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Test one Chapters 1,2,3,4 - Flashcards

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Class:PSY 09209 - Child Development
Subject:Psychology
University:Rowan University
Term:Spring 2010
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Psychology is an academic and applied discipline which involves the scientific study of human or animal mental functions and behaviors.
Goals of Psychology Describe, Explain, Predict, Control
Periods of Development The Prenatal Period, Infancy and toddlerhood, Early Childhood, Middle Childhood, Adolescence, Emerging Adulthood.
Continuity vs. Discontinuity Continuous-a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there there to begin with Discontinuous- a process in which new ways to understand and respond to the world emerge at different times
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Nature vs. Nurture The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature", i.e.
One course or Many Many different courses of development
Baby Biographies
Normative Approach measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age-related averages are computerd to represent typical development.
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Basic Theories Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is, in its broadest sense, any systematic knowledge-base or prescriptive practice that is capable of resulting in a prediction or predictable type of outcome.
Cognitive Piaget-Active participants, active learners, Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operation
Behaviorist Behaviorism (or behaviourism), also called the learning perspective (where any physical action is a behavior), is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition tha
Psychodynamic Psychodynamics is the systematized study and theory of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, emphasizing the interplay between unconscious and conscious 
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Humanistic Humanism is a moral philosophy that places humans as primary, in range of importance. Carl Rogers
Biological Perspective Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology is the application of the principles of biology (in particular neurobiology
Scientific Method Scientific method refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
Descriptive
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Naturalistic vs. Structured Observation Observation of behavior in natural contexts,. Observation of behavior in a laboratory, where conditions are the same for all participants.
Survey
Case Study Brings together a wide range of information on one child including interviews observations and sometimes test scores
Correlation A research design in which the researcher gathers information on individuals without altering participants' experiences and then examines relationships between variables.
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Experiment(Independent and Dependent Varia Eliminate or control all of environment conditions except two set up artificial situations with independent and dependent
Experiment and Control Group
Genes A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism.
Genotype and Phenotype The genetic make-up of a person-Genotype Phenotype- The individual's physical and behavioral characteristics which are determined by both genetic and environmental factors
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DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruse
Chromosomes A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells.
PKU(Phenylketonuria) rare condition in which a baby is born without the ability to properly break down an amino acid called phenylalanine
Down Syndrom Down syndrome, or Down's syndrome (primarily in the United Kingdom), trisomy 21, or trisomy G is a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extr
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Heritability Estimate Heritability is the proportion of phenotypic variation in a population that is attributable to genetic variation among individuals. Phenotypic variation among individuals
Range of Reaction It's each person's unique, gentically deteremined response to the environment.
Concordance Rate the probability that a pair of individuals will both have a certain characteristic, given that one of the pair has the characteristic
Genetic-Environmental Correlations perspective of child, 3 levels, 1st-passive correlation; 2nd- Evocative Stage; 3rd-Active Stage-pick his or her own niche
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Conception When babies are made
Age of Viability By 21 to 22 weeks after fertilization, the lungs gain some ability to breathe air. This is considered the age of viability because survival outside the womb becomes possi
Zygote A zygote (from Greek zygtos "joined" or "yoked", from zygoun "to join" or "to yoke"), or zygocyte, is the initial cell formed when a new organism is produced by means o
Embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination.
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Fetus A fetus (also spelled foetus or ftus or faetus or ftus) is a developing mammal or other viviparous vertebrate after the embryonic stage and before birth.
Teratogens Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Apgar Scale devised in 1952 by Dr. Virginia Apgar as a simple and repeatable method to quickly and summarily assess the health of newborn children immediately after childbirth.
Attachment
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Reflexes (Importance of) Reflexes are important to survival the rooting reflex helps breatfeed the child, the swimming reflex helps the baby stay afloat so they have a greater chance of survival
States of Arousal Degrees of sleep and wakefulness Regular or NREM sleep, Irregular of REM sleep, Drowsiness, Quiet Alertness, Waking Activity and Crying
Neo-Natal Behavioral Assessment Scale It evaluates a wide range of 38 behaviors to build a behavioral profile of an infant up to 2 months old. This approach was innovative for recognizing that a baby is a hig
Sensory Capacities How the child responds to touch, taste, smelll, sound and visual stimulation
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Sensorimotor Birth-2 years, Infants think by acting on the world
Preoperational 2-7 years old, use symbols and develop language
Concrete Operational 7-11 years old, reasoning becomes logical
Formal Operational 11 years and older, adult reasoning develops
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Correlation Coefficient A number, ranging from +1.00 to -1.00, that desrcibes the strength and directions of the relationship between two variables.
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Psychologyis an academic and applied discipline which involves the scientific study of human or animal mental functions and behaviors.
 Goals of PsychologyDescribe, Explain, Predict, Control
 Periods of Development The Prenatal Period, Infancy and toddlerhood, Early Childhood, Middle Childhood, Adolescence, Emerging Adulthood.
 Continuity vs. DiscontinuityContinuous-a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there there to begin with
Discontinuous- a process in which new ways to understand and respond to the world emerge at different times
 Nature vs. NurtureThe nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature", i.e.
 One course or ManyMany different courses of development
 Baby Biographies 
 Normative Approachmeasures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age-related averages are computerd to represent typical development.
 Basic TheoriesScience (from the Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is, in its broadest sense, any systematic knowledge-base or prescriptive practice that is capable of resulting in a prediction or predictable type of outcome.
 Cognitive Piaget-Active participants, active learners, Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operation
 Behaviorist Behaviorism (or behaviourism), also called the learning perspective (where any physical action is a behavior), is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition tha
 PsychodynamicPsychodynamics is the systematized study and theory of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, emphasizing the interplay between unconscious and conscious 
 HumanisticHumanism is a moral philosophy that places humans as primary, in range of importance. Carl Rogers
 Biological PerspectiveBehavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology is the application of the principles of biology (in particular neurobiology
 Scientific MethodScientific method refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
 Descriptive 
 Naturalistic vs. Structured ObservationObservation of behavior in natural contexts,.
Observation of behavior in a laboratory, where conditions are the same for all participants.
 Survey 
 Case StudyBrings together a wide range of information on one child including interviews observations and sometimes test scores
 Correlation A research design in which the researcher gathers information on individuals without altering participants' experiences and then examines relationships between variables.
 Experiment(Independent and Dependent VariaEliminate or control all of environment conditions except two set up artificial situations with independent and dependent
 Experiment and Control Group 
 Genes A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism.
 Genotype and PhenotypeThe genetic make-up of a person-Genotype
Phenotype- The individual's physical and behavioral characteristics which are determined by both genetic and environmental factors
 DNADeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruse
 ChromosomesA chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells.
 PKU(Phenylketonuria)rare condition in which a baby is born
without the ability to properly break down an amino acid called
phenylalanine
 Down SyndromDown syndrome, or Down's syndrome (primarily in the United Kingdom), trisomy 21, or trisomy G is a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extr
 Heritability EstimateHeritability is the proportion of phenotypic variation in a population that is attributable to genetic variation among individuals. Phenotypic variation among individuals
 Range of ReactionIt's each person's unique, gentically deteremined response to the environment.
 Concordance Ratethe probability that a pair of individuals will both have a certain characteristic, given that one of the pair has the characteristic
 Genetic-Environmental Correlations perspective of child, 3 levels, 1st-passive correlation; 2nd- Evocative Stage; 3rd-Active Stage-pick his or her own niche
 ConceptionWhen babies are made
 Age of ViabilityBy 21 to 22 weeks after fertilization, the lungs gain some ability to breathe air. This is considered the age of viability because survival outside the womb becomes possi
 ZygoteA zygote (from Greek zygtos "joined" or "yoked", from zygoun "to join" or "to yoke"), or zygocyte, is the initial cell formed when a new organism is produced by means o
 Embryois a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination.
 FetusA fetus (also spelled foetus or ftus or faetus or ftus) is a developing mammal or other viviparous vertebrate after the embryonic stage and before birth.
 TeratogensTeratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
 Apgar Scaledevised in 1952 by Dr. Virginia Apgar as a simple and repeatable method to quickly and summarily assess the health of newborn children immediately after childbirth.
 Attachment 
 Reflexes (Importance of)Reflexes are important to survival the rooting reflex helps breatfeed the child, the swimming reflex helps the baby stay afloat so they have a greater chance of survival
 States of ArousalDegrees of sleep and wakefulness
Regular or NREM sleep, Irregular of REM sleep, Drowsiness, Quiet Alertness, Waking Activity and Crying
 Neo-Natal Behavioral Assessment ScaleIt evaluates a wide range of 38 behaviors to build a behavioral profile of an infant up to 2 months old. This approach was innovative for recognizing that a baby is a hig
 Sensory CapacitiesHow the child responds to touch, taste, smelll, sound and visual stimulation
 Sensorimotor Birth-2 years, Infants think by acting on the world
 Preoperational2-7 years old, use symbols and develop language
 Concrete Operational7-11 years old, reasoning becomes logical
 Formal Operational11 years and older, adult reasoning develops
 Correlation CoefficientA number, ranging from +1.00 to -1.00, that desrcibes the strength and directions of the relationship between two variables.
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