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Class:PSY 8312 - Core Course in Cognitive Psychology
Subject:Psychology
University:Temple University
Term:Fall 2014
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attribution substitution a strategy used when we do not have easy access to a desired piece of info. instead, we base our decision on readily available info   
heuristics enabling a person to discover or learn something for themselves   
availability heuristic based on examples easily called to mind and frequency of events you recall 
(may lead us to believe that we always do the housework ourselves)
(may lead us to think that more deaths are caused by crimes or accidents than by disease when in reality, more deaths are caused by disease)
a gambler's fallacy every coin toss is independent, so odds of heads is .5 on every toss regardless of how many heads have come up previously. Gambler’s fallacy is based on the misconception that the entire set of tosses should be .5 heads, so the more heads have come up in previous tosses, the higher the likelihood of tails coming up next
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inductive reasoning one seeks to draw general claims from specific bits of evidence, drawing a general conclusion based on pervious observations and experience (relies on memory) (bottom-up logic)    
deductive reasoning logical process in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true (top-down logic)    
covariation

a relationship between two variables such that the presence or magnitude of one can be predicted by that of the other

positive covariation

as values of one variable increases so does the other (as exercise increases so does physical stamina) AND as one decreases so does the other

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negative covariation

as values of one variable increases, the value of the other decreases (as drinking alcohol goes up, safe driving ability goes down)

illusory covariation seeing patterns where there are none and relationships where there are none    
confirmation bias attention to and preference for data that support what we already believe    
base rates information about the general likelihood of a specific event or outcome (we pay attention to base rates if there is no diagnostic info)    
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diagnostic information

descriptive information about members of a category or stereotype (when both base rates and diagnostic info are given, we make judgment using only diagnostic info

dual process models (two ways of thinking) system 1: fast and automatic process, uses heuristics
-intuition
-association-driven thought
system 2: slower and effortful but more accurate
-reasoning
-rule-governed thought
(we tend to use system 2 when the judgments we make have very important consequences    
belief perseverance closely related to confirmation bias, even when provided with evidence contrary to our beliefs, we make judgments and act on our beliefs    
utility theory people make decisions by calculating the expected value of each of their options (think of sales)  

all X are Y
some A are X
Therefore, some A are Y
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syllogisms logical arguments containing two premises and a conclusion, can be valid or invalid    
belief bias if the syllogism’s conclusion is something people already believe to be true, they are more likely to judge the conclusion as following from the premises    
abstract concepts

abstract concepts – an object that does not exist such as a broad idea (redness-abstract, the red coloring of an apple-concrete)

concrete premises specific ideas (tennis-abstract, a tennis match-concrete)    
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problem space the set of all states that can be reaches in solving a problem, as one moves, by means of operators, from the initial state towards the goal state    
problem solving heuristic

a strategy that guides a search through the problem space (more efficient, less accurate)

hill-climing strategy consistently choosing the option that gets you a step closer to your goal (not always a good strategy)    
means-end analysis asking “what ways do I have to get from my current state to the goal state?” “what are the options based on my skills, etc?”    
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working backwards thinking about the goal first and going backwards to your current state (pond problem)    
analogy a similarity between like features of two things (ex. an analogy of the heart and a pump)
deep structure the formal underlying properties of a problem (tumor problem and fortress problem share the same deep structure/the hobbits and orcs problem shares deep structure with the jealous husband’s problem)    
mapping

involves seeing the correspondence between the surface features of two problems. people are not good at mapping surface features unless they realize the deep structure is the same

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experts book smarts vs street smarts, “the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience” not the same as book learning or test-taking smarts    
novices a person new to or inexperienced
ill-defined problems the goal state and the available operators are not clearly specified    
well-defined problems the goal state as well as the available operators are clearly specified    
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functional fixedness refers to a tendency to be rigid in thinking about an object’s function    
einstelling

(attitude) refers to a problem-solver’s perspective, including beliefs, habits, and strategies

problem-solving set the collection of beliefs and assumptions a person makes about a problem    
wallace's 4 stage theory preparation, incubation (know that evidence for taking a break from the problem is mixed), illumination (what do the data show about “aha” moments?)
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research by weisberg and others shows creative problem-solving uses the same mental tools, strategies, and cognitive processes as everyday problem solving. the end products are different but the underlying process is the same    
consensus definition general agreement
fluid intelligence the ability to deal with new and unusual problems (drops with age)    
crystallized intelligence acquired knowledge, including your verbal knowledge and your experience (improves with age)   
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Binet-Simon original purpose vs Terman's purpose Binet-Simon scale was designed to identify school children with below average abilities for the purpose of designing appropriate education for all. Terman standardized the scale on a large American sample    
general intelligence vs specific abilities GI has one pervasive measure while in specialized intelligence, each measure is separate    
genetic similarities in IQ by comparing twins we can determine how much genetic similarity affects intelligence    
descriptive account telling us how reasoning ordinarily proceeds (including the errors)
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normative account telling us how we "ought to" reason
representativeness heuristic an example of attribute substitution
people often assume when making a judgments about a member of a category
think of gamblers fallacy
generalization
anchoring the tendency to use the first-available estimate as a reference point or anchor for the final estimate, has the greatest influence on the final estimate
pragmatic reasoning schema set of rules derived from experience that define the inferences appropriate to a specific situation
these schemas involve "permission" or "cause and effect" relations
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necessary condition "if jacob passed his driver's test, then it's legal for him to drive"
sufficient condition "if solomon is eligible for jury duty, then he is over 21"
reason-based choice the idea that people make a decision only when they detect what they believe to be a persuasive reason for making that choicee
emotions and decision making emotions play a role in decision making through what might be called affective heuristics. this causes the feeling of dread, regret, or anticipation
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somatic markers where and what orbitofrontal cortex, body states like a tight stomach or a fast heart rate - when making a decision
WAIS subtests general knowledge, vocal, comprehension, perceptual reasoning, visual puzzles
hierarchial conception

Tasks from two different categories— say, a verbal task and a task requiring arithmetic—are correlated because, no matter how different these tasks seem, they do have something in common: They both draw on g 

parieto-frontal integration theory -grows out of neuroimaging studies that compare the brains of individuals with differing levels of intelligence
-identifies a network of brain sites that seem crucial for intelligence performance
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emotional intelligence recognizing and understanding our own emotions and others' and the ability to control your emotions
practical intelligence intelligence needed in a day to day settings
flynn effect -intelligence scores up 3 points per decade
-cannot be genetic (too fast)
-better nutrition
-effect present in fluid intelligence tasks
cognitive unconscious refers to these mental activities that are below the level of awareness
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causal attribution errors the interpretations of what caused our thoughts or behavior

"this name seems familiar, so it must be someone famous"
"the face seems familiar, so it must be the person who robbed me"
implicit memory accompanied by no conscious realization that one is being influences by past experience
action slips we can perform tasks unconsciously if we have an established routine that can be guided by habit
when trying to do something different, you end up doing what is normal such as driving to school when you intended to go to the store
neural correlate an event in the nervous system that occurs at the same time as, and may be the biological basis or, a specific mental event or state
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anterior cingulate gyrus active for detecting conflicts in brain systems (stroop)
qualia the subjective experience of something and cannot be conveyed
identity theory mind holds that state and processes of the mind are identical to states and processes of the brain
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 attribution substitutiona strategy used when we do not have easy access to a desired piece of info. instead, we base our decision on readily available info   
 heuristicsenabling a person to discover or learn something for themselves   
 availability heuristicbased on examples easily called to mind and frequency of events you recall 
(may lead us to believe that we always do the housework ourselves)
(may lead us to think that more deaths are caused by crimes or accidents than by disease when in reality, more deaths are caused by disease)
 a gambler's fallacyevery coin toss is independent, so odds of heads is .5 on every toss regardless of how many heads have come up previously. Gambler’s fallacy is based on the misconception that the entire set of tosses should be .5 heads, so the more heads have come up in previous tosses, the higher the likelihood of tails coming up next
 inductive reasoningone seeks to draw general claims from specific bits of evidence, drawing a general conclusion based on pervious observations and experience (relies on memory) (bottom-up logic)    
 deductive reasoninglogical process in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true (top-down logic)    
 covariation

a relationship between two variables such that the presence or magnitude of one can be predicted by that of the other

 positive covariation

as values of one variable increases so does the other (as exercise increases so does physical stamina) AND as one decreases so does the other

 negative covariation

as values of one variable increases, the value of the other decreases (as drinking alcohol goes up, safe driving ability goes down)

 illusory covariationseeing patterns where there are none and relationships where there are none    
 confirmation biasattention to and preference for data that support what we already believe    
 base ratesinformation about the general likelihood of a specific event or outcome (we pay attention to base rates if there is no diagnostic info)    
 diagnostic information

descriptive information about members of a category or stereotype (when both base rates and diagnostic info are given, we make judgment using only diagnostic info

 dual process models (two ways of thinking)system 1: fast and automatic process, uses heuristics
-intuition
-association-driven thought
system 2: slower and effortful but more accurate
-reasoning
-rule-governed thought
(we tend to use system 2 when the judgments we make have very important consequences    
 belief perseveranceclosely related to confirmation bias, even when provided with evidence contrary to our beliefs, we make judgments and act on our beliefs    
 utility theorypeople make decisions by calculating the expected value of each of their options (think of sales)  

all X are Y
some A are X
Therefore, some A are Y
 syllogismslogical arguments containing two premises and a conclusion, can be valid or invalid    
 belief biasif the syllogism’s conclusion is something people already believe to be true, they are more likely to judge the conclusion as following from the premises    
 abstract concepts

abstract concepts – an object that does not exist such as a broad idea (redness-abstract, the red coloring of an apple-concrete)

 concrete premisesspecific ideas (tennis-abstract, a tennis match-concrete)    
 problem spacethe set of all states that can be reaches in solving a problem, as one moves, by means of operators, from the initial state towards the goal state    
 problem solving heuristic

a strategy that guides a search through the problem space (more efficient, less accurate)

 hill-climing strategyconsistently choosing the option that gets you a step closer to your goal (not always a good strategy)    
 means-end analysisasking “what ways do I have to get from my current state to the goal state?” “what are the options based on my skills, etc?”    
 working backwardsthinking about the goal first and going backwards to your current state (pond problem)    
 analogya similarity between like features of two things (ex. an analogy of the heart and a pump)
 deep structurethe formal underlying properties of a problem (tumor problem and fortress problem share the same deep structure/the hobbits and orcs problem shares deep structure with the jealous husband’s problem)    
 mapping

involves seeing the correspondence between the surface features of two problems. people are not good at mapping surface features unless they realize the deep structure is the same

 expertsbook smarts vs street smarts, “the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience” not the same as book learning or test-taking smarts    
 novicesa person new to or inexperienced
 ill-defined problemsthe goal state and the available operators are not clearly specified    
 well-defined problemsthe goal state as well as the available operators are clearly specified    
 functional fixednessrefers to a tendency to be rigid in thinking about an object’s function    
 einstelling

(attitude) refers to a problem-solver’s perspective, including beliefs, habits, and strategies

 problem-solving setthe collection of beliefs and assumptions a person makes about a problem    
 wallace's 4 stage theorypreparation, incubation (know that evidence for taking a break from the problem is mixed), illumination (what do the data show about “aha” moments?)
 research by weisberg and othersshows creative problem-solving uses the same mental tools, strategies, and cognitive processes as everyday problem solving. the end products are different but the underlying process is the same    
 consensus definitiongeneral agreement
 fluid intelligencethe ability to deal with new and unusual problems (drops with age)    
 crystallized intelligenceacquired knowledge, including your verbal knowledge and your experience (improves with age)   
 Binet-Simon original purpose vs Terman's purposeBinet-Simon scale was designed to identify school children with below average abilities for the purpose of designing appropriate education for all. Terman standardized the scale on a large American sample    
 general intelligence vs specific abilitiesGI has one pervasive measure while in specialized intelligence, each measure is separate    
 genetic similarities in IQby comparing twins we can determine how much genetic similarity affects intelligence    
 descriptive accounttelling us how reasoning ordinarily proceeds (including the errors)
 normative accounttelling us how we "ought to" reason
 representativeness heuristican example of attribute substitution
people often assume when making a judgments about a member of a category
think of gamblers fallacy
generalization
 anchoringthe tendency to use the first-available estimate as a reference point or anchor for the final estimate, has the greatest influence on the final estimate
 pragmatic reasoning schemaset of rules derived from experience that define the inferences appropriate to a specific situation
these schemas involve "permission" or "cause and effect" relations
 necessary condition"if jacob passed his driver's test, then it's legal for him to drive"
 sufficient condition"if solomon is eligible for jury duty, then he is over 21"
 reason-based choicethe idea that people make a decision only when they detect what they believe to be a persuasive reason for making that choicee
 emotions and decision makingemotions play a role in decision making through what might be called affective heuristics. this causes the feeling of dread, regret, or anticipation
 somatic markers where and whatorbitofrontal cortex, body states like a tight stomach or a fast heart rate - when making a decision
 WAIS subtestsgeneral knowledge, vocal, comprehension, perceptual reasoning, visual puzzles
 hierarchial conception

Tasks from two different categories— say, a verbal task and a task requiring arithmetic—are correlated because, no matter how different these tasks seem, they do have something in common: They both draw on g 

 parieto-frontal integration theory-grows out of neuroimaging studies that compare the brains of individuals with differing levels of intelligence
-identifies a network of brain sites that seem crucial for intelligence performance
 emotional intelligencerecognizing and understanding our own emotions and others' and the ability to control your emotions
 practical intelligenceintelligence needed in a day to day settings
 flynn effect-intelligence scores up 3 points per decade
-cannot be genetic (too fast)
-better nutrition
-effect present in fluid intelligence tasks
 cognitive unconsciousrefers to these mental activities that are below the level of awareness
 causal attribution errorsthe interpretations of what caused our thoughts or behavior

"this name seems familiar, so it must be someone famous"
"the face seems familiar, so it must be the person who robbed me"
 implicit memoryaccompanied by no conscious realization that one is being influences by past experience
 action slipswe can perform tasks unconsciously if we have an established routine that can be guided by habit
when trying to do something different, you end up doing what is normal such as driving to school when you intended to go to the store
 neural correlatean event in the nervous system that occurs at the same time as, and may be the biological basis or, a specific mental event or state
 anterior cingulate gyrusactive for detecting conflicts in brain systems (stroop)
 qualiathe subjective experience of something and cannot be conveyed
 identity theorymind holds that state and processes of the mind are identical to states and processes of the brain
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