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Class:PSY 108 - COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOG
Subject:Psychology
University:University of California - Santa Barbara
Term:Spring 2010
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Cognitive Psych -process where sensory input is transform, reduced, elaborated, stored recovered and used. -how we interact w/ world and construct our mem. syst.
processes -refers to the internal mechanism to produce change, in that we are active participants in our thoughts. -I Beam excercise
Transformation -refers to the generalizations made in order to understand distal stimuli as it is transform into proximal stimuli
Reduction -refers to the act of the mind filtering out the trivial so we can concentrate on whats important.
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Elaboration -refers to the act of recalling info based on an embellishment of our memories in order to get the gist of the info.
Stored and recovered -memories are containers of consciousness -recalling is actually constructing rather than reading off from a mental fact sheet.
Gestalt psychcology -experiencing the whole form or pattern rather than individual notes.
Human Factors -research concerned with helping people perform tasks well and safely. -important because of it focuses on mental capacities and constraints.
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Computer Stimulation -goal is to have computer produce output that matches a human -used to help create theories of of human cognition
Modal Model -Theory of memory that helps organize the topics -advance organizer that helps you understand the different topics
3 Basic Mem. Systems Long term working memory Working memory-(short term memory) Sensory Memory
4 Q's of Memory capacity. (how much info can system hold) Duration. (how long does mem. stay in specific structure) Forgetting. (is info lost or forgotten) Coding.
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sensory information system -doorway though which knowledge enters -contains memory mechanisms -allows us to take time to analyze what were experiencing
sis capacity/duration capacity-unlimited. Duration: Visual-300 msec: auditory-2 sec Forgetting: inference code: sensory 1.v.buffer2.register3.info storage4.icon5iconic storage
Visual buffer need - refers to when input gets deposited in your sensory register and is used to recognize words.
Auditory Buffer -Special need fo buffer to keep information around since it is unlikely to be there if missed the first time
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general struct. of SIS Sperling- using a tachiscope, showed cards w/ letters on them for . 05 seconds and tested apprehension. -4.3 item is what people reported back (span of apprehension)
Partial report Proced. SIS. related -after display was shown, students heard high medium or low pitch. -allowed students to recall 75% on display
Duration SIS Buffer Sperling found that after 300 msec, half of the info disappeared. - while rate of info loss is fast
SIS Truly Sensory? Yes: The 2 categorizes demonstrate that the SIS stores information before it can be categorized. -once categorized, its either in (stm) or (ltm) not in buffer.
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2 prts of Attention 1. Focusing in what your interested in 2. Inhibiting or filtering out what not interested in. *peeps w/ ADD have problems w/2
Duration of Attention Vigilance Experiments: military exp. shows that after 30 mins recruits performance deteriorate 15% *tasks should be changed every 20-30 min.
Pre-attent. Processing -Occurs when we automatically respond to stimuli -unlearned reaction *Includes orienting reflexex & turning towards novelty
Attentive Processing -occurs by focusing on info that is recorded in the sensory register. 2 sub-classes automatic and controlled processes
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Spotlight Metaphor for human attention Captures the idea that somethings are focused while sum not. 3rd event is completely out of our attention
the subitizing task Shows that we can count up to 4 items at one time. After 4 items it take 200 msec. per item it takes to estimate how many items are there.
automatic processing when attentional sys. operates independently of any conscious control. (i.e. Stroop effect) -Autonomous. Rapid. Invisible
Stroop Effect illustrates automatic processing: when readers say the actual color or a word, rather than word it self. ( white)
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Attentional Blink *When "spotlight" goes off then on again - Seen when 2 task are given, primary 1st and secondary 2nd. >Primary is prolonged while, 2nd suffers (.4 sec delay)
Repetition Blindness - when attentional system omits the repeated, assuming that it has already been said.
Controlled Processing -Conscious processes that are intentionally performed by you. -Becomes automatic through frequent use "open skill" refers to when measure of control is used.
Auto Vs. Contr'ld -accidents occur when conflict arises btwn. Auto. and Contr'd -Intrusion into automatic processing makes us trip
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Hemisphere Neglect -When patient is unable to process what is occurring in left hemisphere -impairment of attentional system, aft storke in right hem.
Face Recognition -likelihood of seeing faces due to socialization
cross race effect -when peeps recognize faces biased only to their race.
Short term Memory -associated w/ conscious awareness -called working memory when actual mechanisms are described. -info>sensory storage>short>long
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3memory systems sensory memory. short term memory/working long term memory
properties of STM -can hold 5-7 items -tho abracad is 5 syllables we know it as 1, we remeber it
Ebbinghaus mem Capa. - anticpation method: nonsense syllables used to test mem. -proved that STM is about 7 items
Development of STM ability to chunk gets better w/ age 2 yr olds: 2 items 18 yr olds: 7
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Maintenance Rehear. -concentrating on item, not its meaning -stays in STM as long as you focus. -Failure to do so, decays after 18-20
Duration of STM Information in STM last as long as you can pay attention to it. "attention rehearsal"- 2 types
Elaborative Rehear. -creating connection of item to what you already know -more connections made, better chances of activating LTM
Forgetting -lost info due to "inferences" that distract you -anther reason is a failure to attend to info causes decay
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Serial Position effect likilihood of remebering item @ beggin and end of list LTM used to recall items @ start of list due to increased atten. STM items @ end of list are temporarily remembered
Baddeley Model Working memory Consists of: Central Executive & its slaves -Visuo-spatial Sketch pad -Phonological Loop -Episodic buffer> semantics and language
Phonological Loop 2 Parts: Phonological Store & Articulatory control process PS: reatins info for short time ACP: (inner vioice) transforms input into code & rehearses it.
Phon.logical Confus when sounds that are alike cause difficulty in memorizing as opposed to different sounding words.
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Articulatory Suppress. when angel talks while your trying to memorize stuff. new introduction of sounds suppresses abil. to remeber
irrelevant speech effect think of articulatory supression in that you remember not wat you wanted to remember
articulation rate -the faster the articulation rate, the greater the memory span. -working memory isnt number of facts, but number of things able to articulate within 2 seconds
Visuo-spatial Sketchp. cortsi task: blocks are touched, and sequence is repeated. -setting up, storing and manipulation spatial images
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Episodic Buffer integrates units of visual, spatial, and verbal information with time sequencing like a movie. -provide link btwn LTM and Working memory
Central Executive -coordinates activities of STM and communicates with long term memories. Keeps multiple tasks going. -allows you o visualize cat when you see the word "cat"
Theories of Scannning Parallel Scanning
Parallel scanning When probe is seen, subjects test its presence by comparing it to every member of memory, all at once.
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Serial, Self Terminating You have to scan entire list, one by one, until target is found
Serial Exhaustive search -you have to go through entire list to for both positive and negative probes. -Findings follow this prediction! (search is fast, determining is slow)
STM scanning theor? Theory of STM scanning is important in comparing different mental processes, along with studying the effects of different drugs. ( Y intercept and slope)
Y-intercept y-intercept: 1'st aspect of scanning a fucntion and attributed to how difficult a task is.
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slope allows you to compute how much time it takes to make comparison btwn target and memory set.
Analog Code also known as "imagery" -represents info that seems continuous
Study by Paivio BY way of illustration, he pair f faces in (1) are more quickly evaluated than (2)
Visio-spatial sketchpad hold basic spatio-information. we feel as if we're scanning real map when however in reality categorical knowledge from LTM is drawing a map.
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Eidetic Imagery Photographic memory. Allowing people to effortlessly recall things that they have seen.
Mnemonics: memory aids, putting info STM and LTM that also plans for retrieval. Schemes get memories out, as well as in. Creates chunks in STM. i.e. Days in Months
Encoding specificity if nature of question is congruent with the coding information in our memory, then our ability to answer the question will be more rapid and accurate. Matrix 2X2!
2X2 Matrix Principle the liklihood of retrieving a piece of info increases as the match between how you stored some information and the retrieval code for that piece of info increases. Encoding Spec.
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Environmental Context The environment maybe used as an effective cue for retrieval. Same environment where learning occurs.
Mental Context mood can effect our code specificity -recall is best when mood at time of retrieval same as it is encoding.
State-Depend. Learning -learning sober leads to better recall -its better when you retrieve info under same body state.
Properties of LTM consist of your world knowledge and intuition. Forgetting caused by retrieval failure.
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LTM Capacity Unlimited Capacity -as you acquire knew information you are intitally slowed down in your ability to retrieve facts about topic from memory
Duration LTM You cant use the same retrieveal codes when you were 2, therefore there are exception to its infinity. but recognition is different
LTM forgetting forgetting due to retrieval failures rather than loss of information. you will be able to pick the real number out of a batch of fakes.
Explicit Memory Explicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. -Factual or episodic Memory
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Implicit Memory Implicit memory is a type of memory in which previous experiences aid in the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
Infantile Amnesia Difference in coding during first 3 years of life forces us to not recall or recognize first few years of life. -Coding as a 3 year old contradicts that of when an adult.
Flashbulb Memories A flashbulb memory is a memory created in great detail during a personally significant event. - cofidence is greater yet accuracy is about the same.
Engram Assumption of an engram: biological change to causing a new code of memory. Engram: change in protoplasm of cell as a result of stimulation
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Mass Action Princip. Lashley summarized his research on the engram by examining how animals w/ brain surgery retained info. -memory for events r all over in brain, we fill in the gaps
retrograde amnesia Retrograde amnesia is a form of amnesia where someone will be unable to recall events that occurred before the development of amnesia.
anterograde amnesia Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create memories after the event that caused the amnesia occurs, leading a partial or complete inability to recall the past.
Electroshock Therapy ECT therapy is used to inhibit retro and antergrade amnesia. -used in cases of depression in order to forget troubling thoughts.
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Hippocampus -Structure critical for remembering -in charge of storing new memories, taking them from working memory to LTM. Removal causes inabilty for new M's
Network Theories -Theory sugest that everything you know is connected - howevr. its not necessarily symmetrical, Henry yang ex. -interconnected, yet directionality.
Featural Theory -Your knowledge is like a vast plain of mountainous regions scattered about. -mountains are concepts and structures on them are examples -defining and Characterizing
maximally efficient stora. -Properties of object are stored at highest node, point where things come together. ex. canaries are birds so and birds have feathers so canaries have feathers
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Spreading actv/ion retriev. -retrieve info by entering your semantic info and making connection. -EX. The further away robin-lving thing, longer it takes to answer question.
Typically effect -when some instances in category are more obvious than others. -EX. canary a bird is easier than is ostrich a bird
semantic relatedness Semantic relatedness is a measure of how related two or more concepts are. -EX> is ostrich an animal (easier than) is canary an animal
Classic Theo. of Categ. -Categories of knowledge are homogeneous -recall how in "Feature Theory" categories are organized.
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Defining features features that are singularly necessary and jointly sufficient to describe the presence of every instance within category
Characteristic Features -describe commonly occurring characteristic of many (not necessarily all) members of the category
Hedges -critical set of linguistic conventions - reflects peoples sensitivity to the defining and characterizing features. EX.Technically speaking, a whale is a mammal
Rips Model -based on the view that categorizes have structures -Students use knowledge of Defining and characterizing features to decide how to answer questions of category membership.
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 Cognitive Psych-process where sensory input is transform, reduced, elaborated, stored recovered and used.
-how we interact w/ world and construct our mem. syst.
 processes-refers to the internal mechanism to produce change, in that we are active participants in our thoughts.
-I Beam excercise
 Transformation-refers to the generalizations made in order to understand distal stimuli as it is transform into proximal stimuli
 Reduction-refers to the act of the mind filtering out the trivial so we can concentrate on whats important.
 Elaboration-refers to the act of recalling info based on an embellishment of our memories in order to get the gist of the info.
 Stored and recovered-memories are containers of consciousness
-recalling is actually constructing rather than reading off from a mental fact sheet.
 Gestalt psychcology-experiencing the whole form or pattern rather than individual notes.
 Human Factors-research concerned with helping people perform tasks well and safely.
-important because of it focuses on mental capacities and constraints.
 Computer Stimulation-goal is to have computer produce output that matches a human
-used to help create theories of of human cognition
 Modal Model-Theory of memory that helps organize the topics
-advance organizer that helps you understand the different topics
 3 Basic Mem. SystemsLong term working memory
Working memory-(short term memory)
Sensory Memory
 4 Q's of Memorycapacity. (how much info can system hold)
Duration. (how long does mem. stay in specific structure)
Forgetting. (is info lost or forgotten)
Coding.
 sensory information system-doorway though which knowledge enters
-contains memory mechanisms
-allows us to take time to analyze what were experiencing
 sis capacity/duration capacity-unlimited.
Duration: Visual-300 msec: auditory-2 sec
Forgetting: inference
code: sensory
1.v.buffer2.register3.info storage4.icon5iconic storage
 Visual buffer need- refers to when input gets deposited in your sensory register and is used to recognize words.
 Auditory Buffer-Special need fo buffer to keep information around since it is unlikely to be there if missed the first time
 general struct. of SISSperling- using a tachiscope, showed cards w/ letters on them for . 05 seconds and tested apprehension.
-4.3 item is what people reported back (span of apprehension)
 Partial report Proced.SIS. related
-after display was shown, students heard high medium or low pitch.
-allowed students to recall 75% on display
 Duration SIS Buffer Sperling found that after 300 msec, half of the info disappeared.
- while rate of info loss is fast
 SIS Truly Sensory?Yes: The 2 categorizes demonstrate that the SIS stores information before it can be categorized.
-once categorized, its either in (stm) or (ltm) not in buffer.
 2 prts of Attention1. Focusing in what your interested in
2. Inhibiting or filtering out what not interested in.
*peeps w/ ADD have problems w/2
 Duration of AttentionVigilance Experiments: military exp. shows that after 30 mins recruits performance deteriorate 15%
*tasks should be changed every 20-30 min.
 Pre-attent. Processing-Occurs when we automatically respond to stimuli
-unlearned reaction
*Includes orienting reflexex & turning towards novelty
 Attentive Processing-occurs by focusing on info that is recorded in the sensory register.
2 sub-classes automatic and controlled processes
 SpotlightMetaphor for human attention
Captures the idea that somethings are focused while sum not.
3rd event is completely out of our attention
 the subitizing taskShows that we can count up to 4 items at one time.
After 4 items it take 200 msec. per item it takes to estimate how many items are there.
 automatic processingwhen attentional sys. operates independently of any conscious control. (i.e. Stroop effect)
-Autonomous. Rapid. Invisible
 Stroop Effect illustrates automatic processing: when readers say the actual color or a word, rather than word it self. ( white)
 Attentional Blink*When "spotlight" goes off then on again
- Seen when 2 task are given, primary 1st and secondary 2nd.
>Primary is prolonged while, 2nd suffers (.4 sec delay)
 Repetition Blindness- when attentional system omits the repeated, assuming that it has already been said.
 Controlled Processing-Conscious processes that are intentionally performed by you.
-Becomes automatic through frequent use
"open skill" refers to when measure of control is used.
 Auto Vs. Contr'ld-accidents occur when conflict arises btwn. Auto. and Contr'd
-Intrusion into automatic processing makes us trip
 Hemisphere Neglect-When patient is unable to process what is occurring in left hemisphere
-impairment of attentional system, aft storke in right hem.
 Face Recognition-likelihood of seeing faces due to socialization
 cross race effect-when peeps recognize faces biased only to their race.
 Short term Memory-associated w/ conscious awareness
-called working memory when actual mechanisms are described.
-info>sensory storage>short>long
 3memory systemssensory memory.
short term memory/working
long term memory
 properties of STM-can hold 5-7 items
-tho abracad is 5 syllables we know it as 1, we remeber it
 Ebbinghaus mem Capa.- anticpation method: nonsense syllables used to test mem.
-proved that STM is about 7 items
 Development of STMability to chunk gets better w/ age
2 yr olds: 2 items
18 yr olds: 7
 Maintenance Rehear.-concentrating on item, not its meaning
-stays in STM as long as you focus.
-Failure to do so, decays after 18-20
 Duration of STMInformation in STM last as long as you can pay attention to it.
"attention rehearsal"- 2 types
 Elaborative Rehear.-creating connection of item to what you already know
-more connections made, better chances of activating LTM
 Forgetting-lost info due to "inferences" that distract you
-anther reason is a failure to attend to info causes decay
 Serial Position effectlikilihood of remebering item @ beggin and end of list
LTM used to recall items @ start of list due to increased atten.
STM items @ end of list are temporarily remembered
 Baddeley Model Working memory Consists of:
Central Executive & its slaves
-Visuo-spatial Sketch pad
-Phonological Loop
-Episodic buffer> semantics and language

 Phonological Loop2 Parts: Phonological Store & Articulatory control process
PS: reatins info for short time
ACP: (inner vioice) transforms input into code & rehearses it.
 Phon.logical Confuswhen sounds that are alike cause difficulty in memorizing
as opposed to different sounding words.
 Articulatory Suppress.when angel talks while your trying to memorize stuff.
new introduction of sounds suppresses abil. to remeber
 irrelevant speech effectthink of articulatory supression in that you remember not wat you wanted to remember
 articulation rate-the faster the articulation rate, the greater the memory span.
-working memory isnt number of facts, but number of things able to articulate within 2 seconds
 Visuo-spatial Sketchp.cortsi task: blocks are touched, and sequence is repeated.
-setting up, storing and manipulation spatial images
 Episodic Bufferintegrates units of visual, spatial, and verbal information with time sequencing like a movie.
-provide link btwn LTM and Working memory
 Central Executive-coordinates activities of STM and communicates with long term memories. Keeps multiple tasks going.
-allows you o visualize cat when you see the word "cat"
 Theories of ScannningParallel Scanning

 Parallel scanningWhen probe is seen, subjects test its presence by comparing it to every member of memory, all at once.
 Serial, Self TerminatingYou have to scan entire list, one by one, until target is found
 Serial Exhaustive search-you have to go through entire list to for both positive and negative probes.
-Findings follow this prediction! (search is fast, determining is slow)
 STM scanning theor?Theory of STM scanning is important in comparing different mental processes, along with studying the effects of different drugs. ( Y intercept and slope)
 Y-intercepty-intercept: 1'st aspect of scanning a fucntion and attributed to how difficult a task is.
 slopeallows you to compute how much time it takes to make comparison btwn target and memory set.
 Analog Codealso known as "imagery"
-represents info that seems continuous
 Study by PaivioBY way of illustration, he pair f faces in (1) are more quickly evaluated than (2)
 Visio-spatial sketchpadhold basic spatio-information.
we feel as if we're scanning real map when however in reality categorical knowledge from LTM is drawing a map.
 Eidetic Imagery Photographic memory. Allowing people to effortlessly recall things that they have seen.
 Mnemonics:memory aids, putting info STM and LTM that also plans for retrieval.
Schemes get memories out, as well as in.
Creates chunks in STM. i.e. Days in Months
 Encoding specificityif nature of question is congruent with the coding information in our memory, then our ability to answer the question will be more rapid and accurate. Matrix 2X2!
 2X2 Matrix Principlethe liklihood of retrieving a piece of info increases as the match between how you stored some information and the retrieval code for that piece of info increases. Encoding Spec.
 Environmental ContextThe environment maybe used as an effective cue for retrieval.
Same environment where learning occurs.
 Mental Contextmood can effect our code specificity
-recall is best when mood at time of retrieval same as it is
encoding.
 State-Depend. Learning-learning sober leads to better recall
-its better when you retrieve info under same body state.
 Properties of LTMconsist of your world knowledge and intuition.
Forgetting caused by retrieval failure.
 LTM CapacityUnlimited Capacity
-as you acquire knew information you are intitally slowed down in your ability to retrieve facts about topic from memory
 Duration LTMYou cant use the same retrieveal codes when you were 2, therefore there are exception to its infinity. but recognition is different
 LTM forgettingforgetting due to retrieval failures rather than loss of information. you will be able to pick the real number out of a batch of fakes.
 Explicit MemoryExplicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information.
-Factual or episodic Memory
 Implicit Memory Implicit memory is a type of memory in which previous experiences aid in the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
 Infantile AmnesiaDifference in coding during first 3 years of life forces us to not recall or recognize first few years of life.
-Coding as a 3 year old contradicts that of when an adult.
 Flashbulb MemoriesA flashbulb memory is a memory created in great detail during a personally significant event.
- cofidence is greater yet accuracy is about the same.
 Engram Assumption of an engram: biological change to causing a new code of memory.
Engram: change in protoplasm of cell as a result of stimulation
 Mass Action Princip.Lashley summarized his research on the engram by examining how animals w/ brain surgery retained info.
-memory for events r all over in brain, we fill in the gaps
 retrograde amnesiaRetrograde amnesia is a form of amnesia where someone will be unable to recall events that occurred before the development of amnesia.
 anterograde amnesiaAnterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create memories after the event that caused the amnesia occurs, leading a partial or complete inability to recall the past.
 Electroshock TherapyECT therapy is used to inhibit retro and antergrade amnesia.
-used in cases of depression in order to forget troubling thoughts.
 Hippocampus-Structure critical for remembering
-in charge of storing new memories, taking them from working memory to LTM. Removal causes inabilty for new M's
 Network Theories-Theory sugest that everything you know is connected
- howevr. its not necessarily symmetrical, Henry yang ex.
-interconnected, yet directionality.
 Featural Theory-Your knowledge is like a vast plain of mountainous regions scattered about.
-mountains are concepts and structures on them are examples
-defining and Characterizing
 maximally efficient stora.-Properties of object are stored at highest node, point where things come together.
ex. canaries are birds so and birds have feathers so canaries have feathers
 Spreading actv/ion retriev.-retrieve info by entering your semantic info and making connection.
-EX. The further away robin-lving thing, longer it takes to answer question.
 Typically effect-when some instances in category are more obvious than others.
-EX. canary a bird is easier than is ostrich a bird
 semantic relatedness Semantic relatedness is a measure of how related two or more concepts are.
-EX> is ostrich an animal (easier than) is canary an animal
 Classic Theo. of Categ.-Categories of knowledge are homogeneous
-recall how in "Feature Theory" categories are organized.
 Defining featuresfeatures that are singularly necessary and jointly sufficient to describe the presence of every instance within category
 Characteristic Features-describe commonly occurring characteristic of many (not necessarily all) members of the category
 Hedges-critical set of linguistic conventions
- reflects peoples sensitivity to the defining and characterizing features.
EX.Technically speaking, a whale is a mammal
 Rips Model-based on the view that categorizes have structures
-Students use knowledge of Defining and characterizing features to decide how to answer questions of category membership.
   
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