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chapter 12 social psychology - Flashcards

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Class:PSYC 100 - Basic Concepts in Psychology
Subject:Psychology
University:George Mason University
Term:Spring 2010
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social psychology the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to other people.
stereotype - a generalization about a group's characteristics that does not consider any variations from individual to another. they are a natural extension of the limits on human cognitive processing and our reliance on concepts in cognitive processing.
Walter Libman introduced the term Stereotype.
fundamental attribution error - it's important in understanding how people assign causes to their own behavior and the behavior they observe. - observer overestimates the importance of internal traits and underestimates the importance of external situations when they seek explanations of an actor's behavior.
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Attitudes they are our opinions and beliefs about people, objects, and ideas. (how we feels about things) >influences, and is influenced by outside things.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously. > developed by Festinger >we feel uncomfortable if we cannot justify ourselves. the difference between what we believe and what we do. >"making the skeleton dance"
Altruism unselfish interest in helping someone else >people are naturally selfish so it poses a problem to psychologists.
The bystander effect the tendency for an individual who observes an emergency to help less when other people are present than when the observer is alone
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Kitty Genovese commonly known as Kitty Genovese, was a New York City woman who was stabbed to death near her home in the Kew Gardens section of Queens, New York on March 13, 1964. there were many bystanders who just let it happen. he murderer returned 3 times.
Evolutionary Views on Agression certain stimuli release innate aggressive responses >proposed by E.O. wilson
conformity a change in a person's behavior to coincide more closely with a group standard.
Asch's conformity experiment - an experiment where there were a bunch of confederates, there were two notecards. one with three lines, another with 1, the actual person doing the experiment had to pick which lines were the same length, while the confederates were purposely picking ones that weren't the same length.
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Obedience behavior that complies with the explicit demands of the individual in authority.
Stanley Milgram Stanley Milgram was an American social psychologist most notable for his controversial study known as the Milgram Experiment.
Milgram Experiment measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience. experiment with the electric volts.
Social Facilitation occurs when an individual's performance improves beecause of the presence of others. Robert Zajonc argued that the presence of other individuals arouses us. this arousal produces energy and facilitates our performance in groups. if the arousal is too high, however, we are unable to learn new or difficult tasks efficiently.
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Social Facilitation on tasks > it improves performance on well learned tasks. > on new or difficult tasks, we might b best advised to learn things out on our own before trying them in a group
norman triplet social facilitation shit.
Ethnocentrism the tendency to favor one's own ethnic group over other groups. > asserting the groups superiority over other groups
Prejudice an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual's membership in a group.
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 social psychologythe study of how people think about, influence, and relate to other people.
 stereotype- a generalization about a group's characteristics that does not consider any variations from individual to another. they are a natural extension of the limits on human cognitive processing and our reliance on concepts in cognitive processing.
 Walter Libmanintroduced the term Stereotype.
 fundamental attribution error- it's important in understanding how people assign causes to their own behavior and the behavior they observe.
- observer overestimates the importance of internal traits and underestimates the importance of external situations when they seek explanations of an actor's behavior.
 Attitudes they are our opinions and beliefs about people, objects, and ideas. (how we feels about things)

>influences, and is influenced by outside things.
 Cognitive Dissonance TheoryCognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously.

> developed by Festinger

>we feel uncomfortable if we cannot justify ourselves. the difference between what we believe and what we do.
>"making the skeleton dance"
 Altruismunselfish interest in helping someone else

>people are naturally selfish so it poses a problem to psychologists.
 The bystander effectthe tendency for an individual who observes an emergency to help less when other people are present than when the observer is alone
 Kitty Genovesecommonly known as Kitty Genovese, was a New York City woman who was stabbed to death near her home in the Kew Gardens section of Queens, New York on March 13, 1964. there were many bystanders who just let it happen. he murderer returned 3 times.
 Evolutionary Views on Agressioncertain stimuli release innate aggressive responses

>proposed by E.O. wilson
 conformity a change in a person's behavior to coincide more closely with a group standard.
 Asch's conformity experiment- an experiment where there were a bunch of confederates, there were two notecards. one with three lines, another with 1, the actual person doing the experiment had to pick which lines were the same length, while the confederates were purposely picking ones that weren't the same length.
 Obediencebehavior that complies with the explicit demands of the individual in authority.
 Stanley MilgramStanley Milgram was an American social psychologist most notable for his controversial study known as the Milgram Experiment.
 Milgram Experiment measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience. experiment with the electric volts.
 Social Facilitationoccurs when an individual's performance improves beecause of the presence of others. Robert Zajonc argued that the presence of other individuals arouses us. this arousal produces energy and facilitates our performance in groups. if the arousal is too high, however, we are unable to learn new or difficult tasks efficiently.
 Social Facilitation on tasks> it improves performance on well learned tasks.

> on new or difficult tasks, we might b best advised to learn things out on our own before trying them in a group
 norman triplet social facilitation shit.
 Ethnocentrismthe tendency to favor one's own ethnic group over other groups.

> asserting the groups superiority over other groups
 Prejudicean unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual's membership in a group.
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