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PSC 100 Lecture 3 Notecards - Flashcards

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Class:PSC 100 - Cognitive Psychology
Subject:Psychology
University:University of California - Davis
Term:Winter 2011
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Along with horizontal cells, they make single lateral connections among adjacent areas of the retina in the middle layers of cells amacrine cells
Based on the receipt of sensory information in three dimensions from both eyes Binocular depth cues
Make dual connections forward and outward to the ganglion cells, as well as backward and inward to the third layer of retinal cells Bipolar cells
Data-driven (i.e., stimulus-driven) theories Bottom up theories
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One of the two kinds of photoreceptors in the eye; less numerous, shorter, thicker, and more highly concentrated in the foveal region of the retina than in the periphery of the retina than are rods Cones
Virtually nonfunctional in dim light, but highly effective in bright light and essential to color vision Cones
The perceiver builds (constructs) a cognitive understanding (perception) of a stimulus; he or she uses sensory information as the foundation for the structure but also uses other sources of information to build the perception Constructive perception
The influence of the surrounding environment on perception Context effects
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The distance from a surface, usually using your own body as a reference surface when speaking in terms of depth perception Depth
Belief that the array of information in our sensory receptors, including the sensory context, is all we need to perceive anything Direct perception theory
What stands out from versus what recedes into the background Figure-ground
Part of the eye located in the center of the retina that is largely responsible for the sharp central vision people use in activities such as reading or watching television or movies Fovea
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Kind of neuron usually situated near the inner surface of the retina of the eye; receives visual information from photoreceptors by way of bipolar cells and amacrine cells Ganglion cells
Send visual information from the retina to several different parts of the brain, such as the thalamus and the hypothalamus ganglion cells
Based on the notion that the whole differs from the sum of its individual parts Gestalt approach to form perception
Along with amacrine cells, they make single lateral connections among adjacent areas of the retina in the middle layer of cells Horizontal cells
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Tendency to perceive any given visual array in a way that most simply organizes the disparate elements into a stable and coherent form Law of Pragnanz
Can be represented in just two dimensions and observed with just one eye Monocular depth cues
The individual stores a representation of the object, independent of its appearance to the viewer Object-centered representation
The nerve that transmits information from the retina to the brain Optic nerve
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The set of processes by which we recognize, organize, and make sense of the sensations we receive from environmental stimuli Perception
Occurs when our perception of an object remains the same even when proximal sensation of the distal object changes Perceptual constancy
Chemical substances that absorb light, thereby starting the complex transduction process that transforms physical electromagnetic energy into an electrochemical neural impulse Photopigments
Rods and cones contain different types of __________; different typs of these absorb differing amounts of light and may detect different hues Photopigments
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The third layer of the retina contains the _________, which transduce light energy into electrochemical energy Photoreceptors
A sort of average of a class of related objects or patterns, which integrates all the most typical (most frequently observed) features of the class Prototype
The belief that we quickly recognize objects by observing the edges of objects and then decomposing the objects into geons Recognition-by-components (RBC) theory
A network of neurons extending over most of the back (posterior) surface of the interior of the eye Retina
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Where electromagnetic light energy is transduced-- that is, converted-- into neural electrochemical impulses Retina
Light-sensitive photoreceptors in the retina of the eye that provide peripheral vision and the ability to se objects at night or dim light; not color sensitive Rods
Highly detailed models for patterns we potentially might recognize Templates
Driven by high-level cognitive processes, existing knowledge, and prior expectations Top-down theories
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An individual stores the way the object looks to him or her Viewer-centered representation
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 Along with horizontal cells, they make single lateral connections among adjacent areas of the retina in the middle layers of cellsamacrine cells
 Based on the receipt of sensory information in three dimensions from both eyesBinocular depth cues
 Make dual connections forward and outward to the ganglion cells, as well as backward and inward to the third layer of retinal cellsBipolar cells
 Data-driven (i.e., stimulus-driven) theoriesBottom up theories
 One of the two kinds of photoreceptors in the eye; less numerous, shorter, thicker, and more highly concentrated in the foveal region of the retina than in the periphery of the retina than are rodsCones
 Virtually nonfunctional in dim light, but highly effective in bright light and essential to color visionCones
 The perceiver builds (constructs) a cognitive understanding (perception) of a stimulus; he or she uses sensory information as the foundation for the structure but also uses other sources of information to build the perceptionConstructive perception
 The influence of the surrounding environment on perceptionContext effects
 The distance from a surface, usually using your own body as a reference surface when speaking in terms of depth perceptionDepth
 Belief that the array of information in our sensory receptors, including the sensory context, is all we need to perceive anythingDirect perception theory
 What stands out from versus what recedes into the backgroundFigure-ground
 Part of the eye located in the center of the retina that is largely responsible for the sharp central vision people use in activities such as reading or watching television or moviesFovea
 Kind of neuron usually situated near the inner surface of the retina of the eye; receives visual information from photoreceptors by way of bipolar cells and amacrine cellsGanglion cells
 Send visual information from the retina to several different parts of the brain, such as the thalamus and the hypothalamusganglion cells
 Based on the notion that the whole differs from the sum of its individual partsGestalt approach to form perception
 Along with amacrine cells, they make single lateral connections among adjacent areas of the retina in the middle layer of cellsHorizontal cells
 Tendency to perceive any given visual array in a way that most simply organizes the disparate elements into a stable and coherent formLaw of Pragnanz
 Can be represented in just two dimensions and observed with just one eyeMonocular depth cues
 The individual stores a representation of the object, independent of its appearance to the viewerObject-centered representation
 The nerve that transmits information from the retina to the brainOptic nerve
 The set of processes by which we recognize, organize, and make sense of the sensations we receive from environmental stimuliPerception
 Occurs when our perception of an object remains the same even when proximal sensation of the distal object changesPerceptual constancy
 Chemical substances that absorb light, thereby starting the complex transduction process that transforms physical electromagnetic energy into an electrochemical neural impulsePhotopigments
 Rods and cones contain different types of __________; different typs of these absorb differing amounts of light and may detect different huesPhotopigments
 The third layer of the retina contains the _________, which transduce light energy into electrochemical energyPhotoreceptors
 A sort of average of a class of related objects or patterns, which integrates all the most typical (most frequently observed) features of the classPrototype
 The belief that we quickly recognize objects by observing the edges of objects and then decomposing the objects into geonsRecognition-by-components (RBC) theory
 A network of neurons extending over most of the back (posterior) surface of the interior of the eyeRetina
 Where electromagnetic light energy is transduced-- that is, converted-- into neural electrochemical impulsesRetina
 Light-sensitive photoreceptors in the retina of the eye that provide peripheral vision and the ability to se objects at night or dim light; not color sensitiveRods
 Highly detailed models for patterns we potentially might recognizeTemplates
 Driven by high-level cognitive processes, existing knowledge, and prior expectationsTop-down theories
 An individual stores the way the object looks to him or herViewer-centered representation
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