic 4) Stability – stable/unstable; stays the same or not 5) Informational support – how much you know on a topic
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Group differences in Public Opinion 1) Race and ethnic identity 2) Gender 3) Age: generational effects (130-131) national events effect views 4) Socioeconomic status
Content of Public Opinion 1) Political knowledge 2) Confidence in government 3) Trust (139) people who run gov have best interest of public 4) Efficacy (140-141) actions impact political process
Scientific Polling uses mathematical laws, statistics, to insure reliability. 1) Sample – individuals whose opinions are actually measured (136) 2) Populations – the people whose opinions are being estimated (136)
Sampling 1) Simple random sampling – pick one ‘person’ from every person 2) Systematic sampling – pick one person, then every 4th (or what ever number) 3) Accidental sampling – stopped at mall, etc. 4) Sampling error – can’t know if person represents entire population 5) Confidence intervals and margin of error – generally +/- 3% 6) Statistical significance – happens by chance if the same; if it is statistically significant, then there is a relationship 7) Sample selection – is sample representative of the population? 8) How responses are collected – email, text, phone 9) Response bias – who didn’t respond, and why? 10) Leading questions – how it is worded; neutral
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Political Participation (154-155) Intent of directly/indirectly influencing public policy; broad legal consequences for entire community ------------------ Voting, attending party conventions, campaigning, advocacy, protesting, boycotting, contributing money, contacting elected officials, involvement with political organization, being an elected official, litigation, lobbying
Access to Resources unequal distribution of resources; some are in better position to take political action than others (155-156) ex. Time, money, skill ------------------ Family wealth/income, education, religious institutions, workplace, race and gender
Political engagement (158) psychological predisposition toward/interest in politics ----------------------- Political interest; Information; Efficacy; Strength of Party Identification
Mobilization (Direct and Indirect) (159) process whereby citizens are alerted to participatory opportunities and encouraged to become involved 1) Direct mobilization – candidate/party personally invite you to participate 2) Indirect mobilization – networks/friends get you to participate
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Voting and Turnout (168 or 161 ?) Turnout increases with increases in education, wealth, and/or age. Regionally, east/west coasts have higher turnout; south has lower rates of participation -------------- Factors influencing turnout 1) When you must register to vote 2) When elections are held 3) Number of parties 4) Number and frequency of elections 5) Type of election
Voting History in Texas 1) Poll taxes (1902-1964) 2) White Primary (1923-1944) 3) Annual Registration (ended 1971) 4) Racial Gerrymandering – cracking and packing 5) Democratic party dominance (1874-1961)
Remedies to Increase Participation 1) Keep polls open longer 2) Make election day a holiday 3) Same day registration 4) Increase vote-by-mail, early voting; similar opportunities 5) Compulsory voting laws 6) Increase educational opportunities
Debate on Photo ID law Definition
Generated by Koofers.com
Redistricting and Debate (269) the practice of drawing congressional district boundaries to accord with population changes; happens every 10 years ---------------- Killers d’s in 2003 – Tom Delay. In 2006 they upheld the 2003 redistricting (minus district 23 LUAC vs Perry)
Interest Groups (177) narrow focus; any formally organized association that seeks to influence public policy
Madison’s view of Interest groups federalist #10; he worried about FACTIONS; his solution: diffuse their influences and divide public policy
Types of Interest Groups 1) Economic (business/trade assoc., labor unions, professional) 2) Public interest 3) Environmental 4) “Good Government” 5) Ideology 6) Religious Interests 7) Civil Rights 8) Single Issue Groups 9) Think Tanks 10) Governmental Units
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Incentives (Interest Groups) 1) Material Incentives – AARP 2) Solidarity Incentives – Sierra Club 3) Purposive Incentives 4) Informational Incentives – NRA
Lobbying tactic for influencing public decisions for private purposes, usually employing personal contact with elected officials (178) 1) Testifying before committees 2) Meet legislators individually 3) Assist legislators in drafting bills
Political Parties (203) broad focus; organization created for purpose of winning elections…
Pluralist Theory & Elite Theory 1) Pluralist Theory – (5) view posited that various groups and coalitions vie for government favor 2) Elite Theory – (5) wealthy and well education citizens exercise disproportion
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Iron Triangle more exclusive than issue networks – decision making structure who create mutual beneficial policies (187) interest groups, committees, and executive agencies
Issue Networks (188-189) includes policy experts; lobbyists, congress bureaucrats from think tanks and universities
Revolving Door back and forth movement of individuals between government and interest group employment (184-185)
Political Action Committees (PACs) financing campaign – organized financial arms of interest groups used to collect and distribute money to candidates for elected office (190-191)
Generated by Koofers.com
Grassroots Mobilization organizing citizens to exert direct pressure on public officials in support of the group’s policy preferences (192)
Interest Groups in Texas Powerful Interests (from most powerful to least) 1) Business/Trade – MOST POWERFUL 2) Agricultural/Agribusiness Interest 3) Professional 4) Unions – LEAST POWERFUL
Outside/Inside strategy 1) Outside: outside of legislature/congress; get PEOPLE involved – run ads 2) Inside: lobbying legislature
Mass Media total array of mass comm., including television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and the internet (237) 1) Broadcast – radio/tv 2) Print – newspapers/magazines 3) Internet
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History of the Media ?
The Media Today ?
Hard News & Soft News 1) Hard News – serious issues, politics, economy, war – usually up to date, factual 2) Soft News – human interest, entertain, celebs, art, sports, lifestyle
Equal Time Rule (240-241)
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Fairness Doctrine (240-241)
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 PoliticsProcess by which we choose government officials and make decisions about public policy (pg. 3)
 GovernmentThe body or bodies charged with making official policies for its citizens – formal institutions through which a land/people is ruled
 Public PolicyWhat gov decides to do or not to do (pg. 379) – governmental rules, laws, or expenditures that express the gov’s goals.
 Democracyruled by the people.

1) Direct Democracy – citizens participate
2) Representative Democracy – vote for people to represent us
 Monarchyruled by an inherited leader.

1) Constitutional monarchy – Queen is figure head and parliament rules
 Oligarchyruled by the few
 Ideology and Ideologiesideas, values, and beliefs about how gov should operate (pg 7) – ordered set of political beliefs
 Robert Dahl’s Ideals of Democracy1) Effective Participation
2) Voting Equality
3) Enlightened Understanding
4) Control of the Agenda
5) Inclusion o f Adults
 Robert Dahl’s Institutions of Democracy “real”

1) Elected officials
2) Free, fair, and frequent elections (to keep elected officials accountable)
3) Freedom of Expression
4) Alternative sources of information
5) Associational autonomy
6) Inclusive citizenship
 Political socializationPeople adopt attitudes, values, beliefs, and/or opinions of their political culture (pg 129)
 Agents of socialization1) Family
2) Education
3) Religious Institutions
4) Voluntary Associations
5) Media
6) Government
 Political Culturethe dominant values, beliefs, and attitudes of a political community.


Political Culture in the U.S.
1) Liberty
2) Individualism
3) Equality
4) Private Property
5) Democracy
 State Political Culture(pg 134)

1) Moralistic – citizens work with gov to achieve same goals of the community

2) Individualistic – limited gov primarily for safety/security

3) Traditionalistic – dominated by elites; limited role for gov; traditional values
 Public OpinionDefinition
 Types of Surveys and Polls(pg 135)
1) Benchmark surveys – before race; get a feel
2) Trial heat surveys – person vs. person; top 5
3) Tracking polls – they track ‘during’; week to week
4) Push polls – phone/mail; unfair; try to change your opinion of something/someone
5) Exit Polls – as you leave the voting booth: who did you vote for?
6) Approval ratings – how well a candidate is doing
 Dimensions of Public Opinion1) Direction – agree/disagree; favor
2) Salience – importance of an issue (to you)
3) Intensity – how strong you feel about a topic
4) Stability – stable/unstable; stays the same or not
5) Informational support – how much you know on a topic
 Group differences in Public Opinion1) Race and ethnic identity
2) Gender
3) Age: generational effects (130-131) national events effect views
4) Socioeconomic status
 Content of Public Opinion1) Political knowledge
2) Confidence in government
3) Trust (139) people who run gov have best interest of public
4) Efficacy (140-141) actions impact political process
 Scientific Pollinguses mathematical laws, statistics, to insure reliability.

1) Sample – individuals whose opinions are actually measured (136)
2) Populations – the people whose opinions are being estimated (136)
 Sampling1) Simple random sampling – pick one ‘person’ from every person
2) Systematic sampling – pick one person, then every 4th (or what ever number)
3) Accidental sampling – stopped at mall, etc.
4) Sampling error – can’t know if person represents entire population
5) Confidence intervals and margin of error – generally +/- 3%
6) Statistical significance – happens by chance if the same; if it is statistically significant, then there is a relationship
7) Sample selection – is sample representative of the population?
8) How responses are collected – email, text, phone
9) Response bias – who didn’t respond, and why?
10) Leading questions – how it is worded; neutral
 Political Participation (154-155) Intent of directly/indirectly influencing public policy; broad legal consequences for entire community ------------------ Voting, attending party conventions, campaigning, advocacy, protesting, boycotting, contributing money, contacting elected officials, involvement with political organization, being an elected official, litigation, lobbying
 Access to Resourcesunequal distribution of resources; some are in better position to take political action than others (155-156) ex. Time, money, skill

------------------ Family wealth/income, education, religious institutions, workplace, race and gender
 Political engagement(158) psychological predisposition toward/interest in politics

----------------------- Political interest; Information; Efficacy; Strength of Party Identification
 Mobilization (Direct and Indirect)(159) process whereby citizens are alerted to participatory opportunities and encouraged to become involved

1) Direct mobilization – candidate/party personally invite you to participate
2) Indirect mobilization – networks/friends get you to participate
 Voting and Turnout(168 or 161 ?) Turnout increases with increases in education, wealth, and/or age. Regionally, east/west coasts have higher turnout; south has lower rates of participation

-------------- Factors influencing turnout
1) When you must register to vote
2) When elections are held
3) Number of parties
4) Number and frequency of elections
5) Type of election
 Voting History in Texas 1) Poll taxes (1902-1964)
2) White Primary (1923-1944)
3) Annual Registration (ended 1971)
4) Racial Gerrymandering – cracking and packing
5) Democratic party dominance (1874-1961)
 Remedies to Increase Participation1) Keep polls open longer
2) Make election day a holiday
3) Same day registration
4) Increase vote-by-mail, early voting; similar opportunities
5) Compulsory voting laws
6) Increase educational opportunities
 Debate on Photo ID lawDefinition
 Redistricting and Debate(269) the practice of drawing congressional district boundaries to accord with population changes; happens every 10 years

---------------- Killers d’s in 2003 – Tom Delay. In 2006 they upheld the 2003 redistricting (minus district 23 LUAC vs Perry)
 Interest Groups (177) narrow focus; any formally organized association that seeks to influence public policy
 Madison’s view of Interest groupsfederalist #10; he worried about FACTIONS; his solution: diffuse their influences and divide public policy
 Types of Interest Groups1) Economic (business/trade assoc., labor unions, professional)
2) Public interest
3) Environmental
4) “Good Government”
5) Ideology
6) Religious Interests
7) Civil Rights
8) Single Issue Groups
9) Think Tanks
10) Governmental Units
 Incentives (Interest Groups)1) Material Incentives – AARP
2) Solidarity Incentives – Sierra Club
3) Purposive Incentives
4) Informational Incentives – NRA
 Lobbyingtactic for influencing public decisions for private purposes, usually employing personal contact with elected officials (178)

1) Testifying before committees
2) Meet legislators individually
3) Assist legislators in drafting bills
 Political Parties(203) broad focus; organization created for purpose of winning elections…
 Pluralist Theory & Elite Theory1) Pluralist Theory – (5) view posited that various groups and coalitions vie for government favor

2) Elite Theory – (5) wealthy and well education citizens exercise disproportion
 Iron Trianglemore exclusive than issue networks – decision making structure who create mutual beneficial policies (187) interest groups, committees, and executive agencies
 Issue Networks(188-189) includes policy experts; lobbyists, congress bureaucrats from think tanks and universities
 Revolving Doorback and forth movement of individuals between government and interest group employment (184-185)
 Political Action Committees (PACs)financing campaign – organized financial arms of interest groups used to collect and distribute money to candidates for elected office (190-191)
 Grassroots Mobilizationorganizing citizens to exert direct pressure on public officials in support of the group’s policy preferences (192)
 Interest Groups in TexasPowerful Interests (from most powerful to least)
1) Business/Trade – MOST POWERFUL
2) Agricultural/Agribusiness Interest
3) Professional
4) Unions – LEAST POWERFUL
 Outside/Inside strategy1) Outside: outside of legislature/congress; get PEOPLE involved – run ads
2) Inside: lobbying legislature
 Mass Mediatotal array of mass comm., including television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and the internet (237)
1) Broadcast – radio/tv
2) Print – newspapers/magazines
3) Internet
 History of the Media?
 The Media Today?
 Hard News & Soft News1) Hard News – serious issues, politics, economy, war – usually up to date, factual
2) Soft News – human interest, entertain, celebs, art, sports, lifestyle
 Equal Time Rule(240-241)
 Fairness Doctrine(240-241)
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