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Chapters 1,2,3 - Flashcards

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Class:PSYC 250 - Abnormal Psychology
Subject:Psychology
University:Lansing Community College
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Psychological Disorder

Or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern generally associated with subjective distress or disability that occurs in an individual, and which is not a part of normal development or culture.

A pattern of abnormal behavior that is associated with states of emotional distress, such as anxiety or depression, or with impaired behavior or ability to function.  Unable to distinguish reality from fantasy.

Abnormal Psychology The branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder.   The branch of Psychology that deals with the description,causes,and treatment of abnormal behavior patterns.
Medical Model The term cited by psychiatrist Ronald D.  A Biological perspective in which abnormal behavior is viewed as symptomatic of underlying illness.
Trephination Making a burr hole, is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater in order to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases.   A harsh, prehistoric practice of cutting a hole in a person's skull, possibly in an attempt to release demons.
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Humors A now discredited theory of the makeup and workings of the human body adopted by Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers.  According to the ancient hippocratic belief system, the vital bodily fluids, phlegm, black bile,blood, yellow bile early theorists believed controlled normal and abnormal functioning.
Dementia Praecox Refers to a chronic, deteriorating psychotic disorder characterized by rapid cognitive disintegration, usually beginning in the late teens or early adulthood.  The term given by Kraepelin to the disorder now called Schizophrenia.  Latin meaning "premature loss of mind," an early label emphasizing the disorder frequent appearance during adolescence called De-Mence Precoce in France. 
General Paresis Also known as general paralysis of the insane or paralytic dementia, is a neuropsychiatric disorder affecting the brain and central nervous system, caused by syphilis infection.  A form of dementia resulting from neurosyphilis.  A degenerative brain disease occuring when the bacterium that causes syphilis directly invades brain tissue.
Psycholdynamic Model The theoretical model of Freud and his followers, in which abnormal behavior is viewed as the product of clashing forces within the personaliity.
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Biopsychosocial Model A general model or approach that posits that biological, psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors), and social factors, all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness.
Scientific Method Refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.  A systematic method of conducting scientific research in which theories or assumptions are examined in light of evidence.
Theory A formulation of the relationships underlying observed events.
Originally the word  as it is used in English is a technical term from Ancient Greek philosophy.
Hypothesis A proposed explanation for a phenomenon.  A perdiction that is tested through experimentation.  Educated guess or statement to be tested by research. 
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Informed Consent The principle that research participants should receive enough information about an experiment beforehand to decide freely whether to participate.  Ethical requirement whereby research subjects agree to participate in a study only after they receive full disclosure about the nature of the study and their own role in it.
Is a phrase often used in law to indicate that the consent a person gives meets certain minimum standards.
Confidentiality An ethical principle associated with several professions.  Protection of research participants by keeping records secure and not disclosing their identities.
Naturalistic Observation A research tool in which a subject is observed in their natural habitat without any manipulation by the observers.
Correlational Method A scientific method of study that examines the relationship between factors or variables expressed in statistical terms.  Research procedure in which variables are measured and compared to detect any association but are not manipulated.  conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships are not permissible.
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Correlation Coefficient A statistical measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables expressed along a continuum that ranges between -1.00 and +1.00.  Computed statistic reflecting the strength and direction of any association between two variables.
Longitudinal Study A correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time - often many decades.
A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time - often many decades.
Experimential Method A scientific method that aims to discover cause-and-effect relationships by manipulating independent variables and observing the effects on the dependent variables.
Independent Variables The terms "dependent variable" and "independent variable" are used in similar but subtly different ways in mathematics and statistics as part of the standard terminology in those subjects.  Factors that are manipulated in experiments.
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Dependent Variables The terms "dependent variable" and "independent variable" are used in similar but subtly different ways in mathematics and statistics as part of the standard terminology in those subjects.  Factors that are observed in order to determine the effects of manipulating an independent variable.
Experimental Group An experiment is a method of testing - with the goal of explaining - the nature of reality.  A group that receives the experimental treatment.
Control Group In the design of experiments, treatments are applied to experimental units in the treatment group, while no treatments would be applied to members of a control group.
Random Assignment Or random placement, is an experimental technique for assigning subjects to different treatments to balance the characteristics of people who comprise them. 
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Selection Factor A type of bias in which differences between experimental and control groups result from differences in the types of participants in the group, not from changes in the independent variables.
Blind Or blinded experiment is a scientific experiment where some of the persons involved are prevented from knowing certain information that might lead to conscious or subconscious bias on their part, invalidating the results.
Placebo A Placebo-controlled study is a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect.
A simulated medical intervention.
Internal Validity The validity of inferences in scientific studies, usually based on experiments as experimental validity.
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Construct Validity In science, the degree to which treatment  effects can be accounted for by the theoretical mechanisms (constructs) represented in the independent variables. .
Epidemiological Studies Research studies that track rates of occurence of particular disorders among different population groups.
Epidemiology is the study of health-event, health-characteristic, or health-determinant patterns in a society.
Survey Method A research method in which large samples of people are questioned by means of a survey instrument.
 
Incidence The number of new cases of a disorder that occurs within a specific period of time.
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Prevalence In epidemiology, the prevalence of a health-related state in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the risk factor in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population.  The overall number of cases of a disorder in a population within a specific period of time.
Random Sample A subject chosen from a population for investigation; a random sample is one chosen by a method involving an unpredictable component.  A sample that is drawn in such a way that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included. 
Genotype The genetic makeup of a cell, an organism, or an individual set of traits specified by an individual's genetic code.
Phenotype An organism's observable characteristics or traits: such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior.  An individual's actual or expressed traits. 
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Proband Or propositus, is a term used most often in medical genetics and other medical fields to denote a particular subject being studied or reported on.  The case first diagnosed with a given disorder. 
Adoptee Studies Studies that compare the traits and behavior patterns of adopted children to those of their biological parents and their adoptive parents.
Case Study A carefully drawn biography based on clinical interviews, observations, and psychological tests.
Single-Case Experimental Designs A type of case study in which the subject is used as his or her own control.
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Reversal Design An experimental design that consists of repeated measurement of a subject's behavior through a sequence of alternating baseline and treatment phases. 
Critical Thinking In general, refers to higher-order thinking that questions assumptions.  Adoption of a questioning attitude and careful scrutiny of claims and arguments in light of evidence.  
Neurons An electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information by electrical and chemical signaling.
Dendrites The branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
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Axon A long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma.
Terminals The small branching structures at the tips of axons.
Neurotransmitters Endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse.
Synapse In the nervous system, a synapse is a junction that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell.
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Receptor Site A part of a dendrite on a receiving neuron that is structured to receive a neurotransmitter.
Central Nervous System The part of the nervous system that integrates the information that it receives from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterian animals-that is, all multicellular animals except sponges and radially symmetric animals such as jellyfish.
Peripheral Nervous System Made up of nerves that receive and transmit sensory messages (eyes, ears) to the brain and spinal cord, and transmit mesages from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, causing them to contract, and to glands. causing them to secrete hormones.
Medulla Refers to the middle of something and derives from the Latin word for marrow.  An area of the hindbrain involved in regulation of heartbeat, respiration, and blood pressure.
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Pons Named after the Latin word for "bridge" or the 16th-century Italian anatomist and surgeon Costanzo Varolio, the pons is a structure located on the brain stem.  A structure in the hindbrain involved in body movements, attention, sleep, and respiration. 
Cerebellum A region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control, coordination, and balance.
Reticular Activating System An area of the brain (including the reticular formation and its connections) responsible for regulating arousal and sleep-wake transitions, attention, sleep, and arousal.
Thalamus A midline paired symmetrical structure within the brains of vertebrates, including humans.  A structure in the forebrain involved in relaying sensory information to the cortex and in regulating sleep and attention. 
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Hypothalamus A portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.  A structure in the forebrain involved in regulating body temperature, emotion, and motivation. 
Limbic System A set of brain structures including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, septum, limbic cortex and fornix, which seemingly support a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, long term memory, and olfaction.  A group of forebrain structures involved in emotional processing, memory, and basic drives such as hunger, thirst, and aggression. 
Basal Ganglia A group of nuclei of varied origin (mostly telencephalic embryonal origin, with some diencephalic and mesencephalic elements) in the brains of vertebrates that act as a cohesive functional unit involved in regulating postural movements and coordination..
Cerebrum Or telencephalon, together with the diencephalon, constitute the forebrain consisting of the two cerebral hemispheres..
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Cerebral Cortex The cerebral cortex is a sheet of neural tissue that is outermost to the cerebrum of the mammalian brain.
Somatic Nervous System The somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the control of body movements via skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System The part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system functioning largely below the level of consciousness, and controls visceral functions.
Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is one of the three parts of the autonomic nervous system, along with the enteric and parasympathetic systems.
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Parasympathetic Nervous System One of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).
Psychoanalytic Theory Refers to the definition and dynamics of personality development which underlie and guide psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapy.
Conscious A term that refers to a variety of aspects of the relationship between the mind and the world with which it interacts.
Preconscious In Freudian psychoanalysis, this word is applied to thoughts which are unconscious at the particular moment in question, but which are not repressed and are therefore available for recall and easily capable of becoming conscious.
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Unconscious Might refer to:
Id
Pleasure Principle
Ego See also Egoism.
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Reality Principle In Freudian psychology, this is the psychoanalytic concept describing circumstantial reality compelling a man or a woman to defer instant gratification.
Superego Id, ego and super-ego are the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche; they are the three theoretical constructs in terms of whose activity and interaction mental life is described.
Defense Mechanisms In Freudian psychoanalytic theory, these are unconscious psychological strategies brought into play by various entities to cope with reality and to maintain self-image.
Fixation In population genetics, fixation is the change in a gene pool from a situation where there exist at least two variants of a particular gene (allele) to a situation where only one of the alleles remains.
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Archetypes A universally understood symbol or term or pattern of behavior, a prototype upon which others are copied, patterned, or emulated.
Ego Psychology A school of psychoanalysis rooted in Sigmund Freud's structural id-ego-superego model of the mind.
Object-Relations Theory A psychodynamic theory within psychoanalytic psychology.
Psychosis Means abnormal condition of the mind, and is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a "loss of contact with reality".
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Behaviorism Also called the learning perspective (where any physical action is a behavior), is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things that organisms do-including acting, thinking and feeling-can and should be regarded as behaviors, and that psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns.
Conditioned Response Classical conditioning is a form of conditioning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov (1927).
Unconditioned Stimulus Classical conditioning is a form of conditioning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov (1927).
Unconditioned Response Classical conditioning is a form of conditioning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov (1927).
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Conditioned Stimulus Classical conditioning is a form of conditioning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov (1927).
Classical Conditioning A form of conditioning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov (1927).
Operant Conditioning A form of psychological learning where an individual modifies the occurrence and form of its own behavior due to the association of the behavior with a stimulus.
Reinforcement A term in operant conditioning and behavior analysis for the process of increasing the rate or probability of a behavior in the form of a "response" by the delivery or emergence of a stimulus (e.g.
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Positive Reinforcers
Negative Reinforcers
Punishment The authoritative imposition of something negative or unpleasant on a person or animal in response to behavior deemed wrong by an individual or group.
Social-Cognitive Theory Used in psychology, education, and communication, posits that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences.
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Modeling
Expectancies
Self-Actualization A term that has been used in various psychology theories, often in slightly different ways.
Unconditional Positive Regard A term coined by the humanist Carl Rogers, is basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does.
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Conditional Positive Regard
Social Causation Model
Downward Drift Hypothesis
Diathesis-Stress Model A psychological theory that explains behavior as a result of both biological and genetic vulnerability, and stress from life experiences.
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Diathesis .
Culture-Bound Syndromes In medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-specific syndrome or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.
Reliability In general, is the ability of a person or system to perform and maintain its functions in routine circumstances, as well as hostile or unexpected circumstances.
Validity
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Sanism
Content Validity In psychometrics, refers to the extent to which a measure represents all facets of a given social construct.
Criterion Validity A valid measure actually measures what it says it will measure.
Construct Validity
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Unstructured Interview
Semistructured Interview
Structured Interview Is a quantitative research method commonly employed in survey research.
Objective Tests A psychological test that measures an individual's characteristics in a way that is independent of rater bias or the examiner's own beliefs, usually by the administration of a bank of questions that are marked and compared against exacting scoring mechanisms that are completely standardized, much in the same way that examinations are administered.
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Projective Tests In psychology, a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts.
Reality Testing A lucid dream is a dream in which one is aware that one is dreaming.
Neuropsychological Assessment Measurement of behavior or performance that may be indicative of underlying brain damage or defects.
Traditionally carried out to assess the extent of impairment to a particular skill and to attempt to locate an area of the brain which may have been damaged after brain injury or neurological illness.
Behavioral Assessment The approach to clinical assessments that focuses on the objective recording and description of problem behavior.
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Self-Monitoring The process of observing or recording one's own behaviors, thoughts, or emotions.
A theory that deals with the phenomena of expressive controls.
Cognitive Assessment Measurement of thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes that may be associated with emotional problems.
The Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System test is a test given to school children to assess their cognitive strengths and weaknesses.
Physiological Assessment Measurement of physiological responses that may be associated with abnormal behavior.
Abnormal Behavior

Might seem the concern of only a few of us.  Most people never seek the help of a mental health professional.  Abnormal behavior affects all of us in one way or another.  46% of us are directly affected at some point in our lives by diagnosable mental disorders (Kessler, Berglund, et al., 2005).  26% of Americans experience a diagnosable psychological disorder in any given year (Kessler, Chiu, et al., 2005)

The good news is that effective treatments exist for most psychological disorders..

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 Psychological Disorder

Or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern generally associated with subjective distress or disability that occurs in an individual, and which is not a part of normal development or culture.

A pattern of abnormal behavior that is associated with states of emotional distress, such as anxiety or depression, or with impaired behavior or ability to function.  Unable to distinguish reality from fantasy.

 Abnormal PsychologyThe branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder.   The branch of Psychology that deals with the description,causes,and treatment of abnormal behavior patterns.
 Medical ModelThe term cited by psychiatrist Ronald D.  A Biological perspective in which abnormal behavior is viewed as symptomatic of underlying illness.
 TrephinationMaking a burr hole, is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater in order to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases.   A harsh, prehistoric practice of cutting a hole in a person's skull, possibly in an attempt to release demons.
 HumorsA now discredited theory of the makeup and workings of the human body adopted by Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers.  According to the ancient hippocratic belief system, the vital bodily fluids, phlegm, black bile,blood, yellow bile early theorists believed controlled normal and abnormal functioning.
 Dementia PraecoxRefers to a chronic, deteriorating psychotic disorder characterized by rapid cognitive disintegration, usually beginning in the late teens or early adulthood.  The term given by Kraepelin to the disorder now called Schizophrenia.  Latin meaning "premature loss of mind," an early label emphasizing the disorder frequent appearance during adolescence called De-Mence Precoce in France. 
 General ParesisAlso known as general paralysis of the insane or paralytic dementia, is a neuropsychiatric disorder affecting the brain and central nervous system, caused by syphilis infection.  A form of dementia resulting from neurosyphilis.  A degenerative brain disease occuring when the bacterium that causes syphilis directly invades brain tissue.
 Psycholdynamic ModelThe theoretical model of Freud and his followers, in which abnormal behavior is viewed as the product of clashing forces within the personaliity.
 Biopsychosocial ModelA general model or approach that posits that biological, psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors), and social factors, all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness.
 Scientific MethodRefers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.  A systematic method of conducting scientific research in which theories or assumptions are examined in light of evidence.
 TheoryA formulation of the relationships underlying observed events.
Originally the word  as it is used in English is a technical term from Ancient Greek philosophy.
 HypothesisA proposed explanation for a phenomenon.  A perdiction that is tested through experimentation.  Educated guess or statement to be tested by research. 
 Informed ConsentThe principle that research participants should receive enough information about an experiment beforehand to decide freely whether to participate.  Ethical requirement whereby research subjects agree to participate in a study only after they receive full disclosure about the nature of the study and their own role in it.
Is a phrase often used in law to indicate that the consent a person gives meets certain minimum standards.
 ConfidentialityAn ethical principle associated with several professions.  Protection of research participants by keeping records secure and not disclosing their identities.
 Naturalistic ObservationA research tool in which a subject is observed in their natural habitat without any manipulation by the observers.
 Correlational MethodA scientific method of study that examines the relationship between factors or variables expressed in statistical terms.  Research procedure in which variables are measured and compared to detect any association but are not manipulated.  conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships are not permissible.
 Correlation CoefficientA statistical measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables expressed along a continuum that ranges between -1.00 and +1.00.  Computed statistic reflecting the strength and direction of any association between two variables.
 Longitudinal StudyA correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time - often many decades.
A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time - often many decades.
 Experimential MethodA scientific method that aims to discover cause-and-effect relationships by manipulating independent variables and observing the effects on the dependent variables.
 Independent VariablesThe terms "dependent variable" and "independent variable" are used in similar but subtly different ways in mathematics and statistics as part of the standard terminology in those subjects.  Factors that are manipulated in experiments.
 Dependent VariablesThe terms "dependent variable" and "independent variable" are used in similar but subtly different ways in mathematics and statistics as part of the standard terminology in those subjects.  Factors that are observed in order to determine the effects of manipulating an independent variable.
 Experimental GroupAn experiment is a method of testing - with the goal of explaining - the nature of reality.  A group that receives the experimental treatment.
 Control GroupIn the design of experiments, treatments are applied to experimental units in the treatment group, while no treatments would be applied to members of a control group.
 Random AssignmentOr random placement, is an experimental technique for assigning subjects to different treatments to balance the characteristics of people who comprise them. 
 Selection FactorA type of bias in which differences between experimental and control groups result from differences in the types of participants in the group, not from changes in the independent variables.
 BlindOr blinded experiment is a scientific experiment where some of the persons involved are prevented from knowing certain information that might lead to conscious or subconscious bias on their part, invalidating the results.
 PlaceboA Placebo-controlled study is a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect.
A simulated medical intervention.
 Internal ValidityThe validity of inferences in scientific studies, usually based on experiments as experimental validity.
 Construct ValidityIn science, the degree to which treatment  effects can be accounted for by the theoretical mechanisms (constructs) represented in the independent variables. .
 Epidemiological StudiesResearch studies that track rates of occurence of particular disorders among different population groups.
Epidemiology is the study of health-event, health-characteristic, or health-determinant patterns in a society.
 Survey MethodA research method in which large samples of people are questioned by means of a survey instrument.
 
 IncidenceThe number of new cases of a disorder that occurs within a specific period of time.
 PrevalenceIn epidemiology, the prevalence of a health-related state in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the risk factor in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population.  The overall number of cases of a disorder in a population within a specific period of time.
 Random SampleA subject chosen from a population for investigation; a random sample is one chosen by a method involving an unpredictable component.  A sample that is drawn in such a way that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included. 
 GenotypeThe genetic makeup of a cell, an organism, or an individual set of traits specified by an individual's genetic code.
 PhenotypeAn organism's observable characteristics or traits: such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior.  An individual's actual or expressed traits. 
 ProbandOr propositus, is a term used most often in medical genetics and other medical fields to denote a particular subject being studied or reported on.  The case first diagnosed with a given disorder. 
 Adoptee StudiesStudies that compare the traits and behavior patterns of adopted children to those of their biological parents and their adoptive parents.
 Case StudyA carefully drawn biography based on clinical interviews, observations, and psychological tests.
 Single-Case Experimental DesignsA type of case study in which the subject is used as his or her own control.
 Reversal DesignAn experimental design that consists of repeated measurement of a subject's behavior through a sequence of alternating baseline and treatment phases. 
 Critical ThinkingIn general, refers to higher-order thinking that questions assumptions.  Adoption of a questioning attitude and careful scrutiny of claims and arguments in light of evidence.  
 NeuronsAn electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information by electrical and chemical signaling.
 DendritesThe branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
 AxonA long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma.
 TerminalsThe small branching structures at the tips of axons.
 NeurotransmittersEndogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse.
 SynapseIn the nervous system, a synapse is a junction that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell.
 Receptor SiteA part of a dendrite on a receiving neuron that is structured to receive a neurotransmitter.
 Central Nervous SystemThe part of the nervous system that integrates the information that it receives from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterian animals-that is, all multicellular animals except sponges and radially symmetric animals such as jellyfish.
 Peripheral Nervous SystemMade up of nerves that receive and transmit sensory messages (eyes, ears) to the brain and spinal cord, and transmit mesages from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, causing them to contract, and to glands. causing them to secrete hormones.
 MedullaRefers to the middle of something and derives from the Latin word for marrow.  An area of the hindbrain involved in regulation of heartbeat, respiration, and blood pressure.
 PonsNamed after the Latin word for "bridge" or the 16th-century Italian anatomist and surgeon Costanzo Varolio, the pons is a structure located on the brain stem.  A structure in the hindbrain involved in body movements, attention, sleep, and respiration. 
 CerebellumA region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control, coordination, and balance.
 Reticular Activating SystemAn area of the brain (including the reticular formation and its connections) responsible for regulating arousal and sleep-wake transitions, attention, sleep, and arousal.
 ThalamusA midline paired symmetrical structure within the brains of vertebrates, including humans.  A structure in the forebrain involved in relaying sensory information to the cortex and in regulating sleep and attention. 
 HypothalamusA portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.  A structure in the forebrain involved in regulating body temperature, emotion, and motivation. 
 Limbic SystemA set of brain structures including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, septum, limbic cortex and fornix, which seemingly support a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, long term memory, and olfaction.  A group of forebrain structures involved in emotional processing, memory, and basic drives such as hunger, thirst, and aggression. 
 Basal GangliaA group of nuclei of varied origin (mostly telencephalic embryonal origin, with some diencephalic and mesencephalic elements) in the brains of vertebrates that act as a cohesive functional unit involved in regulating postural movements and coordination..
 CerebrumOr telencephalon, together with the diencephalon, constitute the forebrain consisting of the two cerebral hemispheres..
 Cerebral CortexThe cerebral cortex is a sheet of neural tissue that is outermost to the cerebrum of the mammalian brain.
 Somatic Nervous SystemThe somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the control of body movements via skeletal muscles.
 Autonomic Nervous SystemThe part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system functioning largely below the level of consciousness, and controls visceral functions.
 Sympathetic Nervous System(SNS) is one of the three parts of the autonomic nervous system, along with the enteric and parasympathetic systems.
 Parasympathetic Nervous SystemOne of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).
 Psychoanalytic TheoryRefers to the definition and dynamics of personality development which underlie and guide psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapy.
 ConsciousA term that refers to a variety of aspects of the relationship between the mind and the world with which it interacts.
 PreconsciousIn Freudian psychoanalysis, this word is applied to thoughts which are unconscious at the particular moment in question, but which are not repressed and are therefore available for recall and easily capable of becoming conscious.
 UnconsciousMight refer to:
 Id 
 Pleasure Principle 
 EgoSee also Egoism.
 Reality PrincipleIn Freudian psychology, this is the psychoanalytic concept describing circumstantial reality compelling a man or a woman to defer instant gratification.
 SuperegoId, ego and super-ego are the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche; they are the three theoretical constructs in terms of whose activity and interaction mental life is described.
 Defense MechanismsIn Freudian psychoanalytic theory, these are unconscious psychological strategies brought into play by various entities to cope with reality and to maintain self-image.
 FixationIn population genetics, fixation is the change in a gene pool from a situation where there exist at least two variants of a particular gene (allele) to a situation where only one of the alleles remains.
 ArchetypesA universally understood symbol or term or pattern of behavior, a prototype upon which others are copied, patterned, or emulated.
 Ego PsychologyA school of psychoanalysis rooted in Sigmund Freud's structural id-ego-superego model of the mind.
 Object-Relations TheoryA psychodynamic theory within psychoanalytic psychology.
 PsychosisMeans abnormal condition of the mind, and is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a "loss of contact with reality".
 BehaviorismAlso called the learning perspective (where any physical action is a behavior), is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things that organisms do-including acting, thinking and feeling-can and should be regarded as behaviors, and that psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns.
 Conditioned ResponseClassical conditioning is a form of conditioning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov (1927).
 Unconditioned StimulusClassical conditioning is a form of conditioning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov (1927).
 Unconditioned ResponseClassical conditioning is a form of conditioning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov (1927).
 Conditioned StimulusClassical conditioning is a form of conditioning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov (1927).
 Classical ConditioningA form of conditioning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov (1927).
 Operant ConditioningA form of psychological learning where an individual modifies the occurrence and form of its own behavior due to the association of the behavior with a stimulus.
 ReinforcementA term in operant conditioning and behavior analysis for the process of increasing the rate or probability of a behavior in the form of a "response" by the delivery or emergence of a stimulus (e.g.
 Positive Reinforcers
 Negative Reinforcers 
 PunishmentThe authoritative imposition of something negative or unpleasant on a person or animal in response to behavior deemed wrong by an individual or group.
 Social-Cognitive TheoryUsed in psychology, education, and communication, posits that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences.
 Modeling 
 Expectancies 
 Self-ActualizationA term that has been used in various psychology theories, often in slightly different ways.
 Unconditional Positive RegardA term coined by the humanist Carl Rogers, is basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does.
 Conditional Positive Regard 
 Social Causation Model 
 Downward Drift Hypothesis 
 Diathesis-Stress ModelA psychological theory that explains behavior as a result of both biological and genetic vulnerability, and stress from life experiences.
 Diathesis.
 Culture-Bound SyndromesIn medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-specific syndrome or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.
 ReliabilityIn general, is the ability of a person or system to perform and maintain its functions in routine circumstances, as well as hostile or unexpected circumstances.
 Validity
 Sanism 
 Content ValidityIn psychometrics, refers to the extent to which a measure represents all facets of a given social construct.
 Criterion ValidityA valid measure actually measures what it says it will measure.
 Construct Validity 
 Unstructured Interview 
 Semistructured Interview 
 Structured InterviewIs a quantitative research method commonly employed in survey research.
 Objective TestsA psychological test that measures an individual's characteristics in a way that is independent of rater bias or the examiner's own beliefs, usually by the administration of a bank of questions that are marked and compared against exacting scoring mechanisms that are completely standardized, much in the same way that examinations are administered.
 Projective TestsIn psychology, a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts.
 Reality TestingA lucid dream is a dream in which one is aware that one is dreaming.
 Neuropsychological AssessmentMeasurement of behavior or performance that may be indicative of underlying brain damage or defects.
Traditionally carried out to assess the extent of impairment to a particular skill and to attempt to locate an area of the brain which may have been damaged after brain injury or neurological illness.
 Behavioral AssessmentThe approach to clinical assessments that focuses on the objective recording and description of problem behavior.
 Self-MonitoringThe process of observing or recording one's own behaviors, thoughts, or emotions.
A theory that deals with the phenomena of expressive controls.
 Cognitive AssessmentMeasurement of thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes that may be associated with emotional problems.
The Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System test is a test given to school children to assess their cognitive strengths and weaknesses.
 Physiological AssessmentMeasurement of physiological responses that may be associated with abnormal behavior.
 Abnormal Behavior

Might seem the concern of only a few of us.  Most people never seek the help of a mental health professional.  Abnormal behavior affects all of us in one way or another.  46% of us are directly affected at some point in our lives by diagnosable mental disorders (Kessler, Berglund, et al., 2005).  26% of Americans experience a diagnosable psychological disorder in any given year (Kessler, Chiu, et al., 2005)

The good news is that effective treatments exist for most psychological disorders..

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