Koofers

Chapter 13- Psychological Disorders - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:PSYC 100 - Basic Concepts in Psychology
Subject:Psychology
University:George Mason University
Term:Spring 2010
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
insanity >a legal term, not a psychological term. > the inability to appreciate the nature and quality or wrongfulness of one's acts.
abnormal behavior behavior that is deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful over a long period of time.
Theoretical Approaches to Psychological Disorders > Biological approach > Psychological approach > Sociocultural approach > Interactionist apprach
The Biological approach >psychodynamic perspectives > Behavioral and social cognitive perspectives > trait perspectives > humanistic perspectives
Generated by Koofers.com
psychodynamic perspectives stress that psychological disorders arise from unconscious conflicts conflicts that produce anxiety and result in maladaptive behavior. > their roots are early childhood experiences and repressed sexual conflicts.
behavioral and social cognitive perspectives > the behavioral perspective focuses on rewards and punishments in the environment that determine abnormal behavior. -this could involve examining how the person's abnormal behavior is rewarded or punished by his or her social environment. >the social part accepts that environmental experiences are important determinants of psychological disorders but emphasizes that social cognitive factors are involved (observational learning, expectancies, self-efficiencies, etc..)
Trait perspectives the five-factor model that summarizes the broad dimensions of personality characteristics has been used as a means of assessing psychological disorders, especially personality disorders. they view abnormal behaviors and characteristics as variations on the normal personality characteristics as seen in normal populations.
broad dimensions of personality characteristics (trait perspectives) >neuroticism >extraversion >openness ti experience >agreeableness > conscientiousness
Generated by Koofers.com
Humanistic perspectives these perspectives emphasize positive personal qualities , capacity for growth, and freedom to choose one's own destiny. A psychological disorder reflects an inability to fulfill one's potential, likely arising from the pressures of society to conform to others' expectations and values. > it focuses on less diagnostic labels and more on the humanity of each individual in his or her life context.
The Sociocultural Approach mainly attributes psychological problems to unconscious conflicts, negative conditions, low self-concept, and other factors within the individual, proponents of this approach nevertheless give environmental experiences a role in creating psychological disorders. > it place more emphasis on the larger social contexts in which a person lives-- including the individual's marriage or family, neighbor
an interactionist approach > normal and abnormal behavior alike may involve biological psychological and sociocultural factors, such as those we have been considering, alone or in combination with other factors.
Craplin early diagnosis.
Generated by Koofers.com
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) idividuals show one or more of the follow characteristics over a period of time: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsive. one of the most disorders in children
Generalized anxiety disorder suffers experience persistent anxiety for at least 6 months. they are unable to specify the reasons for anxiety.
panic disorder an anxiety disorder characterized by recurring severe panic attacks. frequent feelings of impending doom but they may not feel anxious all the time.
phobic disorder an irrational,overwhelming, persistent fear of a particular object or situation-- an anxiety disorder.
Generated by Koofers.com
social phobia is an intense fear of being humiliated or embarrased in social situtations
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) - an anxiety disorder in which the individual has anxiety-provoking thoughts that will not go away and/or urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situation
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) an anxiety disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event, such as war. severely opressive things; the holocaust, severe abuse; rape, natural disasters, tornado, unnatural disasters, plane crash >sertraline (Zoloft)
Depressive disorders - mood disorders in which the individual suffers from depression(an unrelenting lack of pleasure in life)
Generated by Koofers.com
major depressive disorder (MDD) - involves major depressive episode and depressed characteristics, such as lethargy and hopelessness for at least 2 weeks. -leading disability in US
dysthymic disorder Dysthymia () is a chronic mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum, the opposite of hyperthymia. - chronic with fewer symptoms than major depression
nine symptoms that define mdd 1. depressed mood most of day 2. reduced interest or pleasure in all or most activities 3. significant weight loss or gain 4. trouble sleeping or sleeping too much 5. psychomoter agitation or retardation 6. fatigue or loss of energy 7. problems thinking, concentrating, making decisions 8. feeling worthless or guilty, in an excessive or inappropriate manner 9. recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.
bipolar disorder mood disorder that is characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania(extreme happiness) -person may experience both mania and depression
Generated by Koofers.com
Causes of Mood disorders (biological factors) > heredity > neurobiological abnormalities > problems in neurotransmitter regulation > Hormones
Causes of Mood disorders (psychological factors) > psychodynamic explanations > behavioral explanations > cognitive explanations
Causes of Mood disorders (sociocultural) >interpersonal relationships > socioeconomic and ethnic factors > gender
Heredity depressive and bipolar disorders tend to run in families, although the family link is stronger for bipolar disorder than for depressive disorders. one of the greatest risks for developing a mood disorder is having a biological parent who suffers from a mood disorder. >the rate of the disorder in 1st degree relatives is 10 to 20 times higher than in the general population.
Generated by Koofers.com
Neurobiological Abnormalities one of the most consistent findings is that individuals with mood disorders is altered brain-wave activity during sleep. Depressed individuals experience less slow wave sleep and go into REM sleep. they have difficulty going to sleep at night or remaining asleep, often wake up early and cannot get back to sleep. >decreased metabolic activity in the cerebral cortex of those with severe MDD > most areas of the brain of depressed individuals are underactive.
Problems in Neurotransmitter Regulation depression likely involves problems in regulating a number of neurotransmitters. for the brain to function smoothly the neurotransmitters must ebb and flow. > abnormalities in the monoamine-- such as norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine -- have been implicated in mood disorders.
Hormones Depressed individual show chronic hyperactivity in the neuroendocrine glandular system and an inability to return to normal functioning following a stressful experience. The excess hormones produced by the neuroendocrine system (pituitary gland, etc..) may be linked to the problems in regulating the monoamine neurotransmitters just discussed. >some have argued that women's increased vulnerability to depression is linked to their ovarian hormones, estrogen, and progesterone.
Psychodynamic explanations > emphasize that depression stems from individuals' childhood experiences that prevented them from developing a strong positive sense of self. In this view, depressed individuals become overly dependent on the evaluations and approval of others for their self-esteem mainly because of inadequate nurturing by parents. > many modern psychodynamic theories still rely on freud's theory that depression is a turning inward of aggressive instincts.
Generated by Koofers.com
Behavioral Explanations peter lewinsohn and his colleagues proposed that life's stressed can lead to depression by reducing the positive reinforcers in person's life. >when people experience considerable stress in their lives, they may withdraw from the stress. the withdrawl produces a further reduction in positive reinforcers, which can lead to more withdrawl, which leads to even less positive reinforcers.
learned helplessness proposed by Martin Seligman, is one reason that some individuals become depressed. when individuals cannot control the stress they encounter, they eventually feel helpless and stop trying to change their situation. this helplessness spirals into a feeling of hopelessness.
cognitive explanations > depressed individuals rarely think positive thoughts. they interpret their lives in self-defeating ways and have negative expectations about the future. >Beck believes that such negative thoughts reflect schemas that shape depressed individuals' experiences. These habitual negative thoughts magnify and expand depressed persons' negative experiences. They overgeneralized over minor occurrences and think they are worthless.
depressive realism > some individuals who are depressed may being seeing their world accurately and realistically. their life actually is shit.
Generated by Koofers.com
socioeconomic and ethnic factors >individuals with a low socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to be depressed, than people with a high SES. >also, native americans are surrounded by depression, poverty, and booze. and hopelessness
Gender women are so sad, and men are not. bipolar has equal whatever.
Suicide Biological factors >genetic factors appear to play a role in suicide, which tends to run in families. > studies have linked suicide with low levels of neurotransmitter serotonin. >brains of individuals who have committed suicide show abnormally low levels of this transmitter. > poor physical health, especially when it is long-standing and chronic, is another risk for suicide.
Suicide Psychological Factors >factors that can contribute to suicide include mental disorders and traumas such as sexual abuse. >struggling with the stress of a psychological disorder can leave a person feeling hopeless, and the disorder itself may tax the person's ability to cope with problems of life. > the most common psychological disorders among individual who commit suicide is anxiety and depression. > immediate and highly stressful circumstances (job loss)
Generated by Koofers.com
Suicide Sociocultural Factors > the loss of a loved one through death, divorce, or separation can lead to a suicide attempt. > there also a link between suicide and long standing history of family instability and unhappiness. Chronic economic hardship too >native americas have the highest suicide rate of all groups > women are 3xs more likely to attempt suicide, men are 4x more like to attempt it. >highest suicide rate is in 85 year old white men.
suicidiest countires >hungary >austria >russia >sri lanka >japan
least suicidiest countries > egypt > guatemaltal > iran > peru > dominican republic
Dissociative disorders psychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity.
Generated by Koofers.com
dissociation the range of psychological experiences in which the person feels disconnected from immediate experience. they are unaware of central aspects of experience.
dissociative amnesia > a dissociative disorder characterized by extreme memory loss that is caused by extensive psychological stress. > being in a lot of trouble and going into a state of amnesia about it.
dissociative fugue a dissociative disorder in which they individual not only develops amnesia, but unexpectedly leaves home and assumes a new identity.
dissociative identity disorder (DID) > formerly called multiple personality disorder >most dramatic, but least comon dissociative disorder. > individuals have 2 or more distinct personalities > each personalities dominates at separate times and has their own memories. >personalities are separated by a wall of amnesia >shift occurs under distress. > most cases have roots in neglecting parents, and sexual or physical abuse. > a genetic predisposition might exist.
Generated by Koofers.com
Schizophrenia > a severe psychological disorder that is characterized by highly disordered thought processes. > the brain is split from reality, and then person is cast into a frightening chaotic world. > most common cause of relapse is not taking drugs > seeking treatment requires courage, you have to accept that your perceptions of the world is mistaken.
Schizophrenia symptoms > disordered thought > odd communication > inappropriate emotion > abnormal motor behavior > social withdrawal.
positive symptoms of Schizophrenia > traits added. > marked by distortion or an excess of normal functions > include: hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, disorders of movement
hallucinations > sensory experiences in the absence of real stimuli. they are often auditory (voices) > smells and tastes > seeing things that are not there.
Generated by Koofers.com
Delusions >false, sometimes even preposterous beliefs that are not part of the person's culture. > one person may think they are jesus, while another napoleon, or their thoughts are being broadcast on a loudspeaker > they must be distinguished from beliefs based on cultural ideas. > referential thinking
referential thinking > ascribing personal meaning to completely random events
disorders of movement >they may seem especially clumsy and show unusual mannerisms and facial expressions (grimace) >also may show catatonia
Catatonia > a state of immobility and unresponsiveness > remains motionless for long periods of time.
Generated by Koofers.com
Negative sysmptoms > reflect behavioral deficits and the loss or decrease of normal functions > trait deficit > flat affect, lack the ability to read others' emotions, may lack positive emotional experience, can't plan initiate or engage in goal-driven behavior, > symptoms do not have a clear counterpart in healthy peopple
Flat affect > negative symptom > the person shows little or no emotion, speaks without emotional inflection, no fail expressions.
Types of Schizophrenia >disorganized > catatonic > paranoid > undifferentiated
Disorganized Schizophrenia > an individual has delusions and hallucinations that little orno recognizable meaning > they may withdraw from human contact and regress to silly, childlike gestures and behavior > they experience isolation or maladjustment during adolescence
Generated by Koofers.com
Catatonic Schizophrenia > bizarre motor behavior that sometimes takes the form of a completely immobile stupor. > however, they are still completely conscious of what is happening around them. > sometimes show waxy flexibility
Paranoid Schizophrenia > delusions of reference, grandeur, and persecution. > delusions usually form an elaborate system based on a complete misinterpretation of events > they develop all three delusions in the following order (rgp) > first they they think they are special and misinterpret a chance event (thunderstorm) as being relevant to their own lives, then they think it's special attention for their special characteristics, then they think people are out to get them in envy
undifferentiated schizophrenia > characterized by disorganized behavior, hallucinations, delusions, and incoherence. > this diagnosis is used when an individual's symptoms either do not meet the criteria for one of the other types or meet the criteria for more than one of the other types
Biological factors of schizophrenia >heredity > structural brain abnormalities > problems in neurotransmitter regulations
Generated by Koofers.com
heredity > partially due to genetic factors > identical twins = 46% > fraternal twins = 14 % > sibling= 10% > nephew or niece = 3% > children 13%
structural brain abnormalities > they have enlarged ventricles > ventricles are fluid filled sacks - indicates atrophy or deterioration > they also have a small frontal cortex > many of these changes occur prenatally
problems in neurotransmitter regulation >an early explanation is that schizophrenics produce higher than normal levels of dopamine. the excess of dopamine causes it.
personality disorders > chronic, maladaptive cognitive-behavioral patterns that are thoroughly integrated into an individual's personality. > troublesome to others, and their pleasure sources are either harmful or illegal > the patterns are often recognizable by adolescence or earlier.
Generated by Koofers.com
paranoid personality disorder (odd/ eccentric) > these individuals have a lack of trust in others and suspicious. they see themselves as morally correct yet vulnerable and envied.
Schizoid personality disorder (odd/eccentric) - these individuals do not form adequate social relationships. they exhibit shy, withdrawn behavior and have difficulty expressing anger. >"cold people"
Schizotypal personality disorders (odd/eccentric) > show odd thinking patterns that reflect eccentric beliefs, overt suspicion, and overt honesty
Histrionic personality disorder (dramatic/ emotionally problematic) > seek a lot of attention and tend to overreact. respond more dramatically and intensely than is required by the situation >women
Generated by Koofers.com
Narcissistic (dramatic/ emotionally problematic) > have unrealistic sense of self-importance, can not take criticism, manipulate people, and lack empathy
Borderline pd (dramatic/ emotionally problematic) >often emotionally unstable, impulsive, unpredictable, irritable, and anxious >they have an unstable sense of identity and self. > prone to boredom. > similar to schizotypal, but not as consistently withdrawn and bizarre >related to childhood sexual abuse
Antisocial pd (dramatic/ emotionally problematic) > guiltless, law-breaking, explosive, self-indulgent, irresponsible, and intrusive. > result to a life of crime and violence. avoi
avoidant (chronic-fearfulness/ avoidant) > shy and inhibited yet desire interpersonal relationship > low self-esteem > extremely sensitive to rejection > close to being an anxiety disorder but is not characterized by as much personal distress
Generated by Koofers.com
dependent (chronic-fearfulness/ avoidant) > lack of self-confidence and do not express their own personalities > pervasive need to cling to stronger personalities. whom they allow to make decisions for them. >more common in women
passive-aggressive (chronic-fearfulness/ avoidant) >often pout and procrastinate; they are stubborn or are stubborn or are intentionally inefficient in an effort to frustrate others.
obsessive-compulsive (chronic-fearfulness/ avoidant) >an individual who shows obsessive perfectionism, rigidity, and need to apply a very strict moral code. > anxiety if everything is not "just right" >obsessed with rules >emotionally insensitive >oriented toward a lifestyle of productivity and efficiency - no gray areas. yes or no.
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 79 Print
 
Front
Back
 insanity>a legal term, not a psychological term.
> the inability to appreciate the nature and quality or wrongfulness of one's acts.
 abnormal behaviorbehavior that is deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful over a long period of time.
 Theoretical Approaches to Psychological Disorders> Biological approach
> Psychological approach
> Sociocultural approach
> Interactionist apprach
 The Biological approach>psychodynamic perspectives
> Behavioral and social cognitive perspectives
> trait perspectives
> humanistic perspectives
 psychodynamic perspectivesstress that psychological disorders arise from unconscious conflicts conflicts that produce anxiety and result in maladaptive behavior.

> their roots are early childhood experiences and repressed sexual conflicts.
 behavioral and social cognitive perspectives> the behavioral perspective focuses on rewards and punishments in the environment that determine abnormal behavior.
-this could involve examining how the person's abnormal behavior is rewarded or punished by his or her social environment.
>the social part accepts that environmental experiences are important determinants of psychological disorders but emphasizes that social cognitive factors are involved
(observational learning, expectancies, self-efficiencies, etc..)
 Trait perspectivesthe five-factor model that summarizes the broad dimensions of personality characteristics has been used as a means of assessing psychological disorders, especially personality disorders. they view abnormal behaviors and characteristics as variations on the normal personality characteristics as seen in normal populations.
 broad dimensions of personality characteristics (trait perspectives)>neuroticism
>extraversion
>openness ti experience
>agreeableness
> conscientiousness
 Humanistic perspectivesthese perspectives emphasize positive personal qualities , capacity for growth, and freedom to choose one's own destiny.
A psychological disorder reflects an inability to fulfill one's potential, likely arising from the pressures of society to conform to others' expectations and values.

> it focuses on less diagnostic labels and more on the humanity of each individual in his or her life context.
 The Sociocultural Approachmainly attributes psychological problems to unconscious conflicts, negative conditions, low self-concept, and other factors within the individual, proponents of this approach nevertheless give environmental experiences a role in creating psychological disorders.

> it place more emphasis on the larger social contexts in which a person lives-- including the individual's marriage or family, neighbor
 an interactionist approach> normal and abnormal behavior alike may involve biological psychological and sociocultural factors, such as those we have been considering, alone or in combination with other factors.
 Craplinearly diagnosis.
 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)idividuals show one or more of the follow characteristics over a period of time: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsive.

one of the most disorders in children
 Generalized anxiety disordersuffers experience persistent anxiety for at least 6 months. they are unable to specify the reasons for anxiety.
 panic disorderan anxiety disorder characterized by recurring severe panic attacks. frequent feelings of impending doom but they may not feel anxious all the time.
 phobic disorderan irrational,overwhelming, persistent fear of a particular object or situation-- an anxiety disorder.
 social phobiais an intense fear of being humiliated or embarrased in social situtations
 Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)- an anxiety disorder in which the individual has anxiety-provoking thoughts that will not go away and/or urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situation
 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)an anxiety disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event, such as war. severely opressive things; the holocaust, severe abuse; rape, natural disasters, tornado, unnatural disasters, plane crash

>sertraline (Zoloft)
 Depressive disorders- mood disorders in which the individual suffers from depression(an unrelenting lack of pleasure in life)
 major depressive disorder (MDD)- involves major depressive episode and depressed characteristics, such as lethargy and hopelessness for at least 2 weeks.

-leading disability in US
 dysthymic disorderDysthymia () is a chronic mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum, the opposite of hyperthymia.
- chronic with fewer symptoms than major depression
 nine symptoms that define mdd1. depressed mood most of day
2. reduced interest or pleasure in all or most activities
3. significant weight loss or gain
4. trouble sleeping or sleeping too much
5. psychomoter agitation or retardation
6. fatigue or loss of energy
7. problems thinking, concentrating, making decisions
8. feeling worthless or guilty, in an excessive or inappropriate manner
9. recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.
 bipolar disordermood disorder that is characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania(extreme happiness)

-person may experience both mania and depression
 Causes of Mood disorders (biological factors)> heredity
> neurobiological abnormalities
> problems in neurotransmitter regulation
> Hormones
 Causes of Mood disorders (psychological factors)> psychodynamic explanations
> behavioral explanations
> cognitive explanations
 Causes of Mood disorders (sociocultural)>interpersonal relationships
> socioeconomic and ethnic factors
> gender
 Hereditydepressive and bipolar disorders tend to run in families, although the family link is stronger for bipolar disorder than for depressive disorders. one of the greatest risks for developing a mood disorder is having a biological parent who suffers from a mood disorder.

>the rate of the disorder in 1st degree relatives is 10 to 20 times higher than in the general population.
 Neurobiological Abnormalitiesone of the most consistent findings is that individuals with mood disorders is altered brain-wave activity during sleep. Depressed individuals experience less slow wave sleep and go into REM sleep. they have difficulty going to sleep at night or remaining asleep, often wake up early and cannot get back to sleep.
>decreased metabolic activity in the cerebral cortex of those with severe MDD
> most areas of the brain of depressed individuals are underactive.
 Problems in Neurotransmitter Regulationdepression likely involves problems in regulating a number of neurotransmitters. for the brain to function smoothly the neurotransmitters must ebb and flow.

> abnormalities in the monoamine-- such as norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine -- have been implicated in mood disorders.
 HormonesDepressed individual show chronic hyperactivity in the neuroendocrine glandular system and an inability to return to normal functioning following a stressful experience. The excess hormones produced by the neuroendocrine system (pituitary gland, etc..) may be linked to the problems in regulating the monoamine neurotransmitters just discussed.
>some have argued that women's increased vulnerability to depression is linked to their ovarian hormones, estrogen, and progesterone.
 Psychodynamic explanations> emphasize that depression stems from individuals' childhood experiences that prevented them from developing a strong positive sense of self. In this view, depressed individuals become overly dependent on the evaluations and approval of others for their self-esteem mainly because of inadequate nurturing by parents.
> many modern psychodynamic theories still rely on freud's theory that depression is a turning inward of aggressive instincts.
 Behavioral Explanations peter lewinsohn and his colleagues proposed that life's stressed can lead to depression by reducing the positive reinforcers in person's life.
>when people experience considerable stress in their lives, they may withdraw from the stress. the withdrawl produces a further reduction in positive reinforcers, which can lead to more withdrawl, which leads to even less positive reinforcers.
 learned helplessness proposed by Martin Seligman, is one reason that some individuals become depressed. when individuals cannot control the stress they encounter, they eventually feel helpless and stop trying to change their situation. this helplessness spirals into a feeling of hopelessness.
 cognitive explanations> depressed individuals rarely think positive thoughts. they interpret their lives in self-defeating ways and have negative expectations about the future.
>Beck believes that such negative thoughts reflect schemas that shape depressed individuals' experiences. These habitual negative thoughts magnify and expand depressed persons' negative experiences. They overgeneralized over minor occurrences and think they are worthless.
 depressive realism> some individuals who are depressed may being seeing their world accurately and realistically. their life actually is shit.
 socioeconomic and ethnic factors>individuals with a low socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to be depressed, than people with a high SES.

>also, native americans are surrounded by depression, poverty, and booze. and hopelessness
 Genderwomen are so sad, and men are not. bipolar has equal whatever.
 Suicide Biological factors>genetic factors appear to play a role in suicide, which tends to run in families.
> studies have linked suicide with low levels of neurotransmitter serotonin.
>brains of individuals who have committed suicide show abnormally low levels of this transmitter.
> poor physical health, especially when it is long-standing and chronic, is another risk for suicide.
 Suicide Psychological Factors >factors that can contribute to suicide include mental disorders and traumas such as sexual abuse.
>struggling with the stress of a psychological disorder can leave a person feeling hopeless, and the disorder itself may tax the person's ability to cope with problems of life.
> the most common psychological disorders among individual who commit suicide is anxiety and depression.
> immediate and highly stressful circumstances (job loss)
 Suicide Sociocultural Factors> the loss of a loved one through death, divorce, or separation can lead to a suicide attempt.
> there also a link between suicide and long standing history of family instability and unhappiness. Chronic economic hardship too
>native americas have the highest suicide rate of all groups
> women are 3xs more likely to attempt suicide, men are 4x more like to attempt it.
>highest suicide rate is in 85 year old white men.
 suicidiest countires>hungary
>austria
>russia
>sri lanka
>japan
 least suicidiest countries> egypt
> guatemaltal
> iran
> peru
> dominican republic
 Dissociative disorderspsychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity.
 dissociation the range of psychological experiences in which the person feels disconnected from immediate experience. they are unaware of central aspects of experience.
 dissociative amnesia> a dissociative disorder characterized by extreme memory loss that is caused by extensive psychological stress.

> being in a lot of trouble and going into a state of amnesia about it.
 dissociative fuguea dissociative disorder in which they individual not only develops amnesia, but unexpectedly leaves home and assumes a new identity.
 dissociative identity disorder (DID)> formerly called multiple personality disorder
>most dramatic, but least comon dissociative disorder.
> individuals have 2 or more distinct personalities
> each personalities dominates at separate times and has their own memories.
>personalities are separated by a wall of amnesia
>shift occurs under distress.
> most cases have roots in neglecting parents, and sexual or physical abuse.
> a genetic predisposition might exist.
 Schizophrenia> a severe psychological disorder that is characterized by highly disordered thought processes.
> the brain is split from reality, and then person is cast into a frightening chaotic world.
> most common cause of relapse is not taking drugs
> seeking treatment requires courage, you have to accept that your perceptions of the world is mistaken.
 Schizophrenia symptoms> disordered thought
> odd communication
> inappropriate emotion
> abnormal motor behavior
> social withdrawal.
 positive symptoms of Schizophrenia> traits added.
> marked by distortion or an excess of normal functions
> include: hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, disorders of movement
 hallucinations> sensory experiences in the absence of real stimuli. they are often auditory (voices)
> smells and tastes
> seeing things that are not there.
 Delusions>false, sometimes even preposterous beliefs that are not part of the person's culture.
> one person may think they are jesus, while another napoleon, or their thoughts are being broadcast on a loudspeaker
> they must be distinguished from beliefs based on cultural ideas.
> referential thinking
 referential thinking> ascribing personal meaning to completely random events
 disorders of movement >they may seem especially clumsy and show unusual mannerisms and facial expressions (grimace)
>also may show catatonia
 Catatonia> a state of immobility and unresponsiveness
> remains motionless for long periods of time.
 Negative sysmptoms> reflect behavioral deficits and the loss or decrease of normal functions
> trait deficit
> flat affect, lack the ability to read others' emotions, may lack positive emotional experience, can't plan initiate or engage in goal-driven behavior,
> symptoms do not have a clear counterpart in healthy peopple
 Flat affect> negative symptom
> the person shows little or no emotion, speaks without emotional inflection, no fail expressions.
 Types of Schizophrenia>disorganized
> catatonic
> paranoid
> undifferentiated
 Disorganized Schizophrenia> an individual has delusions and hallucinations that little orno recognizable meaning
> they may withdraw from human contact and regress to silly, childlike gestures and behavior
> they experience isolation or maladjustment during adolescence
 Catatonic Schizophrenia> bizarre motor behavior that sometimes takes the form of a completely immobile stupor.
> however, they are still completely conscious of what is happening around them.
> sometimes show waxy flexibility
 Paranoid Schizophrenia> delusions of reference, grandeur, and persecution.
> delusions usually form an elaborate system based on a complete misinterpretation of events
> they develop all three delusions in the following order (rgp)
> first they they think they are special and misinterpret a chance event (thunderstorm) as being relevant to their own lives, then they think it's special attention for their special characteristics, then they think people are out to get them in envy
 undifferentiated schizophrenia > characterized by disorganized behavior, hallucinations, delusions, and incoherence.
> this diagnosis is used when an individual's symptoms either do not meet the criteria for one of the other types or meet the criteria for more than one of the other types
 Biological factors of schizophrenia>heredity
> structural brain abnormalities
> problems in neurotransmitter regulations
 heredity> partially due to genetic factors
> identical twins = 46%
> fraternal twins = 14 %
> sibling= 10%
> nephew or niece = 3%
> children 13%
 structural brain abnormalities> they have enlarged ventricles
> ventricles are fluid filled sacks - indicates atrophy or deterioration
> they also have a small frontal cortex
> many of these changes occur prenatally
 problems in neurotransmitter regulation>an early explanation is that schizophrenics produce higher than normal levels of dopamine. the excess of dopamine causes it.
 personality disorders> chronic, maladaptive cognitive-behavioral patterns that are thoroughly integrated into an individual's personality.
> troublesome to others, and their pleasure sources are either harmful or illegal
> the patterns are often recognizable by adolescence or earlier.
 paranoid personality disorder (odd/ eccentric)> these individuals have a lack of trust in others and suspicious. they see themselves as morally correct yet vulnerable and envied.
 Schizoid personality disorder (odd/eccentric)- these individuals do not form adequate social relationships. they exhibit shy, withdrawn behavior and have difficulty expressing anger.
>"cold people"
 Schizotypal personality disorders (odd/eccentric)> show odd thinking patterns that reflect eccentric beliefs, overt suspicion, and overt honesty
 Histrionic personality disorder (dramatic/ emotionally problematic)> seek a lot of attention and tend to overreact. respond more dramatically and intensely than is required by the situation

>women
 Narcissistic (dramatic/ emotionally problematic)> have unrealistic sense of self-importance, can not take criticism, manipulate people, and lack empathy
 Borderline pd (dramatic/ emotionally problematic)>often emotionally unstable, impulsive, unpredictable, irritable, and anxious
>they have an unstable sense of identity and self.
> prone to boredom.
> similar to schizotypal, but not as consistently withdrawn and bizarre
>related to childhood sexual abuse
 Antisocial pd (dramatic/ emotionally problematic)> guiltless, law-breaking, explosive, self-indulgent, irresponsible, and intrusive.
> result to a life of crime and violence. avoi
 avoidant (chronic-fearfulness/ avoidant)> shy and inhibited yet desire interpersonal relationship
> low self-esteem
> extremely sensitive to rejection
> close to being an anxiety disorder but is not characterized by as much personal distress
 dependent (chronic-fearfulness/ avoidant)> lack of self-confidence and do not express their own personalities
> pervasive need to cling to stronger personalities. whom they allow to make decisions for them.
>more common in women
 passive-aggressive (chronic-fearfulness/ avoidant) >often pout and procrastinate; they are stubborn or are stubborn or are intentionally inefficient in an effort to frustrate others.
 obsessive-compulsive (chronic-fearfulness/ avoidant)>an individual who shows obsessive perfectionism, rigidity, and need to apply a very strict moral code.
> anxiety if everything is not "just right"
>obsessed with rules
>emotionally insensitive
>oriented toward a lifestyle of productivity and efficiency
- no gray areas. yes or no.
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"