Koofers

Ch 2 - Flashcards

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Class:PSY 1013 - Introduction to Psychology
Subject:Psychology
University:University of Texas - San Antonio
Term:Fall 2011
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Debriefing a verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study that psychologists provide to people after the have participated in the study
informed consent

1.       a written agreement to participate in a study made by a person who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail

random sampling a technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
hypothesis

1.       a specific and testable prediction that is usually derived from a theory

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theory a hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs, usually in the form of a statement about the causal relationship between 2+ properties
external validity a characteristic of an experiment in which the IV and DV are operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way
internal validity

1.       the characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and dependent variable

dependent variable the variable that's measured in a study


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control group

1.       1 of the 2 groups of participants created by the manipulation of an IV in an experiment that’s not being exposed to the  stimulus being studied

experimantal group

1.       one of the 2 groups of participants created by the manipulation of an IV in an experiment; the experimental group is exposed to the stimulus being studied and the control group is not

independent variable the variable that is manipulated in an experiment
experiment

1.       a technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables

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third variable problem

1.       the fact that the causal relationship between 2 variables cannot be inferred from the correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of 3rd variable correlation

matched pairs

1.       an observational technique that involves matching each participant in the experimental group with a specific participant in the control group in order to eliminate the possibility that a third variable (not the IV) caused changes in the DV

matched sample

1.      an observational technique that involves matching the average of the participants in the experimental and control groups in order to eliminate the possibility that a third variable(and not the independent variable) caused changes in the dependent variable

third variable correlation the fact that a variables maybe correlated only because they are both caused by a third variable
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variable a property whose value can vary or change
correlation the “co-relationship” or pattern of co-variation between 2 variables, each of which has been measured several times
double-blind observation an observation whose true purpose is hidden from the researcher as well as from the participant
naturalistic observation a method of gathering scientific knowledge by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments
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demand characteristics those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think an observer wants or expects them to behave
sample

1.       the partial collection of people who actually were measured in a study

population

1.       the complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured

case method

1.       a method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual

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power the tendency for a measure to produce different results when it’s used to measure different things
reliability the tendency for a measure to produce the same result whenever its used to measure different things
validity

1.       the characteristics of an observation that allows one to draw accurate interferences from it

electromygraph (EMG)

1.       a device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person’s skin

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measure

1.       a device that can detect the measureable events to which an operational definition refers

operational definition

1.       a description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured

method

1.       a set of rules and techniques for observation that allows researchers to avoid the illusions, mistakes, and erroneous conclusions that simple observation can produce

empiricism  a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge comes only or primarily via sensory experience.

1.       originally a Greek school of medicine that stressed the importance of observation, and now generally used to describe any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects or events

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 Debriefinga verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study that psychologists provide to people after the have participated in the study
 informed consent

1.       a written agreement to participate in a study made by a person who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail

 random samplinga technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
 hypothesis

1.       a specific and testable prediction that is usually derived from a theory

 theorya hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs, usually in the form of a statement about the causal relationship between 2+ properties
 external validitya characteristic of an experiment in which the IV and DV are operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way
 internal validity

1.       the characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and dependent variable

 dependent variablethe variable that's measured in a study


 control group

1.       1 of the 2 groups of participants created by the manipulation of an IV in an experiment that’s not being exposed to the  stimulus being studied

 experimantal group

1.       one of the 2 groups of participants created by the manipulation of an IV in an experiment; the experimental group is exposed to the stimulus being studied and the control group is not

 independent variablethe variable that is manipulated in an experiment
 experiment

1.       a technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables

 third variable problem

1.       the fact that the causal relationship between 2 variables cannot be inferred from the correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of 3rd variable correlation

 matched pairs

1.       an observational technique that involves matching each participant in the experimental group with a specific participant in the control group in order to eliminate the possibility that a third variable (not the IV) caused changes in the DV

 matched sample

1.      an observational technique that involves matching the average of the participants in the experimental and control groups in order to eliminate the possibility that a third variable(and not the independent variable) caused changes in the dependent variable

 third variable correlationthe fact that a variables maybe correlated only because they are both caused by a third variable
 variablea property whose value can vary or change
 correlationthe “co-relationship” or pattern of co-variation between 2 variables, each of which has been measured several times
 double-blind observationan observation whose true purpose is hidden from the researcher as well as from the participant
 naturalistic observationa method of gathering scientific knowledge by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments
 demand characteristicsthose aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think an observer wants or expects them to behave
 sample

1.       the partial collection of people who actually were measured in a study

 population

1.       the complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured

 case method

1.       a method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual

 powerthe tendency for a measure to produce different results when it’s used to measure different things
 reliabilitythe tendency for a measure to produce the same result whenever its used to measure different things
 validity

1.       the characteristics of an observation that allows one to draw accurate interferences from it

 electromygraph (EMG)

1.       a device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person’s skin

 measure

1.       a device that can detect the measureable events to which an operational definition refers

 operational definition

1.       a description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured

 method

1.       a set of rules and techniques for observation that allows researchers to avoid the illusions, mistakes, and erroneous conclusions that simple observation can produce

 empiricism a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge comes only or primarily via sensory experience.

1.       originally a Greek school of medicine that stressed the importance of observation, and now generally used to describe any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects or events

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