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Chapter 11 - Flashcards

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Class:PSY 3203 - Cognitive Psychology
Subject:PSYCHOLOGY
University:University of Oklahoma
Term:Spring 2010
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Well-­defined Problem Have a correct answer
Ill-­defined Problem • Do not necessarily have one “correct” answer • Solution path often unclear
The Gestalt Approach Representng a problem in the mind
Metcalfe and Wiebe (1987) – Insight problems solved suddenly – Non-insight problems solved gradually
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Functional Fixedness restricting use of an object to its familiar functions
Luchins (1942) Water jug problem
Newel & Simon – Searching the problem space • Initial state • Goal state • Intermediate state • Operators – Means end analysis • Reduce difference between initial and goal state • subgoals
Kaplan and Simon Mutilated Checkerboard Problem • Consist of 64 squares • Can be covered by placing 32 dominoes on the board • Two corners are eliminated • Can 31 dominoes cover the board?
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Glick and Holyoak (1980) Processes of analogical problem solving – Noticing relationship – Mapping correspondence between source and target – Applying mapping
Holyoak & Koh (1983) – Attempt to facilitate the noticing and mapping steps – Noticing is difficult because people focus on surface feature • Specific elements that make up a problem –Need to use structural features • Underlying principles that problems have in common
Holyoak & Koh (1987) –similar surface features –Source Problem – Radiation –Target Problem – Light bulb problem
Genter et al. (2003) Giving people source stories is effective to get them to pay attention to structural features
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Chi et al. (1982) • 24 physics problems: Physics professors or students • Sort problems based on similarities • Results: Novices – Surface features Experts – Structural features
Creativity – Innovative thinking – Novel ideas – New connections between existing ideas
Divergent thinking open-­ended; large number of potential “solutions” – Ill-­defined problems
Convergent thinking one correct answer – Well-­defined problems
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Jansson & Smith (1991) – Engineering students – generate designs – Ex: spill-­‐proof coffee cup • No straw or mouthpiece – Fixation group vs. control • Fixation group given an example design of what not to do Fixation group had many more instances of straws and mouthpieces (which they weren’t supposed to use) – Design fixation
Creative Cognition technique to train people to think creatively
Preinventive forms ideas that precede creation of finished creative product
Wagner et al. (2004) – Presented number problems • Weren’t aware of rule to solve them – Initial training then: • Sleep group – slept for 8 hours • Night wakefulness group – stayed up for 8 hours • Daytime wakefulness group – up 8 hours (daytime) – Solve test problems Sleep resulted in insight – Better performance
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 Well-­defined ProblemHave a correct answer
 Ill-­defined Problem• Do not necessarily have one “correct” answer
• Solution path often unclear
 The Gestalt ApproachRepresentng a problem in the mind
 Metcalfe and Wiebe (1987)– Insight problems solved suddenly
– Non-insight problems solved gradually
 Functional Fixednessrestricting use of an object to its familiar functions
 Luchins (1942)Water jug problem
 Newel & Simon– Searching the problem space
• Initial state
• Goal state
• Intermediate state
• Operators
– Means end analysis
• Reduce difference between initial and goal state
• subgoals
 Kaplan and SimonMutilated Checkerboard Problem
• Consist of 64 squares
• Can be covered by placing 32 dominoes on the board
• Two corners are eliminated
• Can 31 dominoes cover the board?
 Glick and Holyoak (1980)Processes of analogical problem solving
– Noticing relationship
– Mapping correspondence between source and target
– Applying mapping
 Holyoak & Koh (1983)– Attempt to facilitate the noticing and mapping steps
– Noticing is difficult because people focus on surface feature
• Specific elements that make up a problem
–Need to use structural features
• Underlying principles that problems have in common
 Holyoak & Koh (1987)–similar surface features
–Source Problem – Radiation
–Target Problem – Light bulb problem
 Genter et al. (2003)Giving people source stories is effective to get them to pay attention to structural features
 Chi et al. (1982)• 24 physics problems: Physics professors or students
• Sort problems based on similarities
• Results:
Novices – Surface features
Experts – Structural features
 Creativity– Innovative thinking
– Novel ideas
– New connections between existing ideas
 Divergent thinkingopen-­ended; large number of potential “solutions”
– Ill-­defined problems
 Convergent thinkingone correct answer
– Well-­defined problems
 Jansson & Smith (1991)– Engineering students – generate designs
– Ex: spill-­‐proof coffee cup
• No straw or mouthpiece
– Fixation group vs. control
• Fixation group given an example design of what not to do

Fixation group had many more instances of straws and mouthpieces (which they weren’t supposed to use)
– Design fixation
 Creative Cognitiontechnique to train people to think creatively
 Preinventive formsideas that precede creation of finished creative product
 Wagner et al. (2004)– Presented number problems
• Weren’t aware of rule to solve them
– Initial training then:
• Sleep group – slept for 8 hours
• Night wakefulness group – stayed up for 8 hours
• Daytime wakefulness group – up 8 hours (daytime)
– Solve test problems

Sleep resulted in insight – Better performance
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