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Final Exam - Flashcards

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Class:PSYC 3230 - ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
Subject:Psychology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Fall 2011
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distal contributory cause.

Childhood abuse is commonly seen in those who develop dissociative disorders later in life. Childhood abuse would best be described as a

a.necessary contributory cause.

b.proximal contributory cause.

c.reinforcing contributory cause.

d.distal contributory cause.

delay seeking treatment, sometimes for many years.

Most people with psychological disorders

a.seek treatment as soon as they realize there is a problem.

b.recover only if they seek treatment.

c.delay seeking treatment, sometimes for many years.

d.exaggerate their symptoms so it takes longer for them to recover.

punitive

During the first half of the twentieth century, mental hospital care would best be characterized as

a.effective.

b.humane.

c.moral.

d.punitive.

experimental

A researcher who provides a certain treatment for one group and withholds treatment from a completely comparable group is using the ________ research method.

a.correlational

b.epidemiological

c.case study

d.experimental

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The fever that was induced killed off the cause of the observed symptoms.

Why was malarial therapy effective in treating general paresis?

a.The fever that was induced killed off the cause of the observed symptoms.

b.General paresis was caused by malaria, and malarial therapy triggered an immune response that destroyed the existing infection.

c.Malarial therapy prevented the syphilis spirochetes from entering the brain.

d.There is no know treatment for general paresis.

the difficulty of generalizing to the naturally occurring phenomenon.

A major scientific problem with analogue studies is

a.the difficulty of disentangling intercorrelated factors.

b.the difficulty of manipulating variables in a laboratory.

c.the inability to draw causal inferences from such studies.

d.the difficulty of generalizing to the naturally occurring phenomenon.

were characterized by fear, horror, and ignorance

At the start of the twentieth century in America, public attitudes toward the mentally ill

a.had become enlightened and humane.

b.associated mental disorder with "tainted genes" and divine retribution.

c.had become a conviction that the mentally ill were incurable and should be executed or jailed for the rest of their lives.

d.were characterized by fear, horror, and ignorance.

an influence that modifies a persons response to environmental stressors.

A protective factor is

a.an influence that modifies a persons response to environmental stressors.

b.an influence that modifies a persons response to genetic problems.

c.a distal causal factor for a mental disorder.

d.a biological makeup that makes people more resistant to stress.

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Warm baths and massages

Which of the following would be characteristic of the treatment provided by the first mental hospitals or sanatoria used by the Romans and Greeks?

a.The use of trephining and other biological approaches

b.Psychodynamic therapy

c.Exorcisms

d.Warm baths and massages

children who share a risk factor for a disorder are studied before signs of the disorder show up.

In most prospective studies,

a.large samples of individuals are interviewed to see if there are any risk factors that differentiate those with the disorder of interest.

b.children who share a risk factor for a disorder are studied before signs of the disorder show up.

c.analogue research is used because of the ethical problems with other experimental research.

d.a representative sample of a general population of adults is used.

a lack of social skills; dysfunctional self-schemas

Sammy was deprived of his mother and father's love as a child. Operant conditioning theorists would believe his childhood would result in ________; cognitive theorists would emphasize the deprivation's effect on ________.

a.fixation at the oral stage; a lack of attachment

b.a lack of social skills; brain damage

c.conditioned avoidance responses; conditioned stimuli

d.a lack of social skills; dysfunctional self-schemas

mass madness.

In 1983, a large group of West Bank Palestinian girls showed signs of illness. Some thought they were poisoned, but later it was discovered that psychological factors played a key role in most cases. This incident best illustrates

a.St. Vitus's dance.

b.exorcism.

c.lycanthropy.

d.mass madness.

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interfering with the provision of moral therapy.

The work of Dorothea Dix has been criticized for

a.interfering with the provision of moral therapy.

b.increasing the use of unproven treatment approaches.

c.popularizing humanitarian approaches.

d.preventing the development of biomedical approaches to mental illness.

responses to stress vary cross-culturally

Cross-cultural research on stress demonstrates that

a.depression is a common response to life challenges in all countries studied.

b.stress rarely leads to any evidence of illness in non-Western cultures.

c.responses to stress vary cross-culturally.

d.culture-specific reactions are not seen to alterations in the environment.

Dix

All of the following are credited with emphasizing the link between brain pathology and mental illness EXCEPT

a.Dix.

b.Griesinger.

c.Alzheimer.

d.Kraepelin.

A movement of the mentally ill from institutions to the community

Which of the following occurred in the late twentieth century?

a.The establishment of large inpatient facilities for the mentally ill

b.A movement of the mentally ill from institutions to the community

c.Dramatic increases in the cost of caring for the mentally ill

d.The inpatient mentally ill population doubled

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are likely to show inconsistent attachment behavior

Abused infants and toddlers

a.tend to develop into resilient adults.

b.have a tendency to be passive and to avoid conflict with both peers and authorities.

c.are likely to show inconsistent attachment behavior.

d.are likely to develop close bonds with same-sex peers.

occurs in an outpatient setting

Most mental health treatment

a.occurs in an outpatient setting.

b.requires an overnight stay.

c.does not involve professionals.

d.occurs in psychiatric hospitals.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

In the United States, the standard for defining types of mental disorders is contained in the

a.American Psychological Association's bylaws.

b.American Psychiatric Association's bylaws.

c.World Health Organization's classification code.

d.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

"The best predictor is aggression toward peers, which leads to peer rejection."

An elementary school principal wants to know the best predictors of juvenile delinquency and dropping out of school in high school so she can provide preventive interventions. Your best advice is:

a."Look for kids who are very popular because they are class clowns."

b."Silent, depressed, loners tend to be dropouts because they are often depressed."

c."There is no way to predict juvenile delinquency as early as elementary school."

d."The best predictor is aggression toward peers, which leads to peer rejection."

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assimilation

New perceptions and experiences tend to be worked into our existing schemas, even if the new information must be distorted to fit them. This process is called

a.accommodation.

b.assimilation.

c.appropriation.

d.attribution.

twenty-two chromosome pairs and one pair of sex chromosomes

Normal human cells have

a.twenty-two chromosome pairs and one pair of sex chromosomes.

b.twenty-one trisomy chromosome pairs, one autosomal pair and one pair of sex chromosomes.

c.twenty-one chromosome pairs and two trisomy chromosome pairs.

d.twenty-three chromosome pairs.

Paracelsus

Who was one of the first physicians in the early 1500s to criticize the idea that mental illness was due to demon possession (although he did believe the moon influenced the brain)?

a.Paracelsus

b.Galen

c.Pinel

d.Hippocrates

the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated

The central principle of operant conditioning is that

a.certain reflexes cause us to engage in habitual behavior.

b.we repeat those actions that we see others engage in.

c.the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated.

d.the interaction of genetics and social factors best explains human behavior.

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A combination of psychological therapy and antidepressant drugs

Dr. Simon, a psychiatrist, takes a biopsychosocial viewpoint of psychopathology. Which of the following treatments is he most likely to suggest for Julia's current state of depression?

a.Intense psychotherapy

b.A prolonged vacation

c.A combination of psychological therapy and antidepressant drugs

d.Family therapy and a change in her work environment

over half of the people with a history of one serious disorder had two or more comorbid disorders.

A major finding from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) was that

a.those people who have three or more comorbid disorders have one or more mild and transitory disorders.

b.over half of the people with a history of one serious disorder had two or more comorbid disorders.

c.people who have one mental disorder are unlikely to have a second comorbid disorder.

d.as people grow older they are more likely to have multiple severe disorders.

After failing French the first time, Carl did not earn a passing grade when he took the course for a second time.

Which of the following is NOT an example of the three phenomena that the term resilience has been used to describe?

a.Despite her low IQ, Julie finished school and became a successful banker.

b.After failing French the first time, Carl did not earn a passing grade when he took the course for a second time.

c.The trauma of Julio's father's death never interfered with his plans.

d.Following the events of September 11th, the children of PS100 in New York City were able to resume their studies and finish the school year without incident.

a necessary or contributory cause that is proximal to the onset of symptoms

In the diathesis-stress model, a stressor is

a. a distal, sufficient cause of a mental disorder.

b. a necessary or contributory cause that is distal from the onset of symptoms.

c. a necessary or contributory cause that is proximal to the onset of symptoms.

d. a biological vulnerability.

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believed that most witches and mentally ill people were possessed by demons, but in different ways.

People in the Middle Ages

a.believed that mentally ill people were witches.

b.believed that witches were mentally ill.

c.believed that mentally ill witches should be treated differently than other types of witches.

d.believed that most witches and mentally ill people were possessed by demons, but in different ways.

They cannot determine cause and effect

What is the most important limitation of correlational studies?

a.They cannot determine cause and effect.

b.They are very subject to bias.

c.They rarely have representative samples.

d.They are very difficult to do.

It is often unethical or impossible to directly manipulate the variables involved in abnormal psychology

Why are correlational (observational) research designs often used in abnormal psychology?

a.They are best at determining cause and effect.

b.They are the most useful for comparing groups.

c.They give in-depth descriptions of the disorder being studied.

d.It is often unethical or impossible to directly manipulate the variables involved in abnormal psychology.

"I will accept any explanation from psychoanalytic to biological as long as it works."

A psychologist who takes an eclectic approach is most likely to make which of the following statements?

a."With the pace of discovery in science increasing, it is necessary to have one consistent approach to one's research."

b."The beauty of an eclectic approach is that it requires one to integrate many ideas into one, synthesized viewpoint."

c."I will accept any explanation from psychoanalytic to biological as long as it works."

d."Clinical practice that is not guided by a theoretical rationale is guaranteed to be ineffective."

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Lack of scientific evidence

Which of the following is a criticism of traditional psychoanalytic theory?

a.Underemphasis on the sex drive

b.Overly positive view of women

c.Lack of scientific evidence

d.Too much focus on symptoms and not enough on underlying causes

an emotional release

A catharsis is

a. a type of hypnosis.

b. an emotional release.

c. the part of the brain where the unconscious exists.

d. a type of hysteria.

demonstrated the power of suggestion


The physicians of the Nancy School

 

a.opposed the use of hypnotism.

b.demonstrated the power of suggestion.

c.found that hypnotism was not effective in the treatment of any mental illnesses.

d.believed that hysteria was the result of brain degeneration.

a diathesis and/or a stressor

The loss of a parent may be

a. a stressor.

b. a diathesis.

c. a diathesis and/or a stressor.

d. Neither a diathesis nor a stressor.

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Cause and effect cannot be determined as preexisting behavioral abnormalities in either the parents or the children may make divorce more likely.

Why is it difficult to determine the nature of the relationship between divorce and the psychological functioning of family members?

a.Cause and effect cannot be determined as preexisting behavioral abnormalities in either the parents or the children may make divorce more likely.

b.The findings have been too inconsistent for any conclusions to be drawn.

c.While the effects of divorce are negative on children, the effects on the spouses are generally positive.

d.Due to modern acceptance of divorce, there has been an ongoing decrease in the negative effects of divorce. As the impact of divorce has been decreasing, the effect of divorce on family functioning has become impossible to detect.

he is not getting a representative sample

Dr. Katz is researching the causes of phobias. He puts an ad in a newspaper asking for people who have an intense, distressing fear of snakes to come and participate in his study. The major problem with this is

a.the people who come may not have a phobia.

b.his sample will be too small.

c.he is not getting a representative sample.

d.he doesn't know if people are telling the truth about their fears or not.

Retrospective strategies

A researcher says, "These studies make it too easy for investigators to find the background factors they expect to find. However, they are more valid if we find documents like school reports that show the background factor before the disorder emerges." What kind of research strategy is the researcher referring to?

a.Prospective strategies

b.N=1 strategies

c.Retrospective strategies

d.Analogue studies

An ancient practice in which a hole was drilled in the skull to release evil spirits

What is trephining?

a.A form of treatment for schizophrenia.

b.The ancient study of the bumps on the skull.

c.A method for assessing the severity of a mental disorder.

d.An ancient practice in which a hole was drilled in the skull to release evil spirits.

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Preparing for the stressor

Which of the following will lessen the impact of a stressful situation?

a.Holding unrealistic expectations about the stressor

b.Minimizing the use of social support

c.Preparing for the stressor

d.Being uncertain as to how long the stressor will persist

They may include questions about areas that are of no concern to the patient

Which of the following is a drawback of a structured interview?

a.Important information is asked about in the same way.

b.Information from one is hard to compare to information from another.

c.They may include questions about areas that are of no concern to the patient.

d.Each person that uses them, uses them in different ways.

the effects of external stressors

According to the text, the term "stress" will be used to refer to

a.only those external events in our lives that challenge us.

b.any positive demand made on an organism.

c.the effects of external stressors.

d.anything that makes us unhappy.

procedures used to summarize a client's problem

Psychological assessment refers to the

a.procedures used to summarize a client's problem.

b.process used to arrive at a diagnosis.

c.development of a treatment plan.

d.determination of how environmental factors impact the course of a disorder.

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Projective tests

Which of the following is a type of test that tries to find ways in which a person's personality and past experiences cause them to understand and perceive their world?

a.Structured interviews

b.Objective tests

c.Neuropsychological tests

d.Projective tests

An adequate assessment should include as much information as possible

Which of the following statements regarding assessment is true?

a.Assessment should focus only on the client's current level of functioning.