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Exam 1 - Flashcards

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Class:PSY 12000 - Elementary Psychology
Subject:PSY-Psychology
University:Purdue University - Main Campus
Term:Spring 2012
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The word psychology comes from the Greek psyche, which translates as Soul
Pschology is the study of behavior and mind Both behavior and the mind can be studied scientifically
Often has clients with mental disorders referred to her so that appropriate medication A psychiatrist
Applied Psychologist Using scientific principles to solve practical, everyday problems
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Psychologist who is currently collecting data in an attempt to understand how people interact A research psychologist
Structuralism Psychology should strive to discover the elements of immediate experience and how they combine to produce meaningful wholes
Functionalist approach Dr. Evans believes that in order to fully understand complex processes such as taste, we need to understand the purpose that taste plays in survival, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations.
B.F. Skinner Behaviorist view
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Psychoanalytic view Individuals act aggressively toward each other as a result of unconscious motives and conflicts
Humanistic Psych Capacity for self-awareness and personal growth
Hypothesis A prediction about the characteristic of a behavior under investigation
Operational definition of aggression The number of times someones hits, kicks, or yells at a person or an object within a 1 hour period
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The value around which scores in a data set tend to cluster Measure of central tendancy, (Mean, Median, Mode)
Median The middle point in the set of scores
As behavior X increases, behavior Y decreases, what is the correlation? Negative
Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the strongest relationship is? -0.89 (I'm guessing its the closest to -1 or 1)
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The primary advantage of experimental research over correlational research is? Experiments can determine cause and effect relationships
Dependent Variable depends on other factors, changes (level of happiness, weight loss, quality of education, learning....)
Independent Variable Is NOT changed by other variables (Age, personality, type of diet)
Acromegaly Hyperactivity of the pituitary gland
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The hormone required to regulate body rhythms and sleeps is___ and secreted by __ Melatonin ; Pineal gland
Glial cells are the cells in the nervous system that remove waste and help neuron communicate more efficiently
The function of dendrites is to receive information and carry information in the cell body
The function of the axon is to Transmit information from one neuron to other neurons and cells
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The small gap that exisits between adjacent neuron s is called synapse
Depolarization of a neuron causes The likelihood of an action potential to increase
Action Potentials Are generated in an all-or-none fashion
Typical speed of action potential is between 2 and 200 miles per hour
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The neural impulse is transferred to the next neuron via neurotransmitters (dopamine, GABA, acetylcholine)
Which of the follow is NOT a neurotransmitter excitamine
The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord
The human body would not be able to perform basic internal housekeeping functions necessary for survival if if humans didn't have an autonomic nervous system
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Louise came home one night to find a burglar in her house. Her physical reactions her triggered By her sympathetic nervous system (heart racing, perspiration, etc)
An individual who is in a coma and requires medical life-support will most likely show damage to the Hindbrain
Tectum Within the midbrain, this structure serves as a relay station for visual and auditory information
Corpus Callosum The part of the brain the connects the two hemispheres
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The endocrine system provides for the body's long term communication by releasing Hormones into the bloodstream
Pituitary gland Part of the brain controls the secretion of hormones in responcse to signals received from the hypothalamus
The embryonic period in a pregnancy is the second through the eighth weeks of pregnancy
The fetal period in a pregnancy is the last part of the pregnancy, from the eighth week through to birth
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A teratogen is Any environmental agent that can do damage to the developing baby
Typically, by the time they are 15 months old, 90% of infants can walk on their own
Habituation technique The same red light was presented repeatedly until the infant quit responding, then a new, slightly different colored light was presented, and the infact responded again
Newborns sensory abilites at birth

Newborns have no sense of smell at birth.

Newborns can experience pain and distinguish taste sensations

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Assimilation Piaget's process of fitting new experiences into a mental model of the world
Accomodation Barry thought all dogs were big like his dog until he saw his friends chihuahua. This changed his perception
The strong emotional ties that we form with others are called attachments
Strange situation test, a researcher would have a child come to a lab with a parent where the researcher can manipulate the situation to see what effec the manipulation has on the child's behavior
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In the retina, the rods are the receptor cells that are most sensitive in low illumination
the blind spot is located in the point in the retina where the? optic nerve leaves the eye
The Gestalt law of proximity states that visual elements that are close to each other will be perceived as a single group
Depth Perception is our ability to perceive the world in three dimensions, even though visual information is encoded on a two dimensional surface.
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Linear Perspective If you stood on an airport runway and looked into the distance, the sides of the runway would appear to come together in the distance
the binocular cue for perceiving depth is retinal disparity
Phi Phenomenon is an illusion of motion
Size Constancy As frank was walking away from BIllm the image that he cast on Bill's retina got smaller and smaller, However, Bill perceived Frank as staying the same size
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Looming We reflexively duck out of the way when something is thrown at our head
Which of the following a myth about human perception ALL, Perception is a passive process, we see exactly what is projected onthe the back of our eye, we see everything exactly as it is
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 The word psychology comes from the Greek psyche, which translates asSoul
 Pschology is the study of behavior and mindBoth behavior and the mind can be studied scientifically
 Often has clients with mental disorders referred to her so that appropriate medicationA psychiatrist
 Applied PsychologistUsing scientific principles to solve practical, everyday problems
 Psychologist who is currently collecting data in an attempt to understand how people interactA research psychologist
 StructuralismPsychology should strive to discover the elements of immediate experience and how they combine to produce meaningful wholes
 Functionalist approachDr. Evans believes that in order to fully understand complex processes such as taste, we need to understand the purpose that taste plays in survival, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations.
 B.F. SkinnerBehaviorist view
 Psychoanalytic viewIndividuals act aggressively toward each other as a result of unconscious motives and conflicts
 Humanistic PsychCapacity for self-awareness and personal growth
 HypothesisA prediction about the characteristic of a behavior under investigation
 Operational definition of aggressionThe number of times someones hits, kicks, or yells at a person or an object within a 1 hour period
 The value around which scores in a data set tend to clusterMeasure of central tendancy, (Mean, Median, Mode)
 MedianThe middle point in the set of scores
 As behavior X increases, behavior Y decreases, what is the correlation?Negative
 Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the strongest relationship is?-0.89 (I'm guessing its the closest to -1 or 1)
 The primary advantage of experimental research over correlational research is?Experiments can determine cause and effect relationships
 Dependent Variabledepends on other factors, changes (level of happiness, weight loss, quality of education, learning....)
 Independent VariableIs NOT changed by other variables (Age, personality, type of diet)
 AcromegalyHyperactivity of the pituitary gland
 The hormone required to regulate body rhythms and sleeps is___ and secreted by __Melatonin ; Pineal gland
 Glial cells are the cells in the nervous system thatremove waste and help neuron communicate more efficiently
 The function of dendrites is toreceive information and carry information in the cell body
 The function of the axon is toTransmit information from one neuron to other neurons and cells
 The small gap that exisits between adjacent neuron s is calledsynapse
 Depolarization of a neuron causesThe likelihood of an action potential to increase
 Action PotentialsAre generated in an all-or-none fashion
 Typical speed of action potential isbetween 2 and 200 miles per hour
 The neural impulse is transferred to the next neuron vianeurotransmitters (dopamine, GABA, acetylcholine)
 Which of the follow is NOT a neurotransmitterexcitamine
 The central nervous system consists ofthe brain and the spinal cord
 The human body would not be able to perform basic internal housekeeping functions necessary for survival ifif humans didn't have an autonomic nervous system
 Louise came home one night to find a burglar in her house. Her physical reactions her triggeredBy her sympathetic nervous system (heart racing, perspiration, etc)
 An individual who is in a coma and requires medical life-support will most likely show damage to theHindbrain
 TectumWithin the midbrain, this structure serves as a relay station for visual and auditory information
 Corpus CallosumThe part of the brain the connects the two hemispheres
 The endocrine system provides for the body's long term communication by releasingHormones into the bloodstream
 Pituitary glandPart of the brain controls the secretion of hormones in responcse to signals received from the hypothalamus
 The embryonic period in a pregnancy isthe second through the eighth weeks of pregnancy
 The fetal period in a pregnancy isthe last part of the pregnancy, from the eighth week through to birth
 A teratogen isAny environmental agent that can do damage to the developing baby
 Typically, by the time they are 15 months old, 90% of infants canwalk on their own
 Habituation techniqueThe same red light was presented repeatedly until the infant quit responding, then a new, slightly different colored light was presented, and the infact responded again
 Newborns sensory abilites at birth

Newborns have no sense of smell at birth.

Newborns can experience pain and distinguish taste sensations

 AssimilationPiaget's process of fitting new experiences into a mental model of the world
 AccomodationBarry thought all dogs were big like his dog until he saw his friends chihuahua. This changed his perception
 The strong emotional ties that we form with others are calledattachments
 Strange situation test, a researcher wouldhave a child come to a lab with a parent where the researcher can manipulate the situation to see what effec the manipulation has on the child's behavior
 In the retina, the rods are the receptor cells that aremost sensitive in low illumination
 the blind spot is located in the point in the retina where the?optic nerve leaves the eye
 The Gestalt law of proximity states that visual elementsthat are close to each other will be perceived as a single group
 Depth Perceptionis our ability to perceive the world in three dimensions, even though visual information is encoded on a two dimensional surface.
 Linear PerspectiveIf you stood on an airport runway and looked into the distance, the sides of the runway would appear to come together in the distance
 the binocular cue for perceiving depth isretinal disparity
 Phi Phenomenon is an illusion ofmotion
 Size ConstancyAs frank was walking away from BIllm the image that he cast on Bill's retina got smaller and smaller, However, Bill perceived Frank as staying the same size
 LoomingWe reflexively duck out of the way when something is thrown at our head
 Which of the following a myth about human perceptionALL, Perception is a passive process, we see exactly what is projected onthe the back of our eye, we see everything exactly as it is
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