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Class:PSY 7 - INTRO EXPER PSYCH
Subject:Psychology
University:University of California - Santa Barbara
Term:Winter 2011
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APPLIED RESEARCH intended to answer practical questions or solve practical problems
BASIC RESEARCH intended to answer theoretical questions or gather knowledge simply for the sake of new knowledge
PRIMARY SOURCE a firsthand report of observations or research results written by the individuals who actually conducted the research and make the observations
SECONDARY SOURCE a description or summary of another person's work, written bt someone who did not participate in the research or observations being discussed
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LITERATURE SEARCH goal is to find a set of published research reports that define the current state of knowledge in an area and to identify a gap in that knowledge base that your study will attempt to fill
ABSTRACT a brief summary of the publication, usually about 100 words
PSYCHOINFO database that orivides not a full text of psychology literature
PSYCHARTICLES database of full texts of psychology literature
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Subject Words used to identify and describe the variables in the study and the characteristics of the participants.
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH STRATEGY two or more variables are measured and recorded to obtain a set of scores (usually two scores) for each individual. the measurements are then reviewed to identify any patterns of relationship that exist between the variables and to measure the strength of the relationship.
POSITIVE RELATIONSHIP there is a tendency for two variables to change in the same direction; as one variable increases, the other also tends to increase
NEGATIVE RELATIONSHIP there is a tendency for two variables to change in the opposite direction; increases in one variabble tend to be accompanied by decreases in the other.
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CORRELATION (COEFFICIENT) a numerical value that measures and describes the relationship between two variables. the signn of the correlation (+/-) indicates the direction of the relationship. the numerical value of the crrelation (0.0-1.0) indicates the strength or consistency of the relationship
PREDICTOR VARIABLE first variable when a correlational study demonstrated a rekationship between two variables, it allows researchers to use knowledge about one variable to help predict or explain the second variable
CRITERION VARIABLE the second variable (BEING EXPLAINED OR PREDICTED) when a correlational study demonstrated a rekationship between two variables, it allows researchers to use knowledge about one variable to help predict or explain the second variable
COEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION squared value of a correlation that measures the percentage of variability in one variable that is determined or predicted by its relationship wuth the other variable
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OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH DESIGN the researcher observes and systematically records the behavior of individuals in order to describe the behavior
BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION involves the direct observation and systematic recording of behaviors, usually as the bahaviors occur in a natural situation
HABITUATION requires repeated exposureuntil the observer's presence is no longer a novel stimulus
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH STRATEGY description of individual variables
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BEHAVIOR CATEGORIES first step in the process is to prepare a list of behaviors
INTER-RATER RELIABILITY the degree of agreement between the two observers is then computed (usually as a correlation or proportion of agreement ranging from 1.00= perfect agreement to 0= no agreement)
FREQUENCY METHOD involves counting the instances of each specific behavior that occur during a fixed time observation period. (EX: the child committed three aggressive acts dury the 30 min period)
DURATION METHOD involves recording how much time an individual spends engaged in a specific behavior during a fixed-time observation period (EX: the child spent 18 minutes playing alone ina 30 min period)
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INTERVAL METHOD invides dividing the observation period into a series of intervals and then recording whether a specific behavior occurs during each interval (EX:the 30 min observation period id divinded into 30 one-min intervals. the child was observed in group play durinf 12 of the intervals)
TIME SAMPLING involves observing for one interval, then pausing durin the next interval to record all the observations. the sequence of observe-record-observe-record is continued through the seried of intervals
EVENT SAMPLING involves identifying one specific event or behavior to be observed and recorded during the first interval; then the observer shifts to a different event or behavior during the second interval, and so on, for the full series of intervals
INDIVIDUAL SAMPLING involves identifying one participant to be observed during the first interval, then shifting attention to a different individual for the second interval, and so on
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CONTENT ANALYSIS involves using the techniques of behavioral observation to measure the occurence of specific events in literature, movies, tv programs, or similar media that present replicas of behaviors
ARCHIVAL RESEARCH involves looking at historical records (archives) to measure behaviors or events that occured in the past
NATURALISTIC (nonparticipant) OBSERVATION a researcher observes behavior in a natural setting as unobtrusively as possible
PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION the researcher engages in the same activities as the people being observed in order to observe and record their behavior
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CONSTRUCT VALIDITY meaurements of a variable behave in exactly the same way as the variable itself
CONVERGENT VALIDITY involves creating two different methods t omeasure the same construct, then showing a strong relationship between the measures obtained from the two methods
DIVERGENT VALIDITY involves demonstrating that we are measuring one specific construct and not combining two different constructs in the same measurement process
FACE VALIDITY unscientific form of validity demonstrated when a measure superficially apprears to measure what it claims to measure
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CONCURRENT VALIDITY demonstrated when scores obtained from a new measure are directly related to scores obtained from an established measure of the same variable
PREDICTIVE VALIDITY demonstrated when scores obtained from a measure accurately predict behavior according to a theory
RELIABILITY stability or consistency of the measurement in a measurement procedure. if the same individuals are measured under the same conditions, a reliable measurement procedure will produce identical (or nearly identical) measurements
TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY established by comparing scores obtained from two successive measurements of the same inviduals and calculating a correlation between two sets of scores. PARALLEL FORMS RELIABILITY: if the alternative versions of the measuring instrument are used for the two measurements
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INTER-RATER RELIABILITY the degree of agreement between two observers who simultaneously record measurements of the behavior
SPLIT-HALF RELIABILITY obtained by splitting the items on a questionaire or test in half, computing a separate score for each half, and then calculating the degree of consistency between the two scores for a group of participants
VALIDITY degree to which the study accurately answers the question it was intended to answer
CONSTRUCTS hypothetical attributes or mechanisms that help explain and predict behavior in a theory
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OPERATIONAL DEFINITION procedure for measuring and deining a construct. specifies a measurement procedure (a set of operations) for measuring an external, observable behavior, and uses the resulting measurements as a definition and a measurement of the hypothetical construct
CEILING EFFECT the clusstering of scores at a high end of a measurement scale, allowing little or no possibility of increases in value
FLOOR EFFECT the clustering of scores at the low end of a measurement scale, allowing little or no possibility of decreases in value
IDIOGRAPHIC APPROACH intensive study of individuals
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NOMOTHETIC APPROACH the study of groups
CASE STUDY DESIGN involves the in-depth study and detailed description of a single individual (or a very small group). a case study may involve an intervention or treatment administered by the researcher
CASE HISTORY when a case study does not include any treatment or intervention
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH based on measuring variables for individual participants to obtain scores, usually numerical values, that are submitted to statistical analysis for summary and interpretation
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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH based on making observations that are summarized and interpreted in a narrative report
RESEARCH STRATEGY a general approach to research determined by the kind of question taht the research study hopes to answer
THREAT TO VALIDITY any component of a research study that introduces questions or raises doubts about the quality of the research process or the accuracy of the research results
INTERNAL VALIDITY produces a single, unambiguous explanation for the relationship between two variables in a research study
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THREAT TO INTERNAL VALIDITY any factor that allows for an alternative explanation
EXTERNAL VALIDITY refers to the extent in which we can generalize the results of a research study to people, settings, times, measures, and characteristics other than those used in the study
THREAT TO EXTERNAL VALIDITY any characteristic of a study that limits the generality of the results
EXTRANEOUS VARIABLE any variable in a research study other than the specific variables being studied
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CONFOUNDING VARIABLE an extraneous variable (usually unmonitored) taht changes systematicallly along with the two variables being studied. provides an alternative explanation for the observed relationship between the two variables and, therefore, is a threat to internal validity
ASSIGNMENT BIAS occurs when the process used to assign different participants to different treatments produces groups of individuals with noticeably different characteristics
HISTORY When a group of individuals is being tested in a series of treatment conditions, any outside events that influence the participant’s scores in one treatment differently than in another treatment is called the history effect. History is a threat to internal validity because any differences that are observed between treatment conditions may be caused by history instead of the treatments
MATURATION When a group of individuals is being tested in a series of treatment conditions, any physiological and psychological change that occurs in participants during the study and influences the participant’s scores is called maturation. Maturation is a threat to internal validity because observed differences between treatment conditions may be caused by maturation instead of by the treatments
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INSTRUMENTATION Refers to changes in the measuring instruments that occur during a research study in which participants are measured in a series of treatment conditions. Instrumentation is a threat to internal validity because any observed differences between treatment conditions may be caused by changes in the measuring instrument instead of the treatments
Testing effects (order effects) Occur when the experience of being tested in one treatment condition (participating and being measured) has an influence in the participants scores in a later treatment condition Testing effects threaten internal validity because any observed differences between treatment conditions may be caused by testing effects rather than the treatments
STATISTICAL REGRESSION (regression toward the mean) A mathematical phenomenon in which extreme scores (high or low) on one measurement tend to be less extreme on a second measurement Regression is a threat to internal validity because changes that occur in the participants’ scores from one treatment to the next can be caused by regression instead of the treatments
EXPERIMENTAL BIAS When the findings of a study have been influenced by the experimenter’s expectations or personal beliefs regarding the outcome of a study
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SINGLE-BLIND If the researcher does not know the predicted outcome
DOUBLE-BLIND Both the researcher and the participants are unaware of the predicted outcome
DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS Refers to any of the potential cues or features of a study that Suggest to the participants what the purpose and hypothesis AND/OR Influence the participants to respond or behave in a certain way
REACTIVITY Occurs when participants modify their natural behavior in response to the fact that they are participating in a research study or the knowledge that they are being measured
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LABORATORY Any setting that is obviously devoted to the discipline of science. Any space that the subject or participant recognizes as artificial
FIELD A place that the participant or subject perceives as a natural environment
SUBJECT ROLES GOOD SUBJECT ROLES NEGATIVISTIC SUBJECT ROLE FAITHFUL SUBJECT ROLE APPREHENSIVE SUBJECT ROLE
RESEARCH DESIGN A general plan for implementing a research strategy. specifies whether the study will involve groups or individual participants, will make comparisons within a group or between two groups, and how many variables will be included in the study. Group vs individual. Same individuals vs different individuals. The number of variables to be included
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RESEARCH PROCEDURE An exact, step-by-step description of a specific research study
PARSIMONY GIVEN TWO TIED theories, go with the simpler one. OCCAN'S RAZOR: explanations should make as few assumptions as possible. CAT OPENING A DOOR
QUALIFICATION explains when a finding is only sometimes true. good performance makes simon smile only when he is in a good mood
METHOD OF TENACITY method for aquiring knowledge. something you have always known/superstition
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METHOD OF INTUITION having a "feeling" when something is right
METHOD OF RATIONALISM starting with what you know is true, then using your logic to figure out the rest
METHOD OF EMPIRICISM testing things out for yourself
DEDUCTION general to specific. theory leading to a prediction. all supermodels are stuck up, tyra is a supermoodel, tyra is stuck up
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INDUCTION specific to general. observation leads to a theory
CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES abstract theoretical difference of variables
OPERATIONAL DIFFERENCES concrete observable measurements of conceptual variables
ARCHIVAL RESEARCH with a hypothesis, analyze pre-existing sources and report what you find without judgement
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CONTENT ANALYSIS with a hypothesis analyzing pre-existing sources and report what you find with ones own opinion and judgement
PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION researcher becomes part of the group observed (concealed)
CONTRIVED (STRUCTURED) OBSERVATION set up the situations so that you can easily observe what you are interested in
BEHAVIORAL MEASUREMENTS measure what someone did
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BEHAVIOROID MEASUREMENTS measure what someone says they will do
UNOBTRUSIVE participant doesnt know what youre interested in the behavior. LOVE ON THE BRIDGE crossing a scary bridge vs not so scary bridge and ask for phone numbers and asked to participate again, those on scary bridge were more likely to say yes because of their higher heartrate
CANONS OF SCIENCE Determinism, systematic empiricism, parsimony, testability
3 GOALS OF PSYCH RESEARCH describe, explain, and change behavior,
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 APPLIED RESEARCHintended to answer practical questions or solve practical problems
 BASIC RESEARCHintended to answer theoretical questions or gather knowledge simply for the sake of new knowledge
 PRIMARY SOURCEa firsthand report of observations or research results written by the individuals who actually conducted the research and make the observations
 SECONDARY SOURCEa description or summary of another person's work, written bt someone who did not participate in the research or observations being discussed
 LITERATURE SEARCHgoal is to find a set of published research reports that define the current state of knowledge in an area and to identify a gap in that knowledge base that your study will attempt to fill
 ABSTRACTa brief summary of the publication, usually about 100 words
 PSYCHOINFOdatabase that orivides not a full text of psychology literature
 PSYCHARTICLESdatabase of full texts of psychology literature
 Subject Wordsused to identify and describe the variables in the study and the characteristics of the participants.
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH STRATEGYtwo or more variables are measured and recorded to obtain a set of scores (usually two scores) for each individual. the measurements are then reviewed to identify any patterns of relationship that exist between the variables and to measure the strength of the relationship.
 POSITIVE RELATIONSHIPthere is a tendency for two variables to change in the same direction; as one variable increases, the other also tends to increase
 NEGATIVE RELATIONSHIPthere is a tendency for two variables to change in the opposite direction; increases in one variabble tend to be accompanied by decreases in the other.
 CORRELATION (COEFFICIENT)a numerical value that measures and describes the relationship between two variables. the signn of the correlation (+/-) indicates the direction of the relationship. the numerical value of the crrelation (0.0-1.0) indicates the strength or consistency of the relationship
 PREDICTOR VARIABLEfirst variable when a correlational study demonstrated a rekationship between two variables, it allows researchers to use knowledge about one variable to help predict or explain the second variable
 CRITERION VARIABLEthe second variable (BEING EXPLAINED OR PREDICTED) when a correlational study demonstrated a rekationship between two variables, it allows researchers to use knowledge about one variable to help predict or explain the second variable
 COEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATIONsquared value of a correlation that measures the percentage of variability in one variable that is determined or predicted by its relationship wuth the other variable
 OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH DESIGNthe researcher observes and systematically records the behavior of individuals in order to describe the behavior
 BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATIONinvolves the direct observation and systematic recording of behaviors, usually as the bahaviors occur in a natural situation
 HABITUATIONrequires repeated exposureuntil the observer's presence is no longer a novel stimulus
 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH STRATEGYdescription of individual variables
 BEHAVIOR CATEGORIESfirst step in the process is to prepare a list of behaviors
 INTER-RATER RELIABILITYthe degree of agreement between the two observers is then computed (usually as a correlation or proportion of agreement ranging from 1.00= perfect agreement to 0= no agreement)
 FREQUENCY METHODinvolves counting the instances of each specific behavior that occur during a fixed time observation period. (EX: the child committed three aggressive acts dury the 30 min period)
 DURATION METHODinvolves recording how much time an individual spends engaged in a specific behavior during a fixed-time observation period (EX: the child spent 18 minutes playing alone ina 30 min period)
 INTERVAL METHODinvides dividing the observation period into a series of intervals and then recording whether a specific behavior occurs during each interval (EX:the 30 min observation period id divinded into 30 one-min intervals. the child was observed in group play durinf 12 of the intervals)
 TIME SAMPLINGinvolves observing for one interval, then pausing durin the next interval to record all the observations. the sequence of observe-record-observe-record is continued through the seried of intervals
 EVENT SAMPLINGinvolves identifying one specific event or behavior to be observed and recorded during the first interval; then the observer shifts to a different event or behavior during the second interval, and so on, for the full series of intervals
 INDIVIDUAL SAMPLINGinvolves identifying one participant to be observed during the first interval, then shifting attention to a different individual for the second interval, and so on
 CONTENT ANALYSISinvolves using the techniques of behavioral observation to measure the occurence of specific events in literature, movies, tv programs, or similar media that present replicas of behaviors
 ARCHIVAL RESEARCHinvolves looking at historical records (archives) to measure behaviors or events that occured in the past
 NATURALISTIC (nonparticipant) OBSERVATIONa researcher observes behavior in a natural setting as unobtrusively as possible
 PARTICIPANT OBSERVATIONthe researcher engages in the same activities as the people being observed in order to observe and record their behavior
 CONSTRUCT VALIDITYmeaurements of a variable behave in exactly the same way as the variable itself
 CONVERGENT VALIDITYinvolves creating two different methods t omeasure the same construct, then showing a strong relationship between the measures obtained from the two methods
 DIVERGENT VALIDITYinvolves demonstrating that we are measuring one specific construct and not combining two different constructs in the same measurement process
 FACE VALIDITYunscientific form of validity demonstrated when a measure superficially apprears to measure what it claims to measure
 CONCURRENT VALIDITYdemonstrated when scores obtained from a new measure are directly related to scores obtained from an established measure of the same variable
 PREDICTIVE VALIDITYdemonstrated when scores obtained from a measure accurately predict behavior according to a theory
 RELIABILITYstability or consistency of the measurement in a measurement procedure. if the same individuals are measured under the same conditions, a reliable measurement procedure will produce identical (or nearly identical) measurements
 TEST-RETEST RELIABILITYestablished by comparing scores obtained from two successive measurements of the same inviduals and calculating a correlation between two sets of scores. PARALLEL FORMS RELIABILITY: if the alternative versions of the measuring instrument are used for the two measurements
 INTER-RATER RELIABILITYthe degree of agreement between two observers who simultaneously record measurements of the behavior
 SPLIT-HALF RELIABILITYobtained by splitting the items on a questionaire or test in half, computing a separate score for each half, and then calculating the degree of consistency between the two scores for a group of participants
 VALIDITYdegree to which the study accurately answers the question it was intended to answer
 CONSTRUCTShypothetical attributes or mechanisms that help explain and predict behavior in a theory
 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONprocedure for measuring and deining a construct. specifies a measurement procedure (a set of operations) for measuring an external, observable behavior, and uses the resulting measurements as a definition and a measurement of the hypothetical construct
 CEILING EFFECTthe clusstering of scores at a high end of a measurement scale, allowing little or no possibility of increases in value
 FLOOR EFFECTthe clustering of scores at the low end of a measurement scale, allowing little or no possibility of decreases in value
 IDIOGRAPHIC APPROACHintensive study of individuals
 NOMOTHETIC APPROACHthe study of groups
 CASE STUDY DESIGNinvolves the in-depth study and detailed description of a single individual (or a very small group). a case study may involve an intervention or treatment administered by the researcher
 CASE HISTORYwhen a case study does not include any treatment or intervention
 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCHbased on measuring variables for individual participants to obtain scores, usually numerical values, that are submitted to statistical analysis for summary and interpretation
 QUALITATIVE RESEARCHbased on making observations that are summarized and interpreted in a narrative report
 RESEARCH STRATEGYa general approach to research determined by the kind of question taht the research study hopes to answer
 THREAT TO VALIDITYany component of a research study that introduces questions or raises doubts about the quality of the research process or the accuracy of the research results
 INTERNAL VALIDITYproduces a single, unambiguous explanation for the relationship between two variables in a research study
 THREAT TO INTERNAL VALIDITYany factor that allows for an alternative explanation
 EXTERNAL VALIDITYrefers to the extent in which we can generalize the results of a research study to people, settings, times, measures, and characteristics other than those used in the study
 THREAT TO EXTERNAL VALIDITYany characteristic of a study that limits the generality of the results
 EXTRANEOUS VARIABLEany variable in a research study other than the specific variables being studied
 CONFOUNDING VARIABLEan extraneous variable (usually unmonitored) taht changes systematicallly along with the two variables being studied. provides an alternative explanation for the observed relationship between the two variables and, therefore, is a threat to internal validity
 ASSIGNMENT BIASoccurs when the process used to assign different participants to different treatments produces groups of individuals with noticeably different characteristics
 HISTORYWhen a group of individuals is being tested in a series of treatment conditions, any outside events that influence the participant’s scores in one treatment differently than in another treatment is called the history effect.
History is a threat to internal validity because any differences that are observed between treatment conditions may be caused by history instead of the treatments
 MATURATIONWhen a group of individuals is being tested in a series of treatment conditions, any physiological and psychological change that occurs in participants during the study and influences the participant’s scores is called maturation.
Maturation is a threat to internal validity because observed differences between treatment conditions may be caused by maturation instead of by the treatments
 INSTRUMENTATIONRefers to changes in the measuring instruments that occur during a research study in which participants are measured in a series of treatment conditions.
Instrumentation is a threat to internal validity because any observed differences between treatment conditions may be caused by changes in the measuring instrument instead of the treatments
 Testing effects (order effects)Occur when the experience of being tested in one treatment condition (participating and being measured) has an influence in the participants scores in a later treatment condition
Testing effects threaten internal validity because any observed differences between treatment conditions may be caused by testing effects rather than the treatments
 STATISTICAL REGRESSION (regression toward the mean)A mathematical phenomenon in which extreme scores (high or low) on one measurement tend to be less extreme on a second measurement
Regression is a threat to internal validity because changes that occur in the participants’ scores from one treatment to the next can be caused by regression instead of the treatments
 EXPERIMENTAL BIASWhen the findings of a study have been influenced by the experimenter’s expectations or personal beliefs regarding the outcome of a study
 SINGLE-BLINDIf the researcher does not know the predicted outcome
 DOUBLE-BLINDBoth the researcher and the participants are unaware of the predicted outcome
 DEMAND CHARACTERISTICSRefers to any of the potential cues or features of a study that Suggest to the participants what the purpose and hypothesis AND/OR Influence the participants to respond or behave in a certain way
 REACTIVITYOccurs when participants modify their natural behavior in response to the fact that they are participating in a research study or the knowledge that they are being measured
 LABORATORYAny setting that is obviously devoted to the discipline of science. Any space that the subject or participant recognizes as artificial
 FIELDA place that the participant or subject perceives as a natural environment
 SUBJECT ROLESGOOD SUBJECT ROLES
NEGATIVISTIC SUBJECT ROLE
FAITHFUL SUBJECT ROLE
APPREHENSIVE SUBJECT ROLE
 RESEARCH DESIGNA general plan for implementing a research strategy. specifies whether the study will involve groups or individual participants, will make comparisons within a group or between two groups, and how many variables will be included in the study. Group vs individual. Same individuals vs different individuals. The number of variables to be included
 RESEARCH PROCEDUREAn exact, step-by-step description of a specific research study
 PARSIMONYGIVEN TWO TIED theories, go with the simpler one. OCCAN'S RAZOR: explanations should make as few assumptions as possible. CAT OPENING A DOOR
 QUALIFICATIONexplains when a finding is only sometimes true. good performance makes simon smile only when he is in a good mood
 METHOD OF TENACITYmethod for aquiring knowledge. something you have always known/superstition
 METHOD OF INTUITIONhaving a "feeling" when something is right
 METHOD OF RATIONALISMstarting with what you know is true, then using your logic to figure out the rest
 METHOD OF EMPIRICISMtesting things out for yourself
 DEDUCTIONgeneral to specific. theory leading to a prediction. all supermodels are stuck up, tyra is a supermoodel, tyra is stuck up
 INDUCTIONspecific to general. observation leads to a theory
 CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCESabstract theoretical difference of variables
 OPERATIONAL DIFFERENCESconcrete observable measurements of conceptual variables
 ARCHIVAL RESEARCHwith a hypothesis, analyze pre-existing sources and report what you find without judgement
 CONTENT ANALYSISwith a hypothesis analyzing pre-existing sources and report what you find with ones own opinion and judgement
 PARTICIPANT OBSERVATIONresearcher becomes part of the group observed (concealed)
 CONTRIVED (STRUCTURED) OBSERVATIONset up the situations so that you can easily observe what you are interested in
 BEHAVIORAL MEASUREMENTSmeasure what someone did
 BEHAVIOROID MEASUREMENTSmeasure what someone says they will do
 UNOBTRUSIVEparticipant doesnt know what youre interested in the behavior. LOVE ON THE BRIDGE crossing a scary bridge vs not so scary bridge and ask for phone numbers and asked to participate again, those on scary bridge were more likely to say yes because of their higher heartrate
 CANONS OF SCIENCEDeterminism, systematic empiricism, parsimony, testability
 3 GOALS OF PSYCH RESEARCHdescribe, explain, and change behavior,
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