Koofers

Exam 5: Differential Reinforcement Ch. 15 - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:PSYC 171 - Applied Behavior Analysis
Subject:Psychology
University:California State University - Sacramento
Term:Fall 2013
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
Types of Differential Reinforcement
Extinction combined with reinforcement
  • EXT problem behavior
  • Reinforce alternative or appropriate behavior
Different types:
  1. Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA - most commonly used)
  2. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO)
  3. Differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL)
1. DRA Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior
  • Reinforcer is delivered for desirable behavior
  • Extinction for the problem behavior
  • Variations of DRA.....
Variations of DRA
  • DRI = Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior
  • e.g,. to reduce knuckle cracking, reinforce hand squeezing (can't do both at the same time)
  • FCT= Functional Communication Training or differential reinforcement of communication
  • e.g., to reduce head banging to access attention, reinforce the use of an ASL sign
Examples of DRA
  • A child's good table manners are reinforced with praise and by passing the requested food. The child's bad table manners are extinguished by ignoring and not passing food.
  • Punching the correct code numbers in the ATM is reinforced with cash. Punching the wrong numbers in the ATM is extinguished by getting no cash.
  • Reinforce playing or sharing to replace fighting in children.
  • Reinforce lying quietly in the dentists chair to replace disruptive behavior.
  • Reinforce an assertive response to replace aggressive bx.
Generated by Koofers.com
When to use DRA
  1. You want to increase a desirable behavior and/or decrease undesirable behaviors.
  2. The desirable behavior already occurs at least occasionally or you can prompt it.
  3. You have a reinforcer you can use.
Using DRA!!! 1. Define the target bx to increase and the undesirable competing bx     to decrease
2. Identify the reinforcer for the problem bx
3. Choose a reinforcer for the desirable bx
4. Reinforce desirable behavior immediately and consistently...
5. Eliminate (or minimize) the reinforcer for the undesirable bx:
6. Use intermittent reinforcement for maintenance
4. How to Reinforce desirable behavior immediately and consistently:
  • prompt the desirable bx if necessary
  • prompt before undesirable bx occurs, not after
  • prompt when EO and Sd are present
  • the desirable behavior should require less response effort than the problem behavior
  • greater magnitude of reinforcement for desirable bx
Considerations in the Use of DRA
  • Consider manipulating establishing operations to make the reinforcer more potent
  • Consider the use of rules or instructions
  • Fade artificial reinforcers to natural reinforcers to help maintain the behavior
Generated by Koofers.com
Example of DRA in the Literature Wilder et al. (2001)
  • 43-yer-old man diagnosed with schizophrenia
  • Engaged in bizarre vocalizations        
  • "Bruce Lee has a black belt in karate"
  • "I'm not going back to Margaret"
  • FA - attention as the reinforcer
  • EXT bizarre statements + praise for sensible statements
Differential Negative Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DNRA)
  • Desirable behavior produces escape or avoidance of aversive stimulus 
  • Undesirable behavior does not produce escape/avoidance
2. DRO Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior
  • Also called differential reinforcement of zero responding or zero rate of behavior 
  • Reinforcer is delivered for the absence of the problem behavior for a specified period of time:
  1. interval are chosen base on the baseline level of the problem behavior
  2. extinction for the occurrence of the problem behavior
  3. if the problem behavior occurs, the interval is reset
  • Good to use when goal is to eliminate behavior entirely
Example of DRO
  • Attention delivered every 30 sec. without SIB
  • Breaks from academic tasks delivered every 20 min. for the absence of problem behaviors
  • Access to a favorite toy given each 1/2 hour for the absence of fighting with siblings
  • If child has no tantrum for the first minute of dinner, gets a reinforcer (praise) then for every further minute that there is no tantrum
Generated by Koofers.com
Whole Interval vs. Momentary DRO
  1. Whole interval DRO - the problem must be absent for the whole interval for reinforcement (referred to simply as DRO)
  2. Momentary DRO - the problem must be absent at the end of the interval for reinforcement
Implementing DRO
  1. Identify the reinforcer for the problem behavior
  2. Identify the reinforcer to use in DRO
  3. Choose the DRO interval
  4. Use EXT for the prob. bx (or minimize the reinfr. for the prob.)
  5. Deliver the reinforcer for the absence of the problem bx in each interval
  6. The occurrence of the problem bx resets the interval for delivery of the reinforcer
  7. Gradually increase the DRO interval
  8. Use instructions when applicable
3. DRL Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding
  • Used to get a behavior to occur less (not necessarily to eliminate the behavior)
  • Example: Used with smoking (i.e., smoke less than 20 per day, get SR+, then less than 18 per day, get SR+)
  • Example: Used with kid in a classroom asking too many questions
  • Two types of DRL:
  1. Full session DRL
  2. Spaced responding DRL
Two types of DRL
  1. Full session DRL
  2. Spaced responding DRL
Generated by Koofers.com
Full Session DRL (1)

  • The reinforcer is delivered when fewer than a specified number of responses occurs per time period (session)
  • The reinforcer is delivered at the end of the session
  • The timing of responses in the session is not important
Spaced Responding DRL (2)
  • The reinforcer is delivered for a response when it is separated from the previous response by a specified interval of time
  • If a response occurs before the end of the interval, the interval is reset
  • Individual responses are  reinforced when the inter-response time (IRT) is greater than X
  • The timing of responses is important
Example of DRL Full session DRL:
  • Reward given for smoking fewer than 5 cigarettes per day
  • Dessert given if the child gets up from the table fewer than 3 times during supper
Space responding DRL:
  • Child called on to answer in class only if it has been 10 min. since he last raised his hand
  • Person with intellectual disability who eats too fast allowed to take a bite of food only if 15 sec. since last bite of food
Example of DRL in the Literature Dietz & Repp (1973):
  • Full session DRL
  • Beh: changing topic of discussion (subject change ) to nonacademic topic (high school business class-girls only)
  • Baseline: 7 changes per class period
  • Ph 2 - 5 = DRL
  • Ph 2 = If less than 6 per day for 4 days of week - free Friday 
  • 3 = 4 or less
  • 4 = 2 or less
  • 5 =  0 subject changes
Generated by Koofers.com
Comparing DRO and Spaced Responding DRL
  • DRO - at the end of the interval, the reinforcer is delivered for the absents of the behavior 
  • DRL - at the end of  the interval, the reinforcer is delivered for the first response 
  • In DRO and DRL, a response before the end of the interval resets the interval
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 21 Print
 
Front
Back
 Types of Differential Reinforcement
Extinction combined with reinforcement
  • EXT problem behavior
  • Reinforce alternative or appropriate behavior
Different types:
  1. Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA - most commonly used)
  2. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO)
  3. Differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL)
 1. DRA Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior
  • Reinforcer is delivered for desirable behavior
  • Extinction for the problem behavior
  • Variations of DRA.....
 Variations of DRA
  • DRI = Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior
  • e.g,. to reduce knuckle cracking, reinforce hand squeezing (can't do both at the same time)
  • FCT= Functional Communication Training or differential reinforcement of communication
  • e.g., to reduce head banging to access attention, reinforce the use of an ASL sign
 Examples of DRA
  • A child's good table manners are reinforced with praise and by passing the requested food. The child's bad table manners are extinguished by ignoring and not passing food.
  • Punching the correct code numbers in the ATM is reinforced with cash. Punching the wrong numbers in the ATM is extinguished by getting no cash.
  • Reinforce playing or sharing to replace fighting in children.
  • Reinforce lying quietly in the dentists chair to replace disruptive behavior.
  • Reinforce an assertive response to replace aggressive bx.
 When to use DRA
  1. You want to increase a desirable behavior and/or decrease undesirable behaviors.
  2. The desirable behavior already occurs at least occasionally or you can prompt it.
  3. You have a reinforcer you can use.
 Using DRA!!!1. Define the target bx to increase and the undesirable competing bx     to decrease
2. Identify the reinforcer for the problem bx
3. Choose a reinforcer for the desirable bx
4. Reinforce desirable behavior immediately and consistently...
5. Eliminate (or minimize) the reinforcer for the undesirable bx:
6. Use intermittent reinforcement for maintenance
 4. How to Reinforce desirable behavior immediately and consistently:
  • prompt the desirable bx if necessary
  • prompt before undesirable bx occurs, not after
  • prompt when EO and Sd are present
  • the desirable behavior should require less response effort than the problem behavior
  • greater magnitude of reinforcement for desirable bx
 Considerations in the Use of DRA
  • Consider manipulating establishing operations to make the reinforcer more potent
  • Consider the use of rules or instructions
  • Fade artificial reinforcers to natural reinforcers to help maintain the behavior
 Example of DRA in the LiteratureWilder et al. (2001)
  • 43-yer-old man diagnosed with schizophrenia
  • Engaged in bizarre vocalizations        
  • "Bruce Lee has a black belt in karate"
  • "I'm not going back to Margaret"
  • FA - attention as the reinforcer
  • EXT bizarre statements + praise for sensible statements
 Differential Negative Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DNRA)
  • Desirable behavior produces escape or avoidance of aversive stimulus 
  • Undesirable behavior does not produce escape/avoidance
 2. DRO Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior
  • Also called differential reinforcement of zero responding or zero rate of behavior 
  • Reinforcer is delivered for the absence of the problem behavior for a specified period of time:
  1. interval are chosen base on the baseline level of the problem behavior
  2. extinction for the occurrence of the problem behavior
  3. if the problem behavior occurs, the interval is reset
  • Good to use when goal is to eliminate behavior entirely
 Example of DRO
  • Attention delivered every 30 sec. without SIB
  • Breaks from academic tasks delivered every 20 min. for the absence of problem behaviors
  • Access to a favorite toy given each 1/2 hour for the absence of fighting with siblings
  • If child has no tantrum for the first minute of dinner, gets a reinforcer (praise) then for every further minute that there is no tantrum
 Whole Interval vs. Momentary DRO
  1. Whole interval DRO - the problem must be absent for the whole interval for reinforcement (referred to simply as DRO)
  2. Momentary DRO - the problem must be absent at the end of the interval for reinforcement
 Implementing DRO
  1. Identify the reinforcer for the problem behavior
  2. Identify the reinforcer to use in DRO
  3. Choose the DRO interval
  4. Use EXT for the prob. bx (or minimize the reinfr. for the prob.)
  5. Deliver the reinforcer for the absence of the problem bx in each interval
  6. The occurrence of the problem bx resets the interval for delivery of the reinforcer
  7. Gradually increase the DRO interval
  8. Use instructions when applicable
 3. DRL Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding
  • Used to get a behavior to occur less (not necessarily to eliminate the behavior)
  • Example: Used with smoking (i.e., smoke less than 20 per day, get SR+, then less than 18 per day, get SR+)
  • Example: Used with kid in a classroom asking too many questions
  • Two types of DRL:
  1. Full session DRL
  2. Spaced responding DRL
 Two types of DRL
  1. Full session DRL
  2. Spaced responding DRL
 Full Session DRL (1)

  • The reinforcer is delivered when fewer than a specified number of responses occurs per time period (session)
  • The reinforcer is delivered at the end of the session
  • The timing of responses in the session is not important
 Spaced Responding DRL (2)
  • The reinforcer is delivered for a response when it is separated from the previous response by a specified interval of time
  • If a response occurs before the end of the interval, the interval is reset
  • Individual responses are  reinforced when the inter-response time (IRT) is greater than X
  • The timing of responses is important
 Example of DRLFull session DRL:
  • Reward given for smoking fewer than 5 cigarettes per day
  • Dessert given if the child gets up from the table fewer than 3 times during supper
Space responding DRL:
  • Child called on to answer in class only if it has been 10 min. since he last raised his hand
  • Person with intellectual disability who eats too fast allowed to take a bite of food only if 15 sec. since last bite of food
 Example of DRL in the LiteratureDietz & Repp (1973):
  • Full session DRL
  • Beh: changing topic of discussion (subject change ) to nonacademic topic (high school business class-girls only)
  • Baseline: 7 changes per class period
  • Ph 2 - 5 = DRL
  • Ph 2 = If less than 6 per day for 4 days of week - free Friday 
  • 3 = 4 or less
  • 4 = 2 or less
  • 5 =  0 subject changes
 Comparing DRO and Spaced Responding DRL
  • DRO - at the end of the interval, the reinforcer is delivered for the absents of the behavior 
  • DRL - at the end of  the interval, the reinforcer is delivered for the first response 
  • In DRO and DRL, a response before the end of the interval resets the interval
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"