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Psych 145 - Flashcards

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Class:PSY 146 - HUMAN MATING PSYCH
Subject:Psychology
University:University of California - Santa Barbara
Term:Spring 2013
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Laws of Sympathetic Magic -Law of Contagion: once two things have been in contact with each other they still continue to act on each other even when physical contact has been severed and distance between the objects has been created
----ex: selling of celeb items, don't wanna wear Osama Bin Laden's sweater
-Law of Similarity: similarity in appearance will cause items to be grouped together and a causal connection will be created without reasoning 
----ex: voodoo dolls, reluctance to burn an effigy
Supernatural concepts and science Supernatural concepts have no backing or evidence in natural science
3 reasons why supernatural concepts flourish in human minds 1.) Process reasons (part of cognitive processing)
2.) Content reasons
3.) Context reasons 
Process reasons Part of Cognitive Processing; humans have perceptual and cognitive processes for the detection and recognition of causal relationships. We are bad at appreciating the nature of randomness and estimating the probabilities of events, failure to believe in coincidence
--hot hand fallacy: just because player mode last shot, does not mean his odds of making next one are higher
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Content reasons Some beliefs flourish because they have content that exploits the organization of our common sense core knowledge 
--'hyperactive' attribution of agency, we see faces in clouds
--extension of inferences from one domain to another
Context Reasons Derived from how certain concepts spread through cultures are supported by cultural institutions
--ex: more people believe in God than Santa Claus (or ghosts)
Cognitive Processes/Biases -The human mind as a device for detecting causal relationships. Idea that decisions often (always) need to be reached under uncertainty, therefore shortcuts/biases often employed
Biases in detecting relationships from random sequences -Streak shooting, we we are poor at judging random sequences
----heads/tails example: even if we know heads is flipped 70% of the time we will try and predict the random and only get 56% correct 
-Bad at estimating probabilities
----ex: at least two people will have the same birthday based on odds 

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Negativity bias We overestimate probabilities/frequencies of negative events
-ex: when shown random white and black dots and told the white dots are poison people will think there are more of them when told the white dots are just sour apples
Hindsight Bias Once you know something it's hard to imagine not ever knowing it, or that other people would not know it
-ex: fish embedded in a noisy image 
Confirmation Bias We tend to seek evidence confirming our hypotheses/beliefs rather than evidence that would falsify them, and this leads to a biased consideration of the available data (ex: adopting then having a biological child, we focus on when it does happen rather than when it doesn't)
Motivated belief we tend to be more likely to believe things we want to be true (e.g. that we are better than average drivers) and assume that other people believe things that are consisten with what we believe (e.x. different interpretations of Stephen Colbert's true beliefs in conservative vs. liberal viewers)
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Four Laws of Object Motion -Cohesion
-Continuit
-Solidity
-Contact
Cohesion Principal that objects are bounded whole things, so that when you move a part of it, the object as a whole will move
-ex: if you move a box of crayons you expect the whole box to move not just a single crayon
Continuity If a ball rolls behind the left screen, is not shown in the middle, then rolls out from the right side of the screen you will assume there are two balls, not one
--infants do not apply this to animate agents, dualism
Solidity Infants expect objects to be solid so they cannot pass through each other, and are surprised if the final resting place of an object is past a solid object that should have stopped it from rolling
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Contact Principal that objects act on each other only if they come into contact with each other
-ex: chalk will not move unless we hit it
  • this does not apply to animate agents
Agents Properties that distinguish animate agents from objects, like movement properties

movement properties changes in velocity, direction, and orientation are indicative of internal source of energy/force
-rational motion: little ball wants wants to be with the big ball, so it jumps over the obstacle
-goal directed: if hand reaches for one object repeatedly, infants will be surprised if it reaches for the other object, even if they change locations
-morphological cues to agency: faces, eyes, talking blobs, are all effectors
Living things The belief that living things must have some "interna essence" responsible for their animation/movement/growth, shows notion of design based on reasoning extended beyond.
-commonsense essentialism: kids will categorize based on appearance if no category is listed
-supernatural thinking can be confusing across domains
---ex: purpose based reasoning makes sense for artifacts/tools but not for things in the natural world
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Hyperactivity Agency Detection -Familiarity based: the more similar to humans, the more animacy infants attribute to the agent
--ex: animals are more similar to humans than a table
-Cue based: agents are recognized if they exhibit 'positive' cues and not recognized if they exhibit 'negative' cues
--ex: infants will not recognize a hands goal if it is wearing metallic gloves
--ex: infants will react to objects that talk or have a face
-related to seeing faces/agents in ambiguous stimuli (rather than seeing things) ex: face in bell pepper
The uncanny valley More consistent with 'cue based' theories; the more similar an android appears to a real person, the creepier and unfamiliar it becomes. Brain expects it to make robotic movements, not human ones
--theories suggest androids/zombies creep us out because of issues having to do with immortality and death
Errors in Hyperactivity of agency detection -False alarm: thinking that there's an agent when there isn't, less risky than a miss
---ex: thinking a twig is a snake and running away
-Miss: thinking there is not an agent when there is one, high consequence if it's dangerous
---ex: thinking a snake is a twig, stepping on it, and dying
Evidence of Hyperactive agency detection Brain Imaging (EEG) of similar initial response to doll and real faces (first 150 msec), but sustained activity only for humans later on (>400msec)
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Hyperactive agency detection and anthropomorphism When will we see a mind behind a face? (in the transformation from doll to human)
-It can be related to moral concerns, like when anti-abortion campaigns exploit our tendency for anthropomorphism
-More prominent in situations where we lack control
-Moral concern for animals, environment, and attribution of certain emotions to non-human entities are all individual factors that cause variation in degree of anthropomorphism
anthropomorphism
Anthropomorphism, or personification, is attribution of human form or other characteristics to anything other than a human being.
Hyperactive agency detection and world events Princess Alice: older kids attribute invisible agents to real world events as a sign (7+), 5-6 year olds think Alice caused the event but don't view it as a sign, 3-4 year olds do not think Alice did it at all, and attribute the event to a more scientific reason
Dualism The belief that our mind/soul/body are different entities
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Descartes Cogito Ergo Sum=I think therefore I am
-He said the nature of the mind(thinking, non-extended) is very different from the nature of the body(non-thinking, extended)
-You can argue that every physical item and your memories are an illusion, but you know you exist in some form because you can form thoughts and come to conclusions

Dualistic Intuitions The brain is a "computer for the soul", it's our source of information, and the soul is we we are (our essence) and ultimately decides our decisions
-ex: Homer can argue with his brain on the Simpsons
Dualism and Supernatural Beliefs -The afterlife, ghosts, disembodied spirits, possession etc. all rely on the belief in dualism
-Religion uses dualism to support beliefs in divine spirits, and continued existence after destruction of the body (ex: belief in Heaven/Hell/Angels)


Dualism and Core Knowledge Dualism might be a primitive default assumption in human cognition stemming from the separation of object knowledge and agent knowledge; evidence from infants withholding the law of continuity when reasoning about people
--infants look equally at a situation where there is 1 person or 2
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Dualism in preschoolers Evidence from attribution of properties to a copied hamster in the duplicating box experiment, they assume physical characteristics are the same, but mental ones do not carry on
-a machine that is copied maintains all the same characteristics
Dualism in afterlife (preschool) Preschoolers think death causes end of physical properties but that mental ones still exist
Sympathetic magic and essentialism Idea that a commonsense belief in essentialism might be the best way to understand beliefs that fall under the laws of sympathetic magic
Similarity & Contagion and essence Similarity: objects that share appearance might share an essence, if so, then they will have related properties
--ex: supernatural beliefs like photo magic stem form this (that someone can harm you by harming your photo, so don't get photographed unless with a bible)
Contagion: objects that come into contact might transfer an essence from one to another
--ex: supernatural beliefs like taxi cab drivers in South Africa believe accidents are caused by "contaminated roads"
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Motion and Essence -14 month infants think motion is based on internal features not external
---ex:if a red blob with a red hat moves up and down, infants will assume a red blob with a blue hat moves up and down as well but not a blue bob with a red hat
Law of Similarity and Essentialism -Predicts that if there is evidence/knowledge that essence is not the same, despite similarity, then intuitions based on physical similarity
--ex: little kids and categorizing animals
--evidence for valuation of art vs. artifact created by same artist vs. apprentice
--evidence in children that a copied special object (toy) is not considered to have the same essence, and therefore is an acceptable replacement for their original special object
--evidence that implicit autonomic responses in adults when destroying pics of treasured item, even if pic is blurry, but not of a similar object
Law of Contagion and essentialism Idea that essence might be transferred via contact. Predicts internal entity more potent than an external entity
--evidence from children's representations of organ transplants. By age 6-7 children believe that internal organ transfers (which contain the donor's essence) might carry with them features of the donor to the recipient, transfer of an owned object does not
-Predicts that increased contact=increased transfer of essence
-Evidence that valuation of and pleasure from wearing a celeb item depends on increased contact between celeb and item
-priming drives affects (ex: talking about yawn spreadin across subway
Boyer's theory of supernatural entities Argues that concepts that are minimally/modestly counter-intuitive are cognitively optimal for being remembered and transmitted between human minds
Generated by Koofers.com
Criteria for being a supernatural agent I. Label
II. Concept category
III. Violation
---Breach from typical expectation for concept
---Transfer of property from another concept
IV. Default expectations from the category: start with a familiar category (i.e. person), assumer regular properties plus 1 or 2 violations
Evidence that Minimal Counterintuitiveness is best for detecting supernatural agents -Memory studies: if there are too many breaches, they can't be remembered (studies from what you remember now & in 3 months)
-Folktale Concepts: If participants are read folk tales and told to type them after a delay, MCI concepts do best
-Drawing aliens: nearly everything we draw his eyes/mouth/nose, mode of locomotion, symmetrical (only few breaches)
-Stories about entities transforming into another entity: transformations are less likely the further away the entities are in a category tree
Why too many violations are not effective Concepts with lots of violations are difficult to remember and keep straight, they lose the base concept which is a key element of the supernatural
Origin of myths about supernatural entities Idea that specific entities we think about are grounded in certain events that might have a factual basis
--ex: Haitian zombies caused by a poison that destroys part of the brain that governs speech and willpower, derived from puffer fish. Science allows them to hold onto this belief (without actual proof)
--ex: Vampires caused by hypothalamus disorders (like rabies) that can cause aggressiveness, altered sexual behavior, insomnia (nocturnal), and is caused from a bite
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What makes a good 'god' concept? (Barrett's five citeria) -Counterintuitive
-Intentional agent
-Strategic information
-Detectable actions on the world
-Recruits ritualistic behaviors
Santa and Barrett's criteria -Counterintuitive: Santa fits down a chimney, circles the world in one night
-Intentional agent: displays goal directed actions
-Strategic information: naughty and nice list (influences behavior)
-Detectable actions on the world: kids get presents from Santa
-Recruit ritualistic behaviors: writing letters, leaving out cookies and milk

Evidence that concepts of GOD are based on PERSON concepts (from Boyer) -Idea of 'theologically correct' responses to questions about supernatural (especially religious) concepts in which people articulate a notion of God that suggests God is not subject to human limitations (ex: all seeing, all knowing, all powerful
-However, evidence in people's narrative memories suggests people's intuitive concepts result in them reasoning about God as if subject to limitations
Theologically correct vs. intuitive beliefs: Brazilian possession cults Theologically: mind of the medium and spirit blend, because the spirit acts differently in each medium, and the possessed can remember events
Intuitive: Indicate a model of total displacement of one mind by another
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Beth/Ann possession event studies suggest what response more common? -Displacement
---Idea of spatiality or objecthood to account for displacement narrative. Minds cannot be in the same place at the same time, spirits/agents tied to spatial locations
---Beth's mind in Ann's body will be just as sociable as Beth was originally not a mix of the two
Children's Development of God concepts...from intuitive to theologically correct concepts -Children are more intuitive about supernatural concepts (give them human characteristics)
-Children initially (age 3) fail to attribute ignorance or failure to have knowledge to ALL agents (humans, gods, and magical creatures) aka no false belief
-As they get older they go through a period in which they attribute ignorance to God, before learning that God is NOT subject to false beliefs or lack of perceptual access

Application of human properties (adults vs. children) -Adults apply more human like properties to fictional entities (vampires, ghosts, witches) than to religious entities (God, Angels, Satan)
-Children apply human like concepts as much to both fictional and religious kinds of concepts suggesting their supernatural concepts are in general more intuitive
Why do we not believe in other cultures' Gods? we need to take into account the context in which the beliefs are supported/endorsed by other people in the culture (as well as the content of the representation itself)
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Mechanisms supporting cultural learning in infants Importance of social/pedagogical cues that tell important generalizable information may follow:
-direct eye gaze
-reference to target of learner
-infant directed speech
Evidence of importance of such cues for
-learning about edibility of plants (vs. eating artifacts)
-Dangerous animals (one trial will teach them long term)
-Role of such cues in supporting search errors in A not B task (infants/dogs do better without social cues)

Who do children learn from? -Children are not especially gullible (can tell imaginary companions aren't real and distinguish between different fictional worlds)
-Supernatural explanations in children do not appear until age 12, natural/logical explanations used before this. Home support of religion affects this
Evidence that children trust testimony provided by... -caregivers (except avoidant), accurate speakers, same sex speakers
-Learning from prestigious models leads to the possibility of being misled...so learning is stronger and more credible of model accompanies his or her own instruction with displays that would be costly if what he or she is saying is not true
--ex: children more likely to try a new food if model eats some first

-
Endorsement, Supernatural Agents, Children -This leads to a strong role for endorsement of supernatural entities in the culture to support belief...also for entities which cannot be directly experienced
--more likely to believe in science or endorsed supernatural elements (God, Santa) than non-endorsed ones (monsters, mermaids)
-Greater similarity between science and supernatural beliefs in this respect than is often recognized
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 Laws of Sympathetic Magic-Law of Contagion: once two things have been in contact with each other they still continue to act on each other even when physical contact has been severed and distance between the objects has been created
----ex: selling of celeb items, don't wanna wear Osama Bin Laden's sweater
-Law of Similarity: similarity in appearance will cause items to be grouped together and a causal connection will be created without reasoning 
----ex: voodoo dolls, reluctance to burn an effigy
 Supernatural concepts and scienceSupernatural concepts have no backing or evidence in natural science
 3 reasons why supernatural concepts flourish in human minds1.) Process reasons (part of cognitive processing)
2.) Content reasons
3.) Context reasons 
 Process reasonsPart of Cognitive Processing; humans have perceptual and cognitive processes for the detection and recognition of causal relationships. We are bad at appreciating the nature of randomness and estimating the probabilities of events, failure to believe in coincidence
--hot hand fallacy: just because player mode last shot, does not mean his odds of making next one are higher
 Content reasonsSome beliefs flourish because they have content that exploits the organization of our common sense core knowledge 
--'hyperactive' attribution of agency, we see faces in clouds
--extension of inferences from one domain to another
 Context ReasonsDerived from how certain concepts spread through cultures are supported by cultural institutions
--ex: more people believe in God than Santa Claus (or ghosts)
 Cognitive Processes/Biases-The human mind as a device for detecting causal relationships. Idea that decisions often (always) need to be reached under uncertainty, therefore shortcuts/biases often employed
 Biases in detecting relationships from random sequences-Streak shooting, we we are poor at judging random sequences
----heads/tails example: even if we know heads is flipped 70% of the time we will try and predict the random and only get 56% correct 
-Bad at estimating probabilities
----ex: at least two people will have the same birthday based on odds 

 Negativity biasWe overestimate probabilities/frequencies of negative events
-ex: when shown random white and black dots and told the white dots are poison people will think there are more of them when told the white dots are just sour apples
 Hindsight BiasOnce you know something it's hard to imagine not ever knowing it, or that other people would not know it
-ex: fish embedded in a noisy image 
 Confirmation BiasWe tend to seek evidence confirming our hypotheses/beliefs rather than evidence that would falsify them, and this leads to a biased consideration of the available data (ex: adopting then having a biological child, we focus on when it does happen rather than when it doesn't)
 Motivated beliefwe tend to be more likely to believe things we want to be true (e.g. that we are better than average drivers) and assume that other people believe things that are consisten with what we believe (e.x. different interpretations of Stephen Colbert's true beliefs in conservative vs. liberal viewers)
 Four Laws of Object Motion-Cohesion
-Continuit
-Solidity
-Contact
 CohesionPrincipal that objects are bounded whole things, so that when you move a part of it, the object as a whole will move
-ex: if you move a box of crayons you expect the whole box to move not just a single crayon
 ContinuityIf a ball rolls behind the left screen, is not shown in the middle, then rolls out from the right side of the screen you will assume there are two balls, not one
--infants do not apply this to animate agents, dualism
 SolidityInfants expect objects to be solid so they cannot pass through each other, and are surprised if the final resting place of an object is past a solid object that should have stopped it from rolling
 ContactPrincipal that objects act on each other only if they come into contact with each other
-ex: chalk will not move unless we hit it
  • this does not apply to animate agents
 AgentsProperties that distinguish animate agents from objects, like movement properties

 movement propertieschanges in velocity, direction, and orientation are indicative of internal source of energy/force
-rational motion: little ball wants wants to be with the big ball, so it jumps over the obstacle
-goal directed: if hand reaches for one object repeatedly, infants will be surprised if it reaches for the other object, even if they change locations
-morphological cues to agency: faces, eyes, talking blobs, are all effectors
 Living thingsThe belief that living things must have some "interna essence" responsible for their animation/movement/growth, shows notion of design based on reasoning extended beyond.
-commonsense essentialism: kids will categorize based on appearance if no category is listed
-supernatural thinking can be confusing across domains
---ex: purpose based reasoning makes sense for artifacts/tools but not for things in the natural world
 Hyperactivity Agency Detection-Familiarity based: the more similar to humans, the more animacy infants attribute to the agent
--ex: animals are more similar to humans than a table
-Cue based: agents are recognized if they exhibit 'positive' cues and not recognized if they exhibit 'negative' cues
--ex: infants will not recognize a hands goal if it is wearing metallic gloves
--ex: infants will react to objects that talk or have a face
-related to seeing faces/agents in ambiguous stimuli (rather than seeing things) ex: face in bell pepper
 The uncanny valleyMore consistent with 'cue based' theories; the more similar an android appears to a real person, the creepier and unfamiliar it becomes. Brain expects it to make robotic movements, not human ones
--theories suggest androids/zombies creep us out because of issues having to do with immortality and death
 Errors in Hyperactivity of agency detection-False alarm: thinking that there's an agent when there isn't, less risky than a miss
---ex: thinking a twig is a snake and running away
-Miss: thinking there is not an agent when there is one, high consequence if it's dangerous
---ex: thinking a snake is a twig, stepping on it, and dying
 Evidence of Hyperactive agency detectionBrain Imaging (EEG) of similar initial response to doll and real faces (first 150 msec), but sustained activity only for humans later on (>400msec)
 Hyperactive agency detection and anthropomorphismWhen will we see a mind behind a face? (in the transformation from doll to human)
-It can be related to moral concerns, like when anti-abortion campaigns exploit our tendency for anthropomorphism
-More prominent in situations where we lack control
-Moral concern for animals, environment, and attribution of certain emotions to non-human entities are all individual factors that cause variation in degree of anthropomorphism
 anthropomorphism
Anthropomorphism, or personification, is attribution of human form or other characteristics to anything other than a human being.
 Hyperactive agency detection and world eventsPrincess Alice: older kids attribute invisible agents to real world events as a sign (7+), 5-6 year olds think Alice caused the event but don't view it as a sign, 3-4 year olds do not think Alice did it at all, and attribute the event to a more scientific reason
 DualismThe belief that our mind/soul/body are different entities
 DescartesCogito Ergo Sum=I think therefore I am
-He said the nature of the mind(thinking, non-extended) is very different from the nature of the body(non-thinking, extended)
-You can argue that every physical item and your memories are an illusion, but you know you exist in some form because you can form thoughts and come to conclusions

 Dualistic IntuitionsThe brain is a "computer for the soul", it's our source of information, and the soul is we we are (our essence) and ultimately decides our decisions
-ex: Homer can argue with his brain on the Simpsons
 Dualism and Supernatural Beliefs-The afterlife, ghosts, disembodied spirits, possession etc. all rely on the belief in dualism
-Religion uses dualism to support beliefs in divine spirits, and continued existence after destruction of the body (ex: belief in Heaven/Hell/Angels)


 Dualism and Core KnowledgeDualism might be a primitive default assumption in human cognition stemming from the separation of object knowledge and agent knowledge; evidence from infants withholding the law of continuity when reasoning about people
--infants look equally at a situation where there is 1 person or 2
 Dualism in preschoolersEvidence from attribution of properties to a copied hamster in the duplicating box experiment, they assume physical characteristics are the same, but mental ones do not carry on
-a machine that is copied maintains all the same characteristics
 Dualism in afterlife (preschool)Preschoolers think death causes end of physical properties but that mental ones still exist
 Sympathetic magic and essentialismIdea that a commonsense belief in essentialism might be the best way to understand beliefs that fall under the laws of sympathetic magic
 Similarity & Contagion and essenceSimilarity: objects that share appearance might share an essence, if so, then they will have related properties
--ex: supernatural beliefs like photo magic stem form this (that someone can harm you by harming your photo, so don't get photographed unless with a bible)
Contagion: objects that come into contact might transfer an essence from one to another
--ex: supernatural beliefs like taxi cab drivers in South Africa believe accidents are caused by "contaminated roads"
 Motion and Essence-14 month infants think motion is based on internal features not external
---ex:if a red blob with a red hat moves up and down, infants will assume a red blob with a blue hat moves up and down as well but not a blue bob with a red hat
 Law of Similarity and Essentialism-Predicts that if there is evidence/knowledge that essence is not the same, despite similarity, then intuitions based on physical similarity
--ex: little kids and categorizing animals
--evidence for valuation of art vs. artifact created by same artist vs. apprentice
--evidence in children that a copied special object (toy) is not considered to have the same essence, and therefore is an acceptable replacement for their original special object
--evidence that implicit autonomic responses in adults when destroying pics of treasured item, even if pic is blurry, but not of a similar object
 Law of Contagion and essentialismIdea that essence might be transferred via contact. Predicts internal entity more potent than an external entity
--evidence from children's representations of organ transplants. By age 6-7 children believe that internal organ transfers (which contain the donor's essence) might carry with them features of the donor to the recipient, transfer of an owned object does not
-Predicts that increased contact=increased transfer of essence
-Evidence that valuation of and pleasure from wearing a celeb item depends on increased contact between celeb and item
-priming drives affects (ex: talking about yawn spreadin across subway
 Boyer's theory of supernatural entitiesArgues that concepts that are minimally/modestly counter-intuitive are cognitively optimal for being remembered and transmitted between human minds
 Criteria for being a supernatural agentI. Label
II. Concept category
III. Violation
---Breach from typical expectation for concept
---Transfer of property from another concept
IV. Default expectations from the category: start with a familiar category (i.e. person), assumer regular properties plus 1 or 2 violations
 Evidence that Minimal Counterintuitiveness is best for detecting supernatural agents-Memory studies: if there are too many breaches, they can't be remembered (studies from what you remember now & in 3 months)
-Folktale Concepts: If participants are read folk tales and told to type them after a delay, MCI concepts do best
-Drawing aliens: nearly everything we draw his eyes/mouth/nose, mode of locomotion, symmetrical (only few breaches)
-Stories about entities transforming into another entity: transformations are less likely the further away the entities are in a category tree
 Why too many violations are not effectiveConcepts with lots of violations are difficult to remember and keep straight, they lose the base concept which is a key element of the supernatural
 Origin of myths about supernatural entitiesIdea that specific entities we think about are grounded in certain events that might have a factual basis
--ex: Haitian zombies caused by a poison that destroys part of the brain that governs speech and willpower, derived from puffer fish. Science allows them to hold onto this belief (without actual proof)
--ex: Vampires caused by hypothalamus disorders (like rabies) that can cause aggressiveness, altered sexual behavior, insomnia (nocturnal), and is caused from a bite
 What makes a good 'god' concept? (Barrett's five citeria)-Counterintuitive
-Intentional agent
-Strategic information
-Detectable actions on the world
-Recruits ritualistic behaviors
 Santa and Barrett's criteria-Counterintuitive: Santa fits down a chimney, circles the world in one night
-Intentional agent: displays goal directed actions
-Strategic information: naughty and nice list (influences behavior)
-Detectable actions on the world: kids get presents from Santa
-Recruit ritualistic behaviors: writing letters, leaving out cookies and milk

 Evidence that concepts of GOD are based on PERSON concepts (from Boyer)-Idea of 'theologically correct' responses to questions about supernatural (especially religious) concepts in which people articulate a notion of God that suggests God is not subject to human limitations (ex: all seeing, all knowing, all powerful
-However, evidence in people's narrative memories suggests people's intuitive concepts result in them reasoning about God as if subject to limitations
 Theologically correct vs. intuitive beliefs: Brazilian possession cultsTheologically: mind of the medium and spirit blend, because the spirit acts differently in each medium, and the possessed can remember events
Intuitive: Indicate a model of total displacement of one mind by another
 Beth/Ann possession event studies suggest what response more common?-Displacement
---Idea of spatiality or objecthood to account for displacement narrative. Minds cannot be in the same place at the same time, spirits/agents tied to spatial locations
---Beth's mind in Ann's body will be just as sociable as Beth was originally not a mix of the two
 Children's Development of God concepts...from intuitive to theologically correct concepts-Children are more intuitive about supernatural concepts (give them human characteristics)
-Children initially (age 3) fail to attribute ignorance or failure to have knowledge to ALL agents (humans, gods, and magical creatures) aka no false belief
-As they get older they go through a period in which they attribute ignorance to God, before learning that God is NOT subject to false beliefs or lack of perceptual access

 Application of human properties (adults vs. children)-Adults apply more human like properties to fictional entities (vampires, ghosts, witches) than to religious entities (God, Angels, Satan)
-Children apply human like concepts as much to both fictional and religious kinds of concepts suggesting their supernatural concepts are in general more intuitive
 Why do we not believe in other cultures' Gods?we need to take into account the context in which the beliefs are supported/endorsed by other people in the culture (as well as the content of the representation itself)
 Mechanisms supporting cultural learning in infantsImportance of social/pedagogical cues that tell important generalizable information may follow:
-direct eye gaze
-reference to target of learner
-infant directed speech
Evidence of importance of such cues for
-learning about edibility of plants (vs. eating artifacts)
-Dangerous animals (one trial will teach them long term)
-Role of such cues in supporting search errors in A not B task (infants/dogs do better without social cues)

 Who do children learn from?-Children are not especially gullible (can tell imaginary companions aren't real and distinguish between different fictional worlds)
-Supernatural explanations in children do not appear until age 12, natural/logical explanations used before this. Home support of religion affects this
 Evidence that children trust testimony provided by...-caregivers (except avoidant), accurate speakers, same sex speakers
-Learning from prestigious models leads to the possibility of being misled...so learning is stronger and more credible of model accompanies his or her own instruction with displays that would be costly if what he or she is saying is not true
--ex: children more likely to try a new food if model eats some first

-
 Endorsement, Supernatural Agents, Children-This leads to a strong role for endorsement of supernatural entities in the culture to support belief...also for entities which cannot be directly experienced
--more likely to believe in science or endorsed supernatural elements (God, Santa) than non-endorsed ones (monsters, mermaids)
-Greater similarity between science and supernatural beliefs in this respect than is often recognized
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