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Final Study Guide - Flashcards

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Class:PSCI 2223 - Introduction to International Relations
Subject:Political Science
University:University of Colorado - Boulder
Term:Fall 2010
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Kenneth Waltz's 3 images First Image: Human Nature. Second Image: Internal Organization of States. Third Image: State actions are imposed by the circumstances that states exist in.
Structural Anarchy Government is less involved.
John Gaddis: "Long Peace" There havn't been any big wars since WWII
Long Cycles Ever 50-100 years there is expected to be a major war.
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Imperial Overstreatch High over reach of a governments resources on an international level. A state must know its boundaries. British control of India
Power Transition When a rising challenger approximates the power the dominate state. How power is transferred from power to power throughout history. US Revolutionary war with Britain.
Interdependence A change in one part of the system alters another part of the system. When looking at one decision you must see how it affects will spread. Correlations between Economics and Ecology
Sovereignty Independence from outside influence. States have to right to take care of their own issues without any help from any other state. The US is able to tell another State to not interfere with their issues.
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Relative Deprivation Feeling deprived of what you expected to receive. Those with different expectations will respond differently to the same outcome. Pre WWI Germany felt it was not receiving enough recognition.
Failed States States that are internationally recognized but cannot provide their citizens with the benefits of a sovereign state. Since sovereignty is lost other states must step in to help. Somalia
Ethnopolitical Conflict Conflict between ethnically and culturally distinct peoples. Can not be solved with the end of a war because the conflict is engrained within the culture. Sudanese conflict between African and Arabic.
External Assistance countries with more resources help countries with less.
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International Terrorism Definition
State Terrorism A State's terrorism against its own population. A way for a state to gain control over its population through fear. Burma's Army.
State-sponsored Terrorism International terrorism sponsored by the state. A way for a state to gain international power through fear. The FARC
Information Warfare Sending viruses to another country, hackers.
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Arms Race An action-reaction process of acquiring arms. Weapons can pile up quickly, leading to possible horrific ends. Cold War
Military-Industry Complex Parts of society that benefit from spending on national defense. Higher defense pay because army officials want more money for selfish reasons.
Nuclear Weapons Weapons that use massive amounts of energy released when the atomic nuclei is split. Could cause tragic results that would affect the world for generations or end life completely. Hiroshima
Weapons of Mass Destruction Immensely Destructive Weapons. WMD's have changed the face of war as a whole. Nuclear. Chemical, and Biological Weapons
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First Strike Capabilities The ability to launch and initial nuclear attack. States should be treated carefully. The US Strike on Nagasaki
Second Strike Capabilities The ability to respond to a nuclear attack with a response nuclear attack. These states hold much Nuclear capabilities and must be treated very carefully. The US currently has Second Strike Capabilities.
Proliferation The increase of the amount of state and non-state actors that have a certain class of weapons. Must be considered when interacting with one of these states. US, Russia, China, Britain, North Korea...
Security Dilemma One states security equals another states insecurity. How will ones states attempt at safety negatively affect another state. US security from Iraqi terrorism equals the invasion of Iraq.
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Prisoners' Dilemma A game that can be even by mutual cooperation but can end with one ending worse than the other. How must a individual be treated when they may hold the cards later on.
Tit for Tat A game where each player treats the other how they treated them in the last round. Think about what you may need form this individual in the future before you treat them badly.
Nuclear Triad Nuclear force consisting of bomb-carrying airplanes, land-based missiles, and submarine based missiles. This state holds great weapon power and must be carefully treated. The US
Chicken Who will give in first. A game of seeing which state's power can last the longer. The Cold War.
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Brinkmanship A contest that goes to the point where the players lives are threatened. A primordial way of deciding who is most advantageous. The Cold War.
Arms Control Agreements to limit the production or use of weapons. A way to protect citizens and deter war. Arms control law.
Disarmament A process to reduce the number of weapons. Usually occurring after a war when peace is trying to be implemented. The RUF turning in their weapons.
Mutually Assured Destruction Where neither state can attack the other without being attacked themselves. Both states are in dead lock because they are equal in strength. The Cold War.
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Counteryvalue When a state is attacking another state and they attack civilians.
Counterforce When a state is attacking another state and they attack the army.
Shadow of the Future Actions today will affect tomorrow.
Reciprocity An actor responds in the way they were treated in the last round. You may never know when you will need something from that state in the future. Cross the river before you insult the crocodile.
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Jus ad bellum Justice before war Rules that must be followed leading up to war Just Cause
Jus in bello Justice in War Rules that must be followed within war No discrimination
Consequentialism All's well that ends well. The ends justify the means. No matter the amount of deaths as long as peace is reached it is acceptable. Nazi murder of the Jews.
Pacifism Rejects the use of force as an instrument of national policy. This form of military thought is seen as realists as an utopian idea. Costa Rice.
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Just war tradition Set of principals surrounding war. These rules should be followed by all if they hope to not be reprimanded. Jus ad bellum and Jus in bello
Self Defense Only using force after being attacked. This is a country that will not go out of its way to inflict harm to others. US entering WWII after Pearl Harbor
Preemptive use of force attack before another state attacks you.
Preemptive War declare war before the other state does.
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Discrimination Mistreating and individual because of a personal trait. One of the principals of Just War tradition is to not discriminate. Hutu attack upon Tutsi.
Proportionality Good intentions out weigh the negative results. One of the principals of Just War tradition. Where the lives lost at Hiroshima worth the good?
Double Effect non-combatant deaths equal to combatant deaths. Should be considered when looking at whither the war was just. 1950-present: 10 civillian deaths for one soldier.
Reprisals Usually unlawful act that is in response to previous unlawful act. A reason for an unlawful act to be excused. Government troops in response to the RUF.
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Law of Nations common law between nations.
Natural Law Laws that are given to all human beings. Laws that are inherently given to all and should be respected. Right to life.
Legal Positivism International law is made up of customs, agreements, and treaties that states make. There are no natural laws but are all defined by states. Life is a gift given by society.
Treaty Formal agreement signed by states that states rights and obligations. Both states must adhere to the agreement of face consequences. Treaty of Westphalia
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Customary Law Common practice because states feel the need to conform. States are able to agree upon a law that is seen as universal to all/ The end of slavery.
Communitarian Ideas of justice emerge from historical, cultural, and religious experiences. There are no inherent rights but only rights that have been learned through experiences. Slavery is bad.
Human Rights Rights that should be guaranteed to all human beings. Human rights grievances are seen as horrific because all people should be treated equally. The Right to Life.
Humanitarian Intervention the use of military force without the state in questions consent in order to save human rights. In relation to Universal Jurisdiction. UN Intervention during the Rwandan Genocide.
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Universal Jurisdiction When a large human rights grievance occurs it is the duty of the world to respond. While Soveirnghty does exist it is neglected once a state violates the human rights of its citizens it is a violation of all human beings so they are all responsible. Rwandan Genocide.
Sovereign Immunity The Immunity of state leaders to be prosecuted by other states. While NGO's like the UN and the ICC can prosecute other state leaders specific states cannot. Nuremberg Trails.
Collective Security All members of the international community agree to oppose one states security threat. While states have very different motives they are able to come together in the effort to save human lives. WWII
Peacekeeping the use of force for the use of conflict management. Usually involves creates a space for negotiations and beginning the peace process. UN Forces have done this many times.
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Human Security Security against: violence, human needs, and human rights. States must work together to eventually reach a state where all citizens of the world have these rights. Police, Social security, and a democratic government.
Structural Violence Deprivations enforced through repressing social and political systems that are resistant to change. A way to create change within a state without having to resort to force. Blockades.
Democratic Peace Peace is usually created in between democratic states. Because of a common ground with common agreements peace is more easily achieved. US and Britain.
OECD Highly developed countries.
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LCD lesser developed countries.
World Federalism Permanent peace can only be achieved through created a world government. States will only be able to agree once there is one universal power. The UN
Security Community A group of people within a community that have instituted practices to create peaceful change. These are the small steps in created universal peace. The US and Canada.
International Political Economy Combines political and economic behavior. A way of looking at the universal political and economic behavior.
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Economic Coercion A conflictual form of economic statecraft. Including tariffs, quota, and other restrictions of free trade. Blockade.
Defense-Industrial Base Government spends a lot of money on making sure the country is well defended.
Warfare War
Defense Conversion Converting the defense-industrial base to civilian production. Providing army production jobs to civilians. What brought the US out of the great depression.
Generated by Koofers.com
Defense Industrial Policy Spending more on infrastructure and economic strength.
Guns vs. Butter Army or domestic expenses. Menus are limited and therefor there must be a choice between goods for the military or goods for the people. Ammunition vs. Social Security
Dyads Pair of countries that are deomcratic.
Monads a democracy fights a non-democracy.
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Kant's "Perpetual Peace" When ordinary people are in control their governments are more inclined to avoid war. International Organization, Democracy, and Interdependence.
Pooled Sovereignty Governments knowingly, temporary giving up soveignty.
Security Community A community that has instituted practices to ensure peaceful change. People no longer think of war as a way of settling their differences.
Quantitive Easing Today’s voters are the beneficiaries, tomorrows voters will have to pay.
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Competitive Devaluation trying to drive down the value of currency.
Bretton Woods Regime A series of agreements to establish mutual expectations. IBRD (international bank of reconstruction and development) IMF (International Monetary Fund) GATT (General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade)
Public/Common Goods Goods that are available to all the public no matter their circumstances. Non-Divisible. Non-Excludable.
Free-Rider Dilemma Those who do not support public goods but still benefit form them. PBS.
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Collective Action Definition
Comparative Advantage The act of specializing in goods that a state can produce rather efficiently. Provides a way to boost a states economy for the present and the future. Cars in Japan.
Division on Labor labor divided between states to make it more efficient.
Mercantilism Economic policy in 16th and 17th century where trade surpasses were in the form of gold and silver in order to maximize wealth and power. This way states encourages exports and discouraged imports. Occurred in Europe.
Generated by Koofers.com
Sensitivity Actions or policies in one state affect another state. when two states are very closely connected. The US and Iraq.
Vulnerability A state must absorb higher cost because it cannot pursue alternative policies. A restricted menu may cost a state more. The US only has certain options to attain oil from.
Outsourcing National jobs are being exported. Sweatshops.
Race to the Bottom Keeping up with other workers who will work longer hours for less money. china.
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Trade Blocs Areas where there is no trade between certain states.
digital revolution Spread of modern day technology.
economic liberalism Importance of Private ownership, free markets, and the unimpeded flow of goods, capital, and labor.
autarky minimizing trade in favor of domestic production. a way to meet needs of the public while creating jobs.
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tariffs Tax or duty put on a good either to create revenue or regulate flow. A way for a government to affect a good or state indirectly.
nontariff barriers to trade The same goal as a tariffs but through a quota,subsidy, boycott or embargo.
economic nationalism Decrease demand for foreign goods. Support of domestic industry, and to support jobs.
monetary regime Help states manage their exchange rates, reserve currencies, and movement of international capital.
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trade regime Help states manage trade.
export oriented industrialization relying on exports mor than imports.
import substitution industrialization Promoting industrial development by opting for imported goods rather than domestically created ones.
human development index Literacy and Life expectancy.
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economic integration growing a smaller national economy into a larger one.
customs union National economies that impose a tariff on a country outside of the group.
free trade area A group of national economies in which there are no tariffs or goods among them.
common market A group of national economies where movement of labor and capital have been removed.
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monetary union A group of national economies that have adopted a common currency, central banking system, and monetary policy. European Union.
intergovernmentalism Authoritative decisions are made by representatives of states acting as their governments. The UN.
supranationalism Authoritative decisions are made by representatives of an international organization and are binding of nation states. The UN.
exchange rate mechanism keep exchange rates at roughly the same level.
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Eurozone 12 European Union states that have adopted the Euro.
NAFTA North American Free Trade Association
assurance game Moving from socially suboptimal to socially optimal requires some confidence.
transaction costs Cost to negotiate, monitor, and enforce contracts.
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property rights Freely chose how to use or dispense a particular good or service.
regionalism economic transactions or coordinating foreign economic policies of states in a regional area.
globalization States transactions are decreasingly constrained by boundaries and authority of national governments.
transnational relations Transactions that bypass the government of states and directly affect the domestic environment.
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global civil society non-governmental entities, including individuals, groups, and institutions.
complex interdependence interdependence elevates the importance of non-state actors, international economic issues, and resolution of issues using non-military means.
common pool resources Natural resources that do no belong to one state so they belong to all.
externality The benefit or cost of goods for free-riders or public goods.
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tragedy of the commons People take more from the public troft than they return.
intrinsic responsibility Returning what you take from the public 'troft'
forced ride has to deal with the bad actions of others.
public bads Acid Rain from factories
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north-south gap the disparity in gap between the industrialized north hemisphere and undeveloped south hemisphere.
modernization theory The under developed south is because of traditional society.
world system theory Relationship between dominance and dependency between north and south, center and periphery.
terms of trade Value of exported goods compared to imported.
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dependency theory Underdeveloped south is due to unequal economic industry.
neoimperialism post-colonial critics of developed countries' involvement in the developing world.
basic needs strategy combining local economic incentives with the provision of essentials to the public like food, health care, and education.
cartel a group of countries that coordinate production and distribution.
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contagion Spreading currency crisis driven by trade patterns and geography.
crony capitalism large ammounts of short term foreign debt
sustainable development Pursuit of human, economic, and social development while still supporting the ecology.
End of History Fukuyama. Human development has come to an end, the end of moving foreword.
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Clash of Civilizations people not coming together but resorting to 'tribalism'
McWorld/Jihad Globalism vs. Tribalism. Spread of western consumerism.
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 Kenneth Waltz's 3 imagesFirst Image: Human Nature.

Second Image: Internal Organization of States.

Third Image: State actions are imposed by the circumstances that states exist in.
 Structural AnarchyGovernment is less involved.
 John Gaddis: "Long Peace"There havn't been any big wars since WWII
 Long CyclesEver 50-100 years there is expected to be a major war.
 Imperial OverstreatchHigh over reach of a governments resources on an international level.

A state must know its boundaries.

British control of India

 Power TransitionWhen a rising challenger approximates the power the dominate state.

How power is transferred from power to power throughout history.

US Revolutionary war with Britain.
 InterdependenceA change in one part of the system alters another part of the system.

When looking at one decision you must see how it affects will spread.

Correlations between Economics and Ecology
 SovereigntyIndependence from outside influence.

States have to right to take care of their own issues without any help from any other state.

The US is able to tell another State to not interfere with their issues.
 Relative DeprivationFeeling deprived of what you expected to receive.

Those with different expectations will respond differently to the same outcome.

Pre WWI Germany felt it was not receiving enough recognition.
 Failed StatesStates that are internationally recognized but cannot provide their citizens with the benefits of a sovereign state.

Since sovereignty is lost other states must step in to help.

Somalia
 Ethnopolitical ConflictConflict between ethnically and culturally distinct peoples.

Can not be solved with the end of a war because the conflict is engrained within the culture.

Sudanese conflict between African and Arabic.
 External Assistancecountries with more resources help countries with less.
 International TerrorismDefinition
 State TerrorismA State's terrorism against its own population.

A way for a state to gain control over its population through fear.

Burma's Army.
 State-sponsored TerrorismInternational terrorism sponsored by the state.

A way for a state to gain international power through fear.

The FARC
 Information WarfareSending viruses to another country, hackers.
 Arms RaceAn action-reaction process of acquiring arms.

Weapons can pile up quickly, leading to possible horrific ends.

Cold War
 Military-Industry ComplexParts of society that benefit from spending on national defense.

Higher defense pay because army officials want more money for selfish reasons.
 Nuclear WeaponsWeapons that use massive amounts of energy released when the atomic nuclei is split.

Could cause tragic results that would affect the world for generations or end life completely.

Hiroshima
 Weapons of Mass DestructionImmensely Destructive Weapons.

WMD's have changed the face of war as a whole.

Nuclear. Chemical, and Biological Weapons
 First Strike Capabilities The ability to launch and initial nuclear attack.

States should be treated carefully.

The US Strike on Nagasaki
 Second Strike CapabilitiesThe ability to respond to a nuclear attack with a response nuclear attack.

These states hold much Nuclear capabilities and must be treated very carefully.

The US currently has Second Strike Capabilities.
 ProliferationThe increase of the amount of state and non-state actors that have a certain class of weapons.

Must be considered when interacting with one of these states.

US, Russia, China, Britain, North Korea...
 Security DilemmaOne states security equals another states insecurity.

How will ones states attempt at safety negatively affect another state.

US security from Iraqi terrorism equals the invasion of Iraq.
 Prisoners' DilemmaA game that can be even by mutual cooperation but can end with one ending worse than the other.

How must a individual be treated when they may hold the cards later on.
 Tit for TatA game where each player treats the other how they treated them in the last round.

Think about what you may need form this individual in the future before you treat them badly.
 Nuclear TriadNuclear force consisting of bomb-carrying airplanes, land-based missiles, and submarine based missiles.

This state holds great weapon power and must be carefully treated.

The US
 ChickenWho will give in first.

A game of seeing which state's power can last the longer.

The Cold War.

 BrinkmanshipA contest that goes to the point where the players lives are threatened.

A primordial way of deciding who is most advantageous.

The Cold War.
 Arms ControlAgreements to limit the production or use of weapons.

A way to protect citizens and deter war.

Arms control law.
 DisarmamentA process to reduce the number of weapons.

Usually occurring after a war when peace is trying to be implemented.

The RUF turning in their weapons.
 Mutually Assured DestructionWhere neither state can attack the other without being attacked themselves.

Both states are in dead lock because they are equal in strength.

The Cold War.
 CounteryvalueWhen a state is attacking another state and they attack civilians.
 CounterforceWhen a state is attacking another state and they attack the army.
 Shadow of the FutureActions today will affect tomorrow.
 ReciprocityAn actor responds in the way they were treated in the last round.

You may never know when you will need something from that state in the future.

Cross the river before you insult the crocodile.
 Jus ad bellumJustice before war

Rules that must be followed leading up to war

Just Cause
 Jus in belloJustice in War

Rules that must be followed within war

No discrimination
 ConsequentialismAll's well that ends well.

The ends justify the means. No matter the amount of deaths as long as peace is reached it is acceptable.

Nazi murder of the Jews.

 PacifismRejects the use of force as an instrument of national policy.

This form of military thought is seen as realists as an utopian idea.

Costa Rice.
 Just war traditionSet of principals surrounding war.

These rules should be followed by all if they hope to not be reprimanded.

Jus ad bellum and Jus in bello
 Self DefenseOnly using force after being attacked.

This is a country that will not go out of its way to inflict harm to others.

US entering WWII after Pearl Harbor
 Preemptive use of forceattack before another state attacks you.
 Preemptive Wardeclare war before the other state does.
 DiscriminationMistreating and individual because of a personal trait.

One of the principals of Just War tradition is to not discriminate.

Hutu attack upon Tutsi.
 ProportionalityGood intentions out weigh the negative results.

One of the principals of Just War tradition.

Where the lives lost at Hiroshima worth the good?
 Double Effectnon-combatant deaths equal to combatant deaths.

Should be considered when looking at whither the war was just.

1950-present: 10 civillian deaths for one soldier.
 ReprisalsUsually unlawful act that is in response to previous unlawful act.

A reason for an unlawful act to be excused.

Government troops in response to the RUF.
 Law of Nationscommon law between nations.
 Natural LawLaws that are given to all human beings.

Laws that are inherently given to all and should be respected.

Right to life.
 Legal PositivismInternational law is made up of customs, agreements, and treaties that states make.

There are no natural laws but are all defined by states.

Life is a gift given by society.
 TreatyFormal agreement signed by states that states rights and obligations.

Both states must adhere to the agreement of face consequences.

Treaty of Westphalia
 Customary LawCommon practice because states feel the need to conform.

States are able to agree upon a law that is seen as universal to all/

The end of slavery.
 CommunitarianIdeas of justice emerge from historical, cultural, and religious experiences.

There are no inherent rights but only rights that have been learned through experiences.

Slavery is bad.
 Human RightsRights that should be guaranteed to all human beings.

Human rights grievances are seen as horrific because all people should be treated equally.

The Right to Life.
 Humanitarian Interventionthe use of military force without the state in questions consent in order to save human rights.

In relation to Universal Jurisdiction.

UN Intervention during the Rwandan Genocide.
 Universal JurisdictionWhen a large human rights grievance occurs it is the duty of the world to respond.

While Soveirnghty does exist it is neglected once a state violates the human rights of its citizens it is a violation of all human beings so they are all responsible.

Rwandan Genocide.
 Sovereign ImmunityThe Immunity of state leaders to be prosecuted by other states.

While NGO's like the UN and the ICC can prosecute other state leaders specific states cannot.

Nuremberg Trails.
 Collective SecurityAll members of the international community agree to oppose one states security threat.

While states have very different motives they are able to come together in the effort to save human lives.

WWII
 Peacekeepingthe use of force for the use of conflict management.

Usually involves creates a space for negotiations and beginning the peace process.

UN Forces have done this many times.
 Human SecuritySecurity against: violence, human needs, and human rights.

States must work together to eventually reach a state where all citizens of the world have these rights.

Police, Social security, and a democratic government.
 Structural ViolenceDeprivations enforced through repressing social and political systems that are resistant to change.

A way to create change within a state without having to resort to force.

Blockades.
 Democratic PeacePeace is usually created in between democratic states.

Because of a common ground with common agreements peace is more easily achieved.

US and Britain.
 OECDHighly developed countries.
 LCDlesser developed countries.
 World FederalismPermanent peace can only be achieved through created a world government.

States will only be able to agree once there is one universal power.

The UN
 Security CommunityA group of people within a community that have instituted practices to create peaceful change.

These are the small steps in created universal peace.

The US and Canada.
 International Political EconomyCombines political and economic behavior.

A way of looking at the universal political and economic behavior.



 Economic CoercionA conflictual form of economic statecraft.

Including tariffs, quota, and other restrictions of free trade.

Blockade.
 Defense-Industrial BaseGovernment spends a lot of money on making sure the country is well defended.
 WarfareWar
 Defense ConversionConverting the defense-industrial base to civilian production.

Providing army production jobs to civilians.

What brought the US out of the great depression.
 Defense Industrial PolicySpending more on infrastructure and economic strength.
 Guns vs. ButterArmy or domestic expenses.

Menus are limited and therefor there must be a choice between goods for the military or goods for the people.

Ammunition vs. Social Security
 DyadsPair of countries that are deomcratic.
 Monadsa democracy fights a non-democracy.
 Kant's "Perpetual Peace"When ordinary people are in control their governments are more inclined to avoid war. International Organization, Democracy, and Interdependence.
 Pooled SovereigntyGovernments knowingly, temporary giving up soveignty.
 Security CommunityA community that has instituted practices to ensure peaceful change. People no longer think of war as a way of settling their differences.
 Quantitive EasingToday’s voters are the beneficiaries, tomorrows voters will have to pay.
 Competitive Devaluationtrying to drive down the value of currency.
 Bretton Woods RegimeA series of agreements to establish mutual expectations.
IBRD (international bank of reconstruction and development)
IMF (International Monetary Fund)
GATT (General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade)
 Public/Common GoodsGoods that are available to all the public no matter their circumstances. Non-Divisible. Non-Excludable.
 Free-Rider DilemmaThose who do not support public goods but still benefit form them. PBS.
 Collective ActionDefinition
 Comparative AdvantageThe act of specializing in goods that a state can produce rather efficiently. Provides a way to boost a states economy for the present and the future. Cars in Japan.
 Division on Laborlabor divided between states to make it more efficient.
 MercantilismEconomic policy in 16th and 17th century where trade surpasses were in the form of gold and silver in order to maximize wealth and power. This way states encourages exports and discouraged imports. Occurred in Europe.
 SensitivityActions or policies in one state affect another state. when two states are very closely connected. The US and Iraq.
 VulnerabilityA state must absorb higher cost because it cannot pursue alternative policies. A restricted menu may cost a state more. The US only has certain options to attain oil from.
 OutsourcingNational jobs are being exported. Sweatshops.
 Race to the BottomKeeping up with other workers who will work longer hours for less money. china.
 Trade BlocsAreas where there is no trade between certain states.
 digital revolutionSpread of modern day technology.
 economic liberalismImportance of Private ownership, free markets, and the unimpeded flow of goods, capital, and labor.
 autarkyminimizing trade in favor of domestic production. a way to meet needs of the public while creating jobs.
 tariffsTax or duty put on a good either to create revenue or regulate flow. A way for a government to affect a good or state indirectly.
 nontariff barriers to tradeThe same goal as a tariffs but through a quota,subsidy, boycott or embargo.
 economic nationalismDecrease demand for foreign goods. Support of domestic industry, and to support jobs.
 monetary regimeHelp states manage their exchange rates, reserve currencies, and movement of international capital.
 trade regimeHelp states manage trade.
 export oriented industrializationrelying on exports mor than imports.
 import substitution industrializationPromoting industrial development by opting for imported goods rather than domestically created ones.
 human development indexLiteracy and Life expectancy.
 economic integrationgrowing a smaller national economy into a larger one.
 customs unionNational economies that impose a tariff on a country outside of the group.
 free trade areaA group of national economies in which there are no tariffs or goods among them.
 common marketA group of national economies where movement of labor and capital have been removed.
 monetary unionA group of national economies that have adopted a common currency, central banking system, and monetary policy. European Union.
 intergovernmentalismAuthoritative decisions are made by representatives of states acting as their governments. The UN.
 supranationalismAuthoritative decisions are made by representatives of an international organization and are binding of nation states. The UN.
 exchange rate mechanismkeep exchange rates at roughly the same level.
 Eurozone12 European Union states that have adopted the Euro.
 NAFTANorth American Free Trade Association
 assurance gameMoving from socially suboptimal to socially optimal requires some confidence.
 transaction costsCost to negotiate, monitor, and enforce contracts.
 property rightsFreely chose how to use or dispense a particular good or service.
 regionalismeconomic transactions or coordinating foreign economic policies of states in a regional area.
 globalizationStates transactions are decreasingly constrained by boundaries and authority of national governments.
 transnational relationsTransactions that bypass the government of states and directly affect the domestic environment.
 global civil societynon-governmental entities, including individuals, groups, and institutions.
 complex interdependence interdependence elevates the importance of non-state actors, international economic issues, and resolution of issues using non-military means.
 common pool resourcesNatural resources that do no belong to one state so they belong to all.
 externalityThe benefit or cost of goods for free-riders or public goods.
 tragedy of the commonsPeople take more from the public troft than they return.
 intrinsic responsibilityReturning what you take from the public 'troft'
 forced ridehas to deal with the bad actions of others.
 public badsAcid Rain from factories
 north-south gapthe disparity in gap between the industrialized north hemisphere and undeveloped south hemisphere.
 modernization theoryThe under developed south is because of traditional society.
 world system theoryRelationship between dominance and dependency between north and south, center and periphery.
 terms of tradeValue of exported goods compared to imported.
 dependency theoryUnderdeveloped south is due to unequal economic industry.
 neoimperialismpost-colonial critics of developed countries' involvement in the developing world.
 basic needs strategycombining local economic incentives with the provision of essentials to the public like food, health care, and education.
 cartela group of countries that coordinate production and distribution.
 contagionSpreading currency crisis driven by trade patterns and geography.
 crony capitalismlarge ammounts of short term foreign debt
 sustainable developmentPursuit of human, economic, and social development while still supporting the ecology.
 End of HistoryFukuyama. Human development has come to an end, the end of moving foreword.
  Clash of Civilizationspeople not coming together but resorting to 'tribalism'
 McWorld/JihadGlobalism vs. Tribalism. Spread of western consumerism.
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