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Class:PSY 102 - SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Subject:Psychology
University:University of California - Santa Barbara
Term:Winter 2011
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What was the Person Perception (Impression Formation) study done by Asch? How we make judgments about others --> Central traits: cold vs. warm --> Primacy affect/First impression: traits we hear first have more weight
What was the Autokinetic Influence study done by Sherif? People in dark room, spot of light that bounces --> Independent: confederate's estimate of how far it is -->Dependent: subject's next estimate of how far it is --> Result: subject lowers estimate to be closer to the estimate of the others
What is the Bystander effect (Darley & Latane)? The murder of Kitty Genovese in 1964, which over 35 people heard/watched but did not attempt to help ---> Diffusion of responsibility: less likely to help if more people in room ---> Saw others weren't doing anything, assumed someone was doing something or nothing needed to be done ---> Fear for their own safety
Social Psychology is the scientific study of how people: influence (Sherif study), think about (Asch study), and relate to (Bystander study - Darley & Latane) each other .
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Psychology vs. Sociology Psychology vs. Sociology • Psychology tends to look at individual experiments/individuals. • Psych relies more on lab experiments • Sociology is more likely to study large groups of people • Study gender, status, etc. • Soc - less lab studies, more field studies
Positive (direct) correlation Happens when increases in one variable lead to increases in the other, or when decreases in one variable lead to decreases in the other.
Negative (inverse) correlation Happens when increases in one variable lead to decreases in the other, or when decreases in one variable lead to increases in the other.
Noncorrelation (No correlation) Neither a positive or negative correlation --> No correlation between variable X and variable Y
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William James - Self Self consists of 2 related components: (a) the self as the object or content of one's experience = SELF AS KNOWN and (b) the self as the agent doing the experiencing = SELF AS KNOWER
Self as Known the self as the object or content of one's experience --> the part of the self that can be treated as an "object of perception" ---> the "Me" or "self as experienced" --> Divided into 3 components: MATERIAL (person's body, physical features, family, social relations, possessions), SPIRITUAL (person's psychological faculties and dispositions --> sensations, attitudes, traits, goals, values, etc), and SOCIAL Selves (includes each one of the different selves we "become" in the presence of other people).
Self as Knower the self as the agent doing the experiencing --> the "I" or the "Ego" --> related to the notion of consciousness -
Bem's Rules (1) See what we are doing (behaving) and the context in which we behave. (2) If the context can explain the behavior, we attribute the behavior to the context --> Situational Attribution (3) If context cannot explain behavior, then we attribute behavior to self --> Self Attribution
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Self-Perception Theory We observe our own behavior to make conclusions about ourselves just like we observe others.
Insufficient Reward Study (Festinger & Carlsmith) (1) Independent: pay them $20 or $1 ---> (2) Dependent: rating of pleasure ---> (3) Result: Those paid $1 enjoyed task more than those paid $20 because circumstance didn't explain, so they attributed it to themselves (Self Attribution!)
Over-justification Effect Study (Lepper, Nisbet, & Greene) (1) Independent: Reward expected = If you go play, I'll give you a treat, Reward unexpected = Good job, now here's a treat, or No reward ------> Dependant: How long they played with magic markers -------> Result: Expected reward played with markers less than when no longer rewarded. Other two groups kept playing the same.
James-Lange Theory of Emotion ( THIS THEORY WAS PROVEN FALSE BY CANON & MARANON!) Bodily changes follow directly the perception of an exciting fact, and those changes, as they occur, are the emotion. ---> Emotional experiences are the direct result of physiological changes in the body. ------->3 Rules (1) Each E has a unique P, (2) No P = No E, (3) Induce P = E -----> THIS THEORY WAS PROVEN FALSE BY CANON & MARANON (1st two - Canon, 3rd - Maranon)
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Two-Factor Theory - Schachter & Singer Gave subjects drug Epinephrine, told them it wasSuproxin ---> Independent: (1) Informed (told SEE REVIEW NOTES!
Insomnia Study (Storms-Nisbet) SEE REVIEW NOTES!
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 What was the Person Perception (Impression Formation) study done by Asch?How we make judgments about others --> Central traits: cold vs. warm --> Primacy affect/First impression: traits we hear first have more weight
 What was the Autokinetic Influence study done by Sherif?People in dark room, spot of light that bounces --> Independent: confederate's estimate of how far it is -->Dependent: subject's next estimate of how far it is --> Result: subject lowers estimate to be closer to the estimate of the others
 What is the Bystander effect (Darley & Latane)?The murder of Kitty Genovese in 1964, which over 35 people heard/watched but did not attempt to help ---> Diffusion of responsibility: less likely to help if more people in room ---> Saw others weren't doing anything, assumed someone was doing something or nothing needed to be done ---> Fear for their own safety
 Social Psychology is the scientific study of how people:influence (Sherif study), think about (Asch study), and relate to (Bystander study - Darley & Latane) each other .
 Psychology vs. Sociology Psychology vs. Sociology • Psychology tends to look at individual experiments/individuals. • Psych relies more on lab experiments • Sociology is more likely to study large groups of people • Study gender, status, etc. • Soc - less lab studies, more field studies
 Positive (direct) correlationHappens when increases in one variable lead to increases in the other, or when decreases in one variable lead to decreases in the other.
 Negative (inverse) correlationHappens when increases in one variable lead to decreases in the other, or when decreases in one variable lead to increases in the other.
 Noncorrelation (No correlation)Neither a positive or negative correlation --> No correlation between variable X and variable Y
 William James - SelfSelf consists of 2 related components: (a) the self as the object or content of one's experience = SELF AS KNOWN and (b) the self as the agent doing the experiencing = SELF AS KNOWER
 Self as Knownthe self as the object or content of one's experience --> the part of the self that can be treated as an "object of perception" ---> the "Me" or "self as experienced" --> Divided into 3 components: MATERIAL (person's body, physical features, family, social relations, possessions), SPIRITUAL (person's psychological faculties and dispositions --> sensations, attitudes, traits, goals, values, etc), and SOCIAL Selves (includes each one of the different selves we "become" in the presence of other people).
 Self as Knowerthe self as the agent doing the experiencing --> the "I" or the "Ego" --> related to the notion of consciousness -
 Bem's Rules(1) See what we are doing (behaving) and the context in which we behave. (2) If the context can explain the behavior, we attribute the behavior to the context --> Situational Attribution (3) If context cannot explain behavior, then we attribute behavior to self --> Self Attribution
 Self-Perception TheoryWe observe our own behavior to make conclusions about ourselves just like we observe others.
 Insufficient Reward Study (Festinger & Carlsmith)(1) Independent: pay them $20 or $1 ---> (2) Dependent: rating of pleasure ---> (3) Result: Those paid $1 enjoyed task more than those paid $20 because circumstance didn't explain, so they attributed it to themselves (Self Attribution!)
 Over-justification Effect Study (Lepper, Nisbet, & Greene)(1) Independent: Reward expected = If you go play, I'll give you a treat, Reward unexpected = Good job, now here's a treat, or No reward ------> Dependant: How long they played with magic markers -------> Result: Expected reward played with markers less than when no longer rewarded. Other two groups kept playing the same.
 James-Lange Theory of Emotion ( THIS THEORY WAS PROVEN FALSE BY CANON & MARANON!)Bodily changes follow directly the perception of an exciting fact, and those changes, as they occur, are the emotion. ---> Emotional experiences are the direct result of physiological changes in the body. ------->3 Rules (1) Each E has a unique P, (2) No P = No E, (3) Induce P = E -----> THIS THEORY WAS PROVEN FALSE BY CANON & MARANON (1st two - Canon, 3rd - Maranon)
 Two-Factor Theory - Schachter & SingerGave subjects drug Epinephrine, told them it wasSuproxin ---> Independent: (1) Informed (told SEE REVIEW NOTES!
 Insomnia Study (Storms-Nisbet)SEE REVIEW NOTES!
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