Koofers

Exam 4 - Flashcards

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Class:PSY 2301 - Intro to Psychology
Subject:Psychology - PSY
University:Texas A & M University-Commerce
Term:Spring 2012
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individualism placing one's own goals above those of the group
collectivism placing group goals above individual goals
impression formation the process of forming an opinion about another person

attribution the process of assigning causes to events and behaviors
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stereotype set of beliefs about members of a particular group
assimilation the process of assuming that a person possesses all the characteristics of a category or stereotype
self-fulfilling prophecy phenomenon whereby our expectations elicit behaviors in others that confirm those expectations
self-disclosure an individual's decision to share personal information
Generated by Koofers.com
fundamental attribution error
  • the tendency to attribute behaviors to internal causes
  • may be committed more frequently by perceivers than by actors
  • when we attribute things its based on individual drives, not context or environment 
self-serving bias the tendency to make internal attributions when we are successful and external attributions when we fail
just-world belief the belief that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people
attitudes evaluative judgments about objects, people, and thoughts that include affective, knowledge, and behavioral components
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Likert scales questionnaire that requires individuals to indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement with a set of statements
cognitive dissonance aversive state produced when an individual has two incompatible thoughts or cognitions simultaneously 
attraction the extent to which we like or dislike other people
friendship form of interpersonal attraction that is governed by an implicit set of rules
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passionate love transitory form of love that involves strong emotional reactions, sexual desires, and fantasies
companionate love long-lasting form of love that involves commitment
interdependency theory theory of interpersonal relationships that stresses the costs and rewards involved
comparison level (CL) general outcome expected from a particular relationship 
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prosocial behavior behavior that benefits society or helps others
altruism helping behavior performed voluntarily with no anticipation of reward
bystander effect the tendency for a group of bystanders to be less likely than an individual to provide assistance to a person in trouble
aggression
  • physical or psychological behavior that is performed with the intent of doing harm
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hostile aggression aggressive behavior that is performed with the specific intent of harming another person
instrumental aggression aggression that causes harm in the process of achieving another goal
frustration-aggression hypothesis the hypothesis that aggression is likely to occur when a person is frustrated 
persuasion the use of social influence to cause people to change attitudes or behavior
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sleeper effect occurs when the message and its source become detached; messages rom sources low in expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness may increase in effectiveness
reactance
  • the tendency to react in the opposite direction to a persuasive message when compliance might place limits on personal freedom
  • reverse psychology
  • is a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom and self-efficacy
  • Romeo and Juliet Effect
obedience initiating or changing a behavior in response to a direct command of an authority 
conformity initiating or changing a behavior in response to indirect social pressures
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risky-shift phenomenon the finding that groups make riskier decisions than individuals
group polarization phenomenon in which group decision making enhances or amplifies the original opinions of the group's members
compliance initiating or changing a behavior in response to a request
foot-in-the-door effect phenomenon in which a person who has agreed to a small request is more likely to comply with a subsequent larger request
Generated by Koofers.com
door-in-the-face technique people are first presented with an extremely large request, which they likely will refuse, and then they are presented with a more reasonable request that they are more likely to accept
reciprocity tactic for increasing compliance that involves doing something for others to create a feeling of obligation on their part 
social psychology
  • study of the causes, types, and consequences of human interaction
  • the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals as shaped by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
ethnocentrism belief that one's own country or culture is superior to all other countries and cultures
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social facilitation an increase in performance that occurs when other people are present
social loafing the tendency to exert less effort when working on a group task that does not involve evaluation of individual participants
coactors other people who are present and are engaging in the same behaviors as an individual at the same time
deindividuation phenomenon in which the presence of a group results in a loss of personal identity and a decrease in responsibility
Generated by Koofers.com
brainstorming free expression of ideas by members of a group to solve a problem
groupthink the tendency to make decisions intended primarily to promote the harmony of the group
prejudice judging a person on the basis of stereotypes about the group to which the person belongs
discrimination behaviors that adversely affect members of a particular group
Generated by Koofers.com
personality a relatively stable pattern of behaving, feeling, and thinking that distinguishes one person from another
self-report inventory psychological test in which individuals answer questions about themselves, usually by responding yes or no or true or false
projective test psychological test that involves that use of unstructured or ambiguous stimuli in an effort to assess personality
Barnum effect the tendency to accept generalized personality descriptions as accurate descriptions of oneself
Generated by Koofers.com
trait a summary term that describes the tendency to behave, feel, and think in ways that are consistent across different situations
psychic determinism they psychodynamic assumption that all behaviors result from early childhood experiences, especially conflicts related to sexual instincts
unconscious part of the personality that lies outside of awareness yet is believed to be a crucial determinant of behavior
id
  • in psychodynamic theory, the most basic element of the personality; it is the source of the instincts and operates on the pleasure principle
  • childlike
  • desires gratification
  • wants all the time and won't take no for an answer
Generated by Koofers.com
ego
  • in psychodynamic theory, the element of the mind that operates according to the reality principle and serves to satisfy the id and the superego
  • rational decision maker
  • mediator between id and superego
superego
  • in psychodynamic theory, the element of the mind that incorporates parental and societal standards in what is commonly referred to as the conscience as well as the idealistic ego ideal
  • internalization of parental rules
  • says no to id; opposite of id
  • conscience
defense mechanism psychodynamic term used to describe primarily unconscious methods of reducing anxiety or guilt that results from conflicts among the id, ego, and superego
oral stage
  • the first stage of psychosexual development in which the mouth is focus of pleasure-seeking activity
  • first year
  • sucking, swallowing, biting
  • controlled by mom
Generated by Koofers.com
fixation cessation of further development, resulting in behaviors that are characteristic of the stage of development in which the fixation occurred 
anal stage
  • second stage of psychosexual development, during which the focus of pleasure is the anus and conflict often occurs as efforts are made to toilet-train the child
  • 1-3 years 
  • bowel movements
  • anal retentive- uptight; very organized 
  • anal expulsive- not organized; messy, chaotic
phallic stage
  • the third stage of psychosexual development, in which the genital organs become the focus of pleasure-seeking behavior
  • 3-4 years
  • libido focused on genitals
  • oedipal complex in boys
  • electra complex in girls
Oedipal complex process that occurs during the phallic stage in which a boy wishes to possess his mother sexually and fears retaliation by his father
Generated by Koofers.com
Electra complex process that occurs during the phallic stage in which a girl wishes to possess her father sexually 
latency stage
  • stage of psychosexual development that extends from about age 6 until the onset of puberty and is characterized by a low level of sexual interest
  • 5 to puberty
  • libido is suppressed
  • focused on friendship; not active; gender role based on friendship
genital stage
  • stage of psychosexual development that begins at puberty and usually leads to normal adult sexual development
  • strong sexual interest in others
social learning theory theory that learning occurs through watching imitating the behaviors of others
Generated by Koofers.com
locus of control whether the person sees his or her behavior as controlled by external factors (external locus) or internal (internal locus)
reciprocal determinism contention that person variables, situation variables, and behavior constantly interact
self-efficacy a person's expectancy concerning his or her ability to engage in effective behaviors; such expectancies differ from one behavior to another
humanistic psychology
  • general approach to psychology, associated with Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, that emphasizes individuals' control of their behavior
  • personality is a reflection of our conscious goals, desires, and hopes
  • Carl Rogers- unconditional positive reward is key to self-actualization and to bridging the gap between the realistic self and the ideal self
  • Abraham Maslow- hierarchy of needs
Generated by Koofers.com
self-actualizaiton need to develop one's full potential
Norman Triplett
  • first social psychological experiment
  • social facilitation- the presence of other people could enhance or facilitate the performance of a behavior requiring skill
Stanley Milgram
  • obedience to authority
  • trying to understand atrocities like the Holocaust
Hofling Field Experiment
  • nurses instructed over phone to inject unknown drug
  • not supposed to accept direction from anyone but doctor
  • dose of drug was twice the recommended dose
  • 21 out of 22 were going to administer the drug
  • Rank and Jacobsen conducted similar experiment and results were lower but still existent
Generated by Koofers.com
Importance of Norms and Roles
  • they provide us with information on general expectations for behaviors.
  • Norms are not necessarily laws
  • social norms in the U.S. are unclear about how much we should help or how much others want to be helped
  • diffusion of responsibility- the bigger the crowd the less likely you are to get help
Role
  • a set of norms that define how people in a given social position should behave
  • may enforce us to act in ways contrary to our "character"
Why does the South have a higher crime rate?
  • we don't support violence more than others
  • we are more likely to endorse violence as a means of self-protection, as an appropriate response to insult, and as a socialization tool for training children
What influences aggression?
  • frustration/strong emotion- if we're frustrated we're more likely to become aggressive
  • alcohol usage- inhibitions are reduced; most crime is influenced by alcohol
  • Pain
  • Crowding- we get anxious
  • temperature- 92 degrees or higher=higher crime rate; if aggression parallels crime
  • pornography- violent pornography leads to violence against women
Generated by Koofers.com
What do women look for in a parter?
  • record of achievement
  • leadership
  • skill at his job
  • earning potential
  • sense of humor
  • intellectual ability
  • attentiveness
  • common sense
  • athletic ability
  • good abstract reasoning
What do men look for in a partner?
  • physical attractiveness
  • ability in bed
  • warmth and affection
  • social skill
  • homemaking ability
  • dress sense
  • sensitivity to other's needs
  • good taste
  • moral perception
  • artistic creativity
Theories of Attraction
  • balance theory- the more things you share the more likely you are to like them; negatives have a larger affect
  • reward theory- we like the things that reward us
  • physical attractiveness- matching phenomenon(looking for people who are similar in level of attractiveness)
  • proximity/propinquity/mere exposure effect- we're more likely to be friends with people we meet; paths have to be intersecting
  • mere exposure effect- more about things; we like what we are familiar with
  • sociobiology
Hendrick and Hendrick
  • love has different meanings to different people
Generated by Koofers.com
eros passionate love

ludus game playing love
storge friendship love
pragma logical love
Generated by Koofers.com
mania dependent love
agape selfless love
Male's types of love agape and eros
Female's types of love eros and storge
Generated by Koofers.com
4 general responses to relationship dissatisfaction
  • exit- ending or actively abusing the relationship
  • voice- actively attempting to improve conditions
  • loyalty- passively waiting for things to improve
  • neglect- passively allowing the relationship to deteriorate
personality psychology all of the consistent ways in which behavior of one person differs from that of others
Hippocrates
  • earliest model of personality psychology
  • believed personality was determined by the proportion of the 4 humors in the human body
  • yellow bile: hot tempered
  • black bile: depressed
  • phlegm: sluggish and apathetic
  • blood: courageous, hopeful, and amorous
  • biological model

Sigmund Freud relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces within the unconscious of the individual
  • id, superego, ego
Generated by Koofers.com
psychosexual development
  • not purely sexual; more concerned with zones of pleasure
  • libido flows through different parts of the body as we develop
  • if normal development is blocked or frustrated we become fixed (preoccupied with the pleasure area)
defense mechanisms are used by normal people to protect themselves from anxiety
  • repression- motivated forgetting of unpleasant events
  • denial- refusal to believe accuracy of information
  • rationalization- attempt to prove that actions are rational and justifiable
  • displacement- take out frustration on a safer target
  • regression- to move backwards in maturity 
  • projection- the attribution of one's own desirable characteristics to other people 
  • reaction formulation- the strong presentation of a certain belief or role in order to mask strong doubts
  • sublimation- the transformation of an unacceptable impulse into an admirable behavior
Carl Jung
  • past colleague of Freud
  • focused on humanity's search for spiritual meaning
  • collective unconscious- cumulative experience of preceding generations
  • archetypes- the vague symbolic images that we will inherit as part of the collective unconscious
hierarchy of needs
  • physiological
  • safety
  • love/belonging
  • esteem
  • self-actualization
Generated by Koofers.com
trait theorists describe personality in terms of enduring behavioral tendencies
The Big Five traits that can describe most of the variation in human personality
  • neuroticism- self- defeating, anxious, doesn't cope well with stress (opposite is emotional stability; makes everything negative
  • extraversion- talkative, expressive, outgoing; introvert is the opposite 
  • agreeableness- trusting, tolerant, compassionate; people you just get along with
  • conscientiousness- competence, self discipline; works hard and gets the job done; best predictor of workplace success (NEO-PIR)
  • openness to experience- intellectual, creative, seek new experiences; sensation seeking
Generated by Koofers.com

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 individualismplacing one's own goals above those of the group
 collectivismplacing group goals above individual goals
 impression formationthe process of forming an opinion about another person

 attributionthe process of assigning causes to events and behaviors
 stereotypeset of beliefs about members of a particular group
 assimilationthe process of assuming that a person possesses all the characteristics of a category or stereotype
 self-fulfilling prophecyphenomenon whereby our expectations elicit behaviors in others that confirm those expectations
 self-disclosurean individual's decision to share personal information
 fundamental attribution error
  • the tendency to attribute behaviors to internal causes
  • may be committed more frequently by perceivers than by actors
  • when we attribute things its based on individual drives, not context or environment 
 self-serving biasthe tendency to make internal attributions when we are successful and external attributions when we fail
 just-world beliefthe belief that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people
 attitudesevaluative judgments about objects, people, and thoughts that include affective, knowledge, and behavioral components
 Likert scalesquestionnaire that requires individuals to indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement with a set of statements
 cognitive dissonanceaversive state produced when an individual has two incompatible thoughts or cognitions simultaneously 
 attractionthe extent to which we like or dislike other people
 friendshipform of interpersonal attraction that is governed by an implicit set of rules
 passionate lovetransitory form of love that involves strong emotional reactions, sexual desires, and fantasies
 companionate lovelong-lasting form of love that involves commitment
 interdependency theorytheory of interpersonal relationships that stresses the costs and rewards involved
 comparison level (CL)general outcome expected from a particular relationship 
 prosocial behaviorbehavior that benefits society or helps others
 altruismhelping behavior performed voluntarily with no anticipation of reward
 bystander effectthe tendency for a group of bystanders to be less likely than an individual to provide assistance to a person in trouble
 aggression
  • physical or psychological behavior that is performed with the intent of doing harm
 hostile aggressionaggressive behavior that is performed with the specific intent of harming another person
 instrumental aggressionaggression that causes harm in the process of achieving another goal
 frustration-aggression hypothesisthe hypothesis that aggression is likely to occur when a person is frustrated 
 persuasionthe use of social influence to cause people to change attitudes or behavior
 sleeper effectoccurs when the message and its source become detached; messages rom sources low in expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness may increase in effectiveness
 reactance
  • the tendency to react in the opposite direction to a persuasive message when compliance might place limits on personal freedom
  • reverse psychology
  • is a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom and self-efficacy
  • Romeo and Juliet Effect
 obedienceinitiating or changing a behavior in response to a direct command of an authority 
 conformityinitiating or changing a behavior in response to indirect social pressures
 risky-shift phenomenonthe finding that groups make riskier decisions than individuals
 group polarizationphenomenon in which group decision making enhances or amplifies the original opinions of the group's members
 complianceinitiating or changing a behavior in response to a request
 foot-in-the-door effectphenomenon in which a person who has agreed to a small request is more likely to comply with a subsequent larger request
 door-in-the-face techniquepeople are first presented with an extremely large request, which they likely will refuse, and then they are presented with a more reasonable request that they are more likely to accept
 reciprocitytactic for increasing compliance that involves doing something for others to create a feeling of obligation on their part 
 social psychology
  • study of the causes, types, and consequences of human interaction
  • the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals as shaped by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
 ethnocentrismbelief that one's own country or culture is superior to all other countries and cultures
 social facilitationan increase in performance that occurs when other people are present
 social loafingthe tendency to exert less effort when working on a group task that does not involve evaluation of individual participants
 coactorsother people who are present and are engaging in the same behaviors as an individual at the same time
 deindividuationphenomenon in which the presence of a group results in a loss of personal identity and a decrease in responsibility
 brainstormingfree expression of ideas by members of a group to solve a problem
 groupthinkthe tendency to make decisions intended primarily to promote the harmony of the group
 prejudicejudging a person on the basis of stereotypes about the group to which the person belongs
 discriminationbehaviors that adversely affect members of a particular group
 personalitya relatively stable pattern of behaving, feeling, and thinking that distinguishes one person from another
 self-report inventorypsychological test in which individuals answer questions about themselves, usually by responding yes or no or true or false
 projective testpsychological test that involves that use of unstructured or ambiguous stimuli in an effort to assess personality
 Barnum effectthe tendency to accept generalized personality descriptions as accurate descriptions of oneself
 traita summary term that describes the tendency to behave, feel, and think in ways that are consistent across different situations
 psychic determinismthey psychodynamic assumption that all behaviors result from early childhood experiences, especially conflicts related to sexual instincts
 unconsciouspart of the personality that lies outside of awareness yet is believed to be a crucial determinant of behavior
 id
  • in psychodynamic theory, the most basic element of the personality; it is the source of the instincts and operates on the pleasure principle
  • childlike
  • desires gratification
  • wants all the time and won't take no for an answer
 ego
  • in psychodynamic theory, the element of the mind that operates according to the reality principle and serves to satisfy the id and the superego
  • rational decision maker
  • mediator between id and superego
 superego
  • in psychodynamic theory, the element of the mind that incorporates parental and societal standards in what is commonly referred to as the conscience as well as the idealistic ego ideal
  • internalization of parental rules
  • says no to id; opposite of id
  • conscience
 defense mechanismpsychodynamic term used to describe primarily unconscious methods of reducing anxiety or guilt that results from conflicts among the id, ego, and superego
 oral stage
  • the first stage of psychosexual development in which the mouth is focus of pleasure-seeking activity
  • first year
  • sucking, swallowing, biting
  • controlled by mom
 fixationcessation of further development, resulting in behaviors that are characteristic of the stage of development in which the fixation occurred 
 anal stage
  • second stage of psychosexual development, during which the focus of pleasure is the anus and conflict often occurs as efforts are made to toilet-train the child
  • 1-3 years 
  • bowel movements
  • anal retentive- uptight; very organized 
  • anal expulsive- not organized; messy, chaotic
 phallic stage
  • the third stage of psychosexual development, in which the genital organs become the focus of pleasure-seeking behavior
  • 3-4 years
  • libido focused on genitals
  • oedipal complex in boys
  • electra complex in girls
 Oedipal complexprocess that occurs during the phallic stage in which a boy wishes to possess his mother sexually and fears retaliation by his father
 Electra complexprocess that occurs during the phallic stage in which a girl wishes to possess her father sexually 
 latency stage
  • stage of psychosexual development that extends from about age 6 until the onset of puberty and is characterized by a low level of sexual interest
  • 5 to puberty
  • libido is suppressed
  • focused on friendship; not active; gender role based on friendship
 genital stage
  • stage of psychosexual development that begins at puberty and usually leads to normal adult sexual development
  • strong sexual interest in others
 social learning theorytheory that learning occurs through watching imitating the behaviors of others
 locus of controlwhether the person sees his or her behavior as controlled by external factors (external locus) or internal (internal locus)
 reciprocal determinismcontention that person variables, situation variables, and behavior constantly interact
 self-efficacya person's expectancy concerning his or her ability to engage in effective behaviors; such expectancies differ from one behavior to another
 humanistic psychology
  • general approach to psychology, associated with Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, that emphasizes individuals' control of their behavior
  • personality is a reflection of our conscious goals, desires, and hopes
  • Carl Rogers- unconditional positive reward is key to self-actualization and to bridging the gap between the realistic self and the ideal self
  • Abraham Maslow- hierarchy of needs
 self-actualizaitonneed to develop one's full potential
 Norman Triplett
  • first social psychological experiment
  • social facilitation- the presence of other people could enhance or facilitate the performance of a behavior requiring skill
 Stanley Milgram
  • obedience to authority
  • trying to understand atrocities like the Holocaust
 Hofling Field Experiment
  • nurses instructed over phone to inject unknown drug
  • not supposed to accept direction from anyone but doctor
  • dose of drug was twice the recommended dose
  • 21 out of 22 were going to administer the drug
  • Rank and Jacobsen conducted similar experiment and results were lower but still existent
 Importance of Norms and Roles
  • they provide us with information on general expectations for behaviors.
  • Norms are not necessarily laws
  • social norms in the U.S. are unclear about how much we should help or how much others want to be helped
  • diffusion of responsibility- the bigger the crowd the less likely you are to get help
 Role
  • a set of norms that define how people in a given social position should behave
  • may enforce us to act in ways contrary to our "character"
 Why does the South have a higher crime rate?
  • we don't support violence more than others
  • we are more likely to endorse violence as a means of self-protection, as an appropriate response to insult, and as a socialization tool for training children
 What influences aggression?
  • frustration/strong emotion- if we're frustrated we're more likely to become aggressive
  • alcohol usage- inhibitions are reduced; most crime is influenced by alcohol
  • Pain
  • Crowding- we get anxious
  • temperature- 92 degrees or higher=higher crime rate; if aggression parallels crime
  • pornography- violent pornography leads to violence against women
 What do women look for in a parter?
  • record of achievement
  • leadership
  • skill at his job
  • earning potential
  • sense of humor
  • intellectual ability
  • attentiveness
  • common sense
  • athletic ability
  • good abstract reasoning
 What do men look for in a partner?
  • physical attractiveness
  • ability in bed
  • warmth and affection
  • social skill
  • homemaking ability
  • dress sense
  • sensitivity to other's needs
  • good taste
  • moral perception
  • artistic creativity
 Theories of Attraction
  • balance theory- the more things you share the more likely you are to like them; negatives have a larger affect
  • reward theory- we like the things that reward us
  • physical attractiveness- matching phenomenon(looking for people who are similar in level of attractiveness)
  • proximity/propinquity/mere exposure effect- we're more likely to be friends with people we meet; paths have to be intersecting
  • mere exposure effect- more about things; we like what we are familiar with
  • sociobiology
 Hendrick and Hendrick
  • love has different meanings to different people
 erospassionate love

 ludusgame playing love
 storgefriendship love
 pragmalogical love
 maniadependent love
 agapeselfless love
 Male's types of loveagape and eros
 Female's types of loveeros and storge
 4 general responses to relationship dissatisfaction
  • exit- ending or actively abusing the relationship
  • voice- actively attempting to improve conditions
  • loyalty- passively waiting for things to improve
  • neglect- passively allowing the relationship to deteriorate
 personality psychologyall of the consistent ways in which behavior of one person differs from that of others
 Hippocrates
  • earliest model of personality psychology
  • believed personality was determined by the proportion of the 4 humors in the human body
  • yellow bile: hot tempered
  • black bile: depressed
  • phlegm: sluggish and apathetic
  • blood: courageous, hopeful, and amorous
  • biological model

 Sigmund Freudrelates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces within the unconscious of the individual
  • id, superego, ego
 psychosexual development
  • not purely sexual; more concerned with zones of pleasure
  • libido flows through different parts of the body as we develop
  • if normal development is blocked or frustrated we become fixed (preoccupied with the pleasure area)
 defense mechanismsare used by normal people to protect themselves from anxiety
  • repression- motivated forgetting of unpleasant events
  • denial- refusal to believe accuracy of information
  • rationalization- attempt to prove that actions are rational and justifiable
  • displacement- take out frustration on a safer target
  • regression- to move backwards in maturity 
  • projection- the attribution of one's own desirable characteristics to other people 
  • reaction formulation- the strong presentation of a certain belief or role in order to mask strong doubts
  • sublimation- the transformation of an unacceptable impulse into an admirable behavior
 Carl Jung
  • past colleague of Freud
  • focused on humanity's search for spiritual meaning
  • collective unconscious- cumulative experience of preceding generations
  • archetypes- the vague symbolic images that we will inherit as part of the collective unconscious
 hierarchy of needs
  • physiological
  • safety
  • love/belonging
  • esteem
  • self-actualization
 trait theoristsdescribe personality in terms of enduring behavioral tendencies
 The Big Fivetraits that can describe most of the variation in human personality
  • neuroticism- self- defeating, anxious, doesn't cope well with stress (opposite is emotional stability; makes everything negative
  • extraversion- talkative, expressive, outgoing; introvert is the opposite 
  • agreeableness- trusting, tolerant, compassionate; people you just get along with
  • conscientiousness- competence, self discipline; works hard and gets the job done; best predictor of workplace success (NEO-PIR)
  • openness to experience- intellectual, creative, seek new experiences; sensation seeking
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