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Psych 105 - Flashcards

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Class:PSY 105 - DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCH
Subject:Psychology
University:University of California - Santa Barbara
Term:Winter 2013
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Basic Emotions Some emotions are universal across all cultures; fear, sadness, happiness, anger, disgust
-Infants show signs of different emotional expressions from birth-6 months
Methods used to determine emotion recognition Natural Observation
-Advantages: no lab setting
-Disadvantages: Many important behaviors are infrequent and Behaviors may be effected by presence of observers
Structured Observation
-Advantages: Can generate behaviors of interest
-Disadvantages: Less naturalistic setting

Rater agreement needed

Fear Reactions: Stranger vs. Separation Anxiety 1. Stranger anxiety: fear strangers even when parent present, lasts until about age 2 (peaks 15-20 months) large individual differences
2. Separation anxiety: distress when parent leaves, cultural difference in degree/amount but not in developmental trajectory

-Some difference between Euro-American and Asian cultures, Chinese are more anxious but at the same time the shape of development is the same
Complex "self conscious" emotions Ex: embarrassment, pride, guilt, and shame
-Dependent on infant having a concept of self, evidence for whihch emerges between 18-24 months through
-1. mirror self recognition
-2. Awareness of own body
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Awareness of own body studies Shopping cart study: child doesn't realize them stepping on the blanket is preventing the cart from moving
Individual differences in emotion regulation (temperaments) 1. EASY: readily adjust to new situations, quickly establish daily routines
2. DIFFICULT: slow to adjust to new experiences, react negatively to novel stimuli and events, irregular daily routines
3. "SLOW TO WARM UP": difficult at first, but become easier over time with repeated contact with new situations, people, and events. 
Infants understanding emotion - 0-6 months: Infants understand through habituation, once they are shown pictures of the same emotion over and over then shown a different one the baby will stare for longer
-7 months+: infants understand the meaning of different expressions, not just that they are different, through cross modal selective looking
Social Referencing Using emotional expressions to guide behavior in novel situations; evidence from visual cliff where when parents make a scared face the babies will not cross, but if the adult makes encouraging positive expressions the baby will
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Cultural Specific Display Rules -Involves not showing your internal emotions and producing responses for DIFFERENT emotion
-Able to do this by age 7
-girls are better at it than boys
-Ex: pretending to like a present from your grandma
Early theory of attachment -That attachment was a learned response to food rewards
-psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories emphasize the role of feeding/food reinforcement
-Skinner believes that the reason for emotional bonds is that mom is the source of food reinforcement 
Modern theory of Attachment -Attachment is a biological need
-imprinting happens in non humans
-Humans have a biological bias for facial preferences
-forming attachment relationships to caregivers is one of the primary needs of development
-Harlow's studies show monkeys prefer soft cloth monkey to wire food-giving monkey
Strange Situation Strange Situation: structured observation that assesses quality of attachment by looking at a range of behaviors across a sequence of episodes
-Caregiver infant interactions, exploration (use of mother as a secure base) brief separations from mother, encounters with strangers, reunion episodes

Generated by Koofers.com
Three styles of attachment 1. Secure (65% of North Americans): actively seek proximity to caregivers upon reunion, communicate distress openly, then readily return to play
2. Insecure Avoidant (20%): do not seem distressed during separation, ignore caregiver upon return
3. Insecure Resistant (15%): infants become distressed when their caregiver departs, not easily soothed upon return
Consequences of Attachment Styles Secure
-Ages 2-3: better problem solvers, more complex play, more socially competent
-Ages 11-15: better social skills/peer relations, more close friends
Insecure
-Ages 2-3: socially and emotionally withdrawn, more hesitant to initiate play, less curious and interest in play and learning
-Ages 11-15: poorer peer relations, fewer close friends, more 'deviant': more likely to have psychological problems
Cultural Similarities/Differences in Attachment Similarities: the same kinds of attachment seen in different cultures but the proportions differ
--Asian cultures are more Insecure Avoidant
Individual Differences in Personality -Idea of partitioning variation between people into different sources; variation due to genetic differences between people, and due to environmental differences between people
Generated by Koofers.com
Methods of Behavioral Genetics 1. Twin Studies: comparison of groups of identical twins and non-identical twins., if the correlation is higher in identical twins then evidence shows there is a genetic contribution (since both twins share environment)
2. Adoption Studies: any difference in similarity between sets of biological siblings and adoptive siblings is assumed to be genetic
3. Combining adoption and twin methods: identical twins separated at birth, result is that they are no less similar than identical twins raised in the same family 
genes make the personality, explain 50% of variation btwn ppl
What dimensions do parents differ on? -Acceptance/responsiveness: degree of support and sensitivity to children's needs
-Demands/Control: Degree of regulation and control over children 
-4 possible patterns of parenting
Four patterns of parenting Authoritative: reasonable demand, consistently reinforced, sensitivity to child's needs (High Accept/High Demand)
Authoritarian: many rules/demands, few explanations and little sensitivity to child's needs (Low Accept/High Demand)
--African American/Asian cultures are more common
Permissive: few rules/demands; children allowed much freedom by indulgent parents (High Accept/Low Demand)
Disengaged: few rules/demands; parents uninvolved insensitive to needs (Low Accept/Low Demand)
Outcomes of most common parenting style Authoritarian (too harsh): average academic and social skills, more conforming
Authoritative (just right): high self esteem, social skills, academic achievement 
Permissive (too soft): poor self control/academic performance, drug use, socioculture
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Explanations for parent/child resemblance -parent effects-child's outcome
-child effects-parenting style
-interactions of both
0r 3rd variable: good genes-good parenting and good kids
weak causal evidence
Main theme of "Do Parents Matter" -Alongside genes, personality is formed by social/peer groups and the desire to conform
Goals of studying autism -goals for studying developmental psychopathology: looking at abnormal development can tell us about normal development
--autism is a specialized set of problems that go wrong: domain specific
Three levels of explanation for mental disorders 1. Behavioral
2. Biological
3. Cognitive
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Behavioral Level (autism) Features, symptoms, diagnosis of autism
-Savant activities are more common in autism but still rare, 
-imagination: lack of creative pretend play, focus on one topic
-socialization: no eye contact, doesn't play with others
-communication: one sided interaction, copies words, 
all three means diagnosis
prevalence: increased rates because criteria has changed, more people are labeled as autistic,
Biological Level (autism) -No evidence for autism being caused by the environment
-Identical twins are more likely to both have autism than fraternal twins
-evidence for brain associated abnormalities and environmental triggers like...
-prenatal exposure to toxic agents
-prenatal maternal viral infection
Cognitive/Function level (autism) Functioning level, mind (domain specificity) 
-a problem with developing a 'theory of mind' and predict the existence of hidden states of mind (false belief tasks)
-failure to detect pain in others
-lack of imitation
-lack of pretense in children with ASD diagnosis
-No social referencing/joint attention
---Kids with down syndrome can recognize emotions/false belief better than autism
Piaget on Moral Development -That we gradually acquire understanding of rules, there's no biological predisposition 
-Of course he was wrong
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Early core knowledge of morals 1. Evidence from one year old infants making inferences about which character is 'good/nice' and which is 'bad/nasty' from watching patterns of interactions involving those characters
2. Children follow rules even when not being observed, children correct a puppet that breaks the rules of a newly learned game
3. Younger children think intentions into account if they are more salient (thought bubble of the boy throwing the ball for the girl to catch or at her face)
Moral rules Breaking these rules causes victims; universal, more serious,
ex: hitting, stealing, teasing, not sharing are still rules that should not be broken even if teacher says it's okay
-universal rules
Conventional Rules No victims; culturally variable; less serious, rules that are okay to break if teacher says it's okay
ex: talking in class, snacking, not saying please
-cultural differences
Criteria for Moral/Conventional Rules 1. Seriousness: breaking moral rules is more serious
2. Modifiability: breaking a moral rule is bad even if rule is suspended
3 year olds can identify this
Generated by Koofers.com
Behavioral Level (psychopath) Trained clinicians interview individuals and score on 20 items each ranging from 0-2, ex: superficial charm, pathological lying, impulsivity
-max score=40
-psychopaths:=26+
Biological Level (psychopath) Importance of both biological and environmental factors in psychopaths (you need a genetic predisposition, then environmental factors can aid)
-evidence of specific brain basis, neuro-imaging evidence
Cognitive Level (psychopath) -Psychopathy stems from a failure in the emotional system responsible for instilling in us a basic moral sensitivity to victims
Evidence that psychopaths have issues engaging in emotions 1. Failure to make the distinction between moral/conventional rules and crimes (as compared to criminal controls)
2. Failure to reason correctly about guilt/shame (though they do fine on other complex emotions such as embarrassment)
3. Failure to show arousal (Galvanic Skin Response GSR) to distress and fear cues from seeing pictures of people with these emotions (though they react normally on threat cues)

Generated by Koofers.com
Biological Gender Differences -Psychological differences may occur, because boys and girls play differently
-There are hormones that differ that can affect behavior
-Overall most differences are small
-Gender is assigned at birth based on anatomical features
Environmental Factors that distinguish Genders 1. Children attend more to same sex models, remember more from same sex models, imitate same sex models more. This could magnify even tiny early tendencies for sex differences.
2. Adults treat same infant differently based on gender
3. Gender socialization through different colored rooms, different toys, different clothes, parents/teachers reinforce this
4. Gender essentialist statements are common
Complete Androgen Insensitivity XY individual with no androgen (male hormones, ie. testosterone) receptor function. Develops with external female anatomical features therefore typically assigned female at birth, and raised as such. No sensitivity to testosterone means secondary sexual characteristics also female.... but chromosomally XY.
--looks and acts like a girl, but technically a boy
Congenital Adrenal Hyperlasia
XX individual typically assigned female at birth, but condition results excess androgen production and psychological/behavioral profile that has more typically male elements.
-A girl, with girl body parts but male personality due to hormones
Generated by Koofers.com
Early knowledge about gender
-Infants discriminate male and female faces within the first 6 months 
habituation methods used
--Infants link female voices to female faces and male voices to male faces second half of first year (about 9 months) ... cross modal selective looking.
- By age 2 infants form gender based expectations, own gender solidified by age 2-3 so activities influenced by gender/so are friends
-Socialization may cement an identity but it cannot create one 
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 Basic EmotionsSome emotions are universal across all cultures; fear, sadness, happiness, anger, disgust
-Infants show signs of different emotional expressions from birth-6 months
 Methods used to determine emotion recognitionNatural Observation
-Advantages: no lab setting
-Disadvantages: Many important behaviors are infrequent and Behaviors may be effected by presence of observers
Structured Observation
-Advantages: Can generate behaviors of interest
-Disadvantages: Less naturalistic setting

Rater agreement needed

 Fear Reactions: Stranger vs. Separation Anxiety1. Stranger anxiety: fear strangers even when parent present, lasts until about age 2 (peaks 15-20 months) large individual differences
2. Separation anxiety: distress when parent leaves, cultural difference in degree/amount but not in developmental trajectory

-Some difference between Euro-American and Asian cultures, Chinese are more anxious but at the same time the shape of development is the same
 Complex "self conscious" emotionsEx: embarrassment, pride, guilt, and shame
-Dependent on infant having a concept of self, evidence for whihch emerges between 18-24 months through
-1. mirror self recognition
-2. Awareness of own body
 Awareness of own body studiesShopping cart study: child doesn't realize them stepping on the blanket is preventing the cart from moving
 Individual differences in emotion regulation (temperaments)1. EASY: readily adjust to new situations, quickly establish daily routines
2. DIFFICULT: slow to adjust to new experiences, react negatively to novel stimuli and events, irregular daily routines
3. "SLOW TO WARM UP": difficult at first, but become easier over time with repeated contact with new situations, people, and events. 
 Infants understanding emotion- 0-6 months: Infants understand through habituation, once they are shown pictures of the same emotion over and over then shown a different one the baby will stare for longer
-7 months+: infants understand the meaning of different expressions, not just that they are different, through cross modal selective looking
 Social ReferencingUsing emotional expressions to guide behavior in novel situations; evidence from visual cliff where when parents make a scared face the babies will not cross, but if the adult makes encouraging positive expressions the baby will
 Cultural Specific Display Rules-Involves not showing your internal emotions and producing responses for DIFFERENT emotion
-Able to do this by age 7
-girls are better at it than boys
-Ex: pretending to like a present from your grandma
 Early theory of attachment-That attachment was a learned response to food rewards
-psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories emphasize the role of feeding/food reinforcement
-Skinner believes that the reason for emotional bonds is that mom is the source of food reinforcement 
 Modern theory of Attachment-Attachment is a biological need
-imprinting happens in non humans
-Humans have a biological bias for facial preferences
-forming attachment relationships to caregivers is one of the primary needs of development
-Harlow's studies show monkeys prefer soft cloth monkey to wire food-giving monkey
 Strange SituationStrange Situation: structured observation that assesses quality of attachment by looking at a range of behaviors across a sequence of episodes
-Caregiver infant interactions, exploration (use of mother as a secure base) brief separations from mother, encounters with strangers, reunion episodes

 Three styles of attachment1. Secure (65% of North Americans): actively seek proximity to caregivers upon reunion, communicate distress openly, then readily return to play
2. Insecure Avoidant (20%): do not seem distressed during separation, ignore caregiver upon return
3. Insecure Resistant (15%): infants become distressed when their caregiver departs, not easily soothed upon return
 Consequences of Attachment StylesSecure
-Ages 2-3: better problem solvers, more complex play, more socially competent
-Ages 11-15: better social skills/peer relations, more close friends
Insecure
-Ages 2-3: socially and emotionally withdrawn, more hesitant to initiate play, less curious and interest in play and learning
-Ages 11-15: poorer peer relations, fewer close friends, more 'deviant': more likely to have psychological problems
 Cultural Similarities/Differences in AttachmentSimilarities: the same kinds of attachment seen in different cultures but the proportions differ
--Asian cultures are more Insecure Avoidant
 Individual Differences in Personality-Idea of partitioning variation between people into different sources; variation due to genetic differences between people, and due to environmental differences between people
 Methods of Behavioral Genetics1. Twin Studies: comparison of groups of identical twins and non-identical twins., if the correlation is higher in identical twins then evidence shows there is a genetic contribution (since both twins share environment)
2. Adoption Studies: any difference in similarity between sets of biological siblings and adoptive siblings is assumed to be genetic
3. Combining adoption and twin methods: identical twins separated at birth, result is that they are no less similar than identical twins raised in the same family 
genes make the personality, explain 50% of variation btwn ppl
 What dimensions do parents differ on?-Acceptance/responsiveness: degree of support and sensitivity to children's needs
-Demands/Control: Degree of regulation and control over children 
-4 possible patterns of parenting
 Four patterns of parentingAuthoritative: reasonable demand, consistently reinforced, sensitivity to child's needs (High Accept/High Demand)
Authoritarian: many rules/demands, few explanations and little sensitivity to child's needs (Low Accept/High Demand)
--African American/Asian cultures are more common
Permissive: few rules/demands; children allowed much freedom by indulgent parents (High Accept/Low Demand)
Disengaged: few rules/demands; parents uninvolved insensitive to needs (Low Accept/Low Demand)
 Outcomes of most common parenting styleAuthoritarian (too harsh): average academic and social skills, more conforming
Authoritative (just right): high self esteem, social skills, academic achievement 
Permissive (too soft): poor self control/academic performance, drug use, socioculture
 Explanations for parent/child resemblance-parent effects-child's outcome
-child effects-parenting style
-interactions of both
0r 3rd variable: good genes-good parenting and good kids
weak causal evidence
 Main theme of "Do Parents Matter"-Alongside genes, personality is formed by social/peer groups and the desire to conform
 Goals of studying autism-goals for studying developmental psychopathology: looking at abnormal development can tell us about normal development
--autism is a specialized set of problems that go wrong: domain specific
 Three levels of explanation for mental disorders1. Behavioral
2. Biological
3. Cognitive
 Behavioral Level (autism)Features, symptoms, diagnosis of autism
-Savant activities are more common in autism but still rare, 
-imagination: lack of creative pretend play, focus on one topic
-socialization: no eye contact, doesn't play with others
-communication: one sided interaction, copies words, 
all three means diagnosis
prevalence: increased rates because criteria has changed, more people are labeled as autistic,
 Biological Level (autism)-No evidence for autism being caused by the environment
-Identical twins are more likely to both have autism than fraternal twins
-evidence for brain associated abnormalities and environmental triggers like...
-prenatal exposure to toxic agents
-prenatal maternal viral infection
 Cognitive/Function level (autism)Functioning level, mind (domain specificity) 
-a problem with developing a 'theory of mind' and predict the existence of hidden states of mind (false belief tasks)
-failure to detect pain in others
-lack of imitation
-lack of pretense in children with ASD diagnosis
-No social referencing/joint attention
---Kids with down syndrome can recognize emotions/false belief better than autism
 Piaget on Moral Development-That we gradually acquire understanding of rules, there's no biological predisposition 
-Of course he was wrong
 Early core knowledge of morals1. Evidence from one year old infants making inferences about which character is 'good/nice' and which is 'bad/nasty' from watching patterns of interactions involving those characters
2. Children follow rules even when not being observed, children correct a puppet that breaks the rules of a newly learned game
3. Younger children think intentions into account if they are more salient (thought bubble of the boy throwing the ball for the girl to catch or at her face)
 Moral rulesBreaking these rules causes victims; universal, more serious,
ex: hitting, stealing, teasing, not sharing are still rules that should not be broken even if teacher says it's okay
-universal rules
 Conventional RulesNo victims; culturally variable; less serious, rules that are okay to break if teacher says it's okay
ex: talking in class, snacking, not saying please
-cultural differences
 Criteria for Moral/Conventional Rules1. Seriousness: breaking moral rules is more serious
2. Modifiability: breaking a moral rule is bad even if rule is suspended
3 year olds can identify this
 Behavioral Level (psychopath)Trained clinicians interview individuals and score on 20 items each ranging from 0-2, ex: superficial charm, pathological lying, impulsivity
-max score=40
-psychopaths:=26+
 Biological Level (psychopath)Importance of both biological and environmental factors in psychopaths (you need a genetic predisposition, then environmental factors can aid)
-evidence of specific brain basis, neuro-imaging evidence
 Cognitive Level (psychopath)-Psychopathy stems from a failure in the emotional system responsible for instilling in us a basic moral sensitivity to victims
 Evidence that psychopaths have issues engaging in emotions1. Failure to make the distinction between moral/conventional rules and crimes (as compared to criminal controls)
2. Failure to reason correctly about guilt/shame (though they do fine on other complex emotions such as embarrassment)
3. Failure to show arousal (Galvanic Skin Response GSR) to distress and fear cues from seeing pictures of people with these emotions (though they react normally on threat cues)

 Biological Gender Differences-Psychological differences may occur, because boys and girls play differently
-There are hormones that differ that can affect behavior
-Overall most differences are small
-Gender is assigned at birth based on anatomical features
 Environmental Factors that distinguish Genders1. Children attend more to same sex models, remember more from same sex models, imitate same sex models more. This could magnify even tiny early tendencies for sex differences.
2. Adults treat same infant differently based on gender
3. Gender socialization through different colored rooms, different toys, different clothes, parents/teachers reinforce this
4. Gender essentialist statements are common
 Complete Androgen InsensitivityXY individual with no androgen (male hormones, ie. testosterone) receptor function. Develops with external female anatomical features therefore typically assigned female at birth, and raised as such. No sensitivity to testosterone means secondary sexual characteristics also female.... but chromosomally XY.
--looks and acts like a girl, but technically a boy
 Congenital Adrenal Hyperlasia
XX individual typically assigned female at birth, but condition results excess androgen production and psychological/behavioral profile that has more typically male elements.
-A girl, with girl body parts but male personality due to hormones
 Early knowledge about gender
-Infants discriminate male and female faces within the first 6 months 
habituation methods used
--Infants link female voices to female faces and male voices to male faces second half of first year (about 9 months) ... cross modal selective looking.
- By age 2 infants form gender based expectations, own gender solidified by age 2-3 so activities influenced by gender/so are friends
-Socialization may cement an identity but it cannot create one 
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