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Exam 1 - Flashcards

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Class:PSY 352 - Abnormal Psych
Subject:Psychology (PSY)
University:University of Miami
Term:Spring 2011
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4 D's Paradigm (and definitions) Deviance -Statistically different from the norm Dangerous -either wanting to hurt themselves or others Dysfunctional -interferes with the individuals abilities to carry out daily abilities Distress -to what level is an individual feeling awful, terrible, etc. -take into account individual's point of view
4 Challenges in Defining Abnormality -many forms of abnormality are extremes of normal behaviors and feelings -the importance of context (cultural, historical, political, person's age, gender, education, etc.) -the individual's perspective -who is making the call *There is no standard for normal/abnormal*
3 Standards of Normal (and definitions) -Statistical -based upon the mathematical average, what is most common -Social/Cultural -based upon what is generally accepted among the population -Functional -Based upon what is adaptive and contributes to health, growth, and productivity
Ancient Views and Treatment The earliest explanation (paradigm), and for much of recorded history, abnormal behavior was considered to be caused by demonic possession: evil spirits which must be driven out.
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Greek and Roman Views and Treatments The ancient Greeks and Romans were the first to consider abnormal behavior as a physiological problem (Hippocrates and the 4 humors; c. 400 B.C.) – but their method for treatment was purging and bleeding.
The Renaissance and the Rise of Asylums Supernatural Perspective –Middle Ages (Dark Ages) (500-1500 A.D.) resurgence of primitive beliefs: abnormal behavior attributed to agents outside our control, such as demons; believed people needed to be persecuted not treated Early 1500s: The Renaissance in Europe- asylums (madhouses) emerged to restrain and torture. 1693: Witch-hunting trials peak in Salem, Massachusetts.
Europe and the U.S. in the 1700s Extensive political and social reform Psychological Perspective: -Mid-1700s - emotional stress first recognized as a causal factor (called moral treatment because of the undercurrent of religious guidance). Widespread acceptance of affected individuals. Biological Perspective: -Late 1700s: Introduction of drug therapy and other physiological treatments, such as bleeding, spinning, and drugs.
Age of Enlightenment (late-18th century to mid-19th century) -joining of religion and science; recognition of biological and psychological factors; led to establishment of restraining mental hospitals and sanatorium. 1850s – 1950s: Medical model: -focus on brain malfunction. 1897: The first significant supporting evidence for a biological cause of a mental disorder was the discovery that the psychotic disorder called general paresis was caused by the same bacterial microorganism that causes syphilis.
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Age of Enlightenment cont'd. Late 1800’s: A Step Backward -Humane treatment declined due to large patient loads and insufficient hospital staff. A period of overcrowding; frustration with lack of recovery; abnormal behavior deemed incurable. -Conditions in mental hospitals deteriorated. Return to custodial care; mental institutions with restraining in straitjackets and cribs (warehousing). Psychoanalytic model 1890’s: -Sigmund Freud began treating "hysterical" patients and suggested that abnormal behavior was caused by unconscious conflicts.
Deinstitutionalization Movement Late 1900s Public outrage in U.S. mobilized legislative efforts. Community Mental Health Act of 1963: -Congress established nationwide system of community mental health centers as alternatives to long-term hospitalization. New antipsychotic drugs.
The Modern Era Biopsychosocial Perspective 1. Biological (Somatogenic) Perspective (medical model) –There are distinct psychological disorders, and each is attributed to physical causes 2. Psychological (Psychogenic) Perspective –The causes of abnormal functioning are psychological, including interpersonal factors. -Psychodynamic Perspective -Conflicts between forces within the personality, such as rational and emotional, conscious and unconscious mind.
The Modern Era cont'd. Behavioral (learning) Perspective -Focuses on observable behavior because thoughts and emotions are not observable and can not be quantified -Abnormal behavior is caused by faulty learning -includes conditioning, social learning, and modeling Cognitive Perspective -Abnormal behavior is the result of faulty beliefs, attitudes, and attributions, or irrational thinking.
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The Modern Era cont'd. 2 3) Sociocultural Perspective -Abnormal behavior is attributed to stressful life events, cultural pressures, religious practices, and family interactions. -Most of these are interpersonal in nature: socialization, marriage, divorce, career pressures, etc. -Others are more general, such as poverty, discrimination, and lack of economic opportunity -Multicultural Perspective -How people of different cultures, races, ethnicities, and gender may differ psychologically and how to account for these factors in definitions of abnormality and treatment.
Problem With Health Insurance May not cover mental health or the cover as many sessions as "needed"
Paradigm Definitiona conceptual model used to understand a common reality
6 Paradigms in Psychology -Psychodynamic -Freud - conflicts from the past cause illness -Learning -learned modes of responding to illness -Cognitive -certain way of thinking leads to illness -Physiological -genetic factors or biochemical abnormalities lead to illness -Sociocultural -social causes lead to illness -Humanistic -focuses on human need to successfully confront philosophical issues such as self-awareness and values in order to be satisfied
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Criticisms of 6 Paradigms Psychological disorders have more than one cause -Multidimensional Inegrative -Biopsychosocial Model
Clinical Researchers To gain a nomothetic understanding of abnormal psychology, clinical researchers rely on scientific method -variables (experimental and control groups) -ultimately form a hypothesis and proceed to an experiment
Research Methods Case Studies -focuses on a single individual Correlational Model -focuses on finding the correlation, or the degree to which events or characteristics vary with each other -positive correlation is when both variables have the same trend -negative correlation is when both variables have opposite trend Experimental Model -create experiment with independent and dependent variables, all variables but those are rid of (control group vs. experimental group) (random assignment) (blind design: placebo therapy)
4 Methods of Clinical Assessment (How Common Are Each?) Interview -primary method Test -second most common Psycho-physiological -rarely used Cognitive -rarely used
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MMPI Test about yourself with 600 questions Objective Test - questions are true/false or multi-choice
Projective Tests -In psychology, a projective test is a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts -Projective tests involve questions that are open-ended and relatively unstructured which allows the person being tested to have more freedom to respond appropriately
Objective Tests -Objective test is a psychological test that measures an individual's characteristics in a way that is independent of rater bias or the examiner's own beliefs, usually by the administration of a bank of questions that are marked and compared against exacting scoring mechanisms that are completely standardized, much in the same examinations are administered.
Rosenhann's Study 1973 - 8 people were told to tell a psychologist that they were hearing voices. All but one were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Legnth of hospitalization range = 7 - 52 days; average = 19 days. Subjects felt powerless and felt depersonalized. Shows that expectations produced by a label can alter perception.
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 4 D's Paradigm (and definitions)Deviance
-Statistically different from the norm
Dangerous
-either wanting to hurt themselves or others
Dysfunctional
-interferes with the individuals abilities to carry out daily abilities
Distress
-to what level is an individual feeling awful, terrible, etc.
-take into account individual's point of view
 4 Challenges in Defining Abnormality-many forms of abnormality are extremes of normal behaviors and feelings
-the importance of context (cultural, historical, political, person's age, gender, education, etc.)
-the individual's perspective
-who is making the call

*There is no standard for normal/abnormal*
 3 Standards of Normal (and definitions)-Statistical
-based upon the mathematical average, what is most common
-Social/Cultural
-based upon what is generally accepted among the population
-Functional
-Based upon what is adaptive and contributes to health, growth,
and productivity
 Ancient Views and TreatmentThe earliest explanation (paradigm), and for much of recorded history, abnormal behavior was considered to be caused by demonic possession: evil spirits which must be driven out.
 Greek and Roman Views and TreatmentsThe ancient Greeks and Romans were the first to consider abnormal behavior as a physiological problem (Hippocrates and the 4 humors; c. 400 B.C.) – but their method for treatment was purging and bleeding.
 The Renaissance and the Rise of AsylumsSupernatural Perspective –Middle Ages (Dark Ages) (500-1500 A.D.) resurgence of primitive beliefs: abnormal behavior attributed to agents outside our control, such as demons; believed people needed to be persecuted not treated
Early 1500s: The Renaissance in Europe- asylums (madhouses) emerged to restrain and torture.
1693: Witch-hunting trials peak in Salem, Massachusetts.
 Europe and the U.S. in the 1700sExtensive political and social reform
Psychological Perspective:
-Mid-1700s - emotional stress first recognized as a causal
factor (called moral treatment because of the undercurrent of
religious guidance). Widespread acceptance of affected
individuals.
Biological Perspective:
-Late 1700s: Introduction of drug therapy and other
physiological treatments, such as bleeding, spinning, and
drugs.
  Age of Enlightenment(late-18th century to mid-19th century)
-joining of religion and science; recognition of biological and
psychological factors; led to establishment of restraining
mental hospitals and sanatorium.
1850s – 1950s: Medical model:
-focus on brain malfunction. 1897: The first significant
supporting evidence for a biological cause of a mental disorder
was the discovery that the psychotic disorder called general
paresis was caused by the same bacterial microorganism that
causes syphilis.
 Age of Enlightenment cont'd. Late 1800’s: A Step Backward
-Humane treatment declined due to large patient loads and
insufficient hospital staff. A period of overcrowding; frustration
with lack of recovery; abnormal behavior deemed incurable.
-Conditions in mental hospitals deteriorated. Return to
custodial care; mental institutions with restraining in
straitjackets and cribs (warehousing).
Psychoanalytic model 1890’s:
-Sigmund Freud began treating "hysterical" patients and
suggested that abnormal behavior was caused by unconscious
conflicts.
 Deinstitutionalization MovementLate 1900s
Public outrage in U.S. mobilized legislative efforts.
Community Mental Health Act of 1963:
-Congress established nationwide system of community
mental health centers as alternatives to long-term
hospitalization. New antipsychotic drugs.
 The Modern EraBiopsychosocial Perspective
1. Biological (Somatogenic) Perspective (medical model)
–There are distinct psychological disorders, and
each is attributed to physical causes
2. Psychological (Psychogenic) Perspective
–The causes of abnormal functioning are psychological,
including interpersonal factors.
-Psychodynamic Perspective
-Conflicts between forces within the personality, such as
rational and emotional, conscious and unconscious mind.
 The Modern Era cont'd.Behavioral (learning) Perspective
-Focuses on observable behavior because thoughts and
emotions are not observable and can not be quantified
-Abnormal behavior is caused by faulty learning
-includes conditioning, social learning, and modeling
Cognitive Perspective
-Abnormal behavior is the result of faulty beliefs, attitudes, and
attributions, or irrational thinking.
 The Modern Era cont'd. 23) Sociocultural Perspective
-Abnormal behavior is attributed to stressful life events, cultural
pressures, religious practices, and family interactions.
-Most of these are interpersonal in nature: socialization,
marriage, divorce, career pressures, etc.
-Others are more general, such as poverty, discrimination,
and lack of economic opportunity
-Multicultural Perspective
-How people of different cultures, races, ethnicities, and
gender may differ psychologically and how to account for
these factors in definitions of abnormality and treatment.
 Problem With Health InsuranceMay not cover mental health or the cover as many sessions as "needed"
 ParadigmDefinitiona conceptual model used to understand a common reality
 6 Paradigms in Psychology-Psychodynamic
-Freud - conflicts from the past cause illness
-Learning
-learned modes of responding to illness
-Cognitive
-certain way of thinking leads to illness
-Physiological
-genetic factors or biochemical abnormalities lead to illness
-Sociocultural
-social causes lead to illness
-Humanistic
-focuses on human need to successfully confront philosophical
issues such as self-awareness and values in order to be satisfied
 Criticisms of 6 ParadigmsPsychological disorders have more than one cause
-Multidimensional Inegrative
-Biopsychosocial Model
 Clinical ResearchersTo gain a nomothetic understanding of abnormal psychology, clinical researchers rely on scientific method
-variables (experimental and control groups)
-ultimately form a hypothesis and proceed to an experiment
 Research MethodsCase Studies
-focuses on a single individual
Correlational Model
-focuses on finding the correlation, or the degree to which events
or characteristics vary with each other
-positive correlation is when both variables have the same trend
-negative correlation is when both variables have opposite trend
Experimental Model
-create experiment with independent and dependent variables, all variables but those are rid of (control group vs. experimental group) (random assignment) (blind design: placebo therapy)
 4 Methods of Clinical Assessment (How Common Are Each?)Interview
-primary method
Test
-second most common
Psycho-physiological
-rarely used
Cognitive
-rarely used
 MMPITest about yourself with 600 questions
Objective Test - questions are true/false or multi-choice
 Projective Tests-In psychology, a projective test is a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts
-Projective tests involve questions that are open-ended and relatively unstructured which allows the person being tested to have more freedom to respond appropriately
 Objective Tests-Objective test is a psychological test that measures an individual's characteristics in a way that is independent of rater bias or the examiner's own beliefs, usually by the administration of a bank of questions that are marked and compared against exacting scoring mechanisms that are completely standardized, much in the same examinations are administered.
 Rosenhann's Study1973 - 8 people were told to tell a psychologist that they were hearing voices. All but one were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Legnth of hospitalization range = 7 - 52 days; average = 19 days. Subjects felt powerless and felt depersonalized. Shows that expectations produced by a label can alter perception.
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