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FINAL QUESTIONS - Flashcards

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Class:PSYC 3230 - ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
Subject:Psychology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Spring 2013
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a control group.

To determine whether certain characteristics are true of people in general, and not just of people with mental disorders, it is important to use

Authoritative

Which parental style is characterized by warmth, control, and communication?

differences in temperament.

Tracy and Shahid are both 3 months old. Tracy is highly active, easily irritated, and cries easily. Shahid is quiet, adapts easily to change, and seems fearless. These differences illustrate

responses to stress vary cross-culturally.

Cross-cultural research on stress demonstrates that

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Kraepelin

Which one of the following is credited with developing a classification system for mental disorders?

his description of consciousness.

Which one of the following is credited with developing a classification system for mental disorders?

Classification

________ is a necessary first step toward introducing order to any discussion of the cause or treatment of abnormal behavior.

Each viewpoint offers its own explanation of abnormal behavior.

Which of the following most accurately describes the notion of different viewpoints of abnormal behavior?

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is credited with establishing numerous humane mental hospitals in many countries.

Dorothea Dix

Sibling rivalry

Which of the following is an example of a nonshared environmental influence?

over half of the people with a history of one serious disorder had two or more comorbid disorders.

A major finding from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) was that

still occasionally practiced today for the treatment of psychological problems, sometimes with fatal results.

Exorcism is

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demonstrated the power of suggestion.

The physicians of the Nancy School

psychology vs. biology.

The Nancy School/Charcot debate is best described as one that focuses on

The fever that was induced killed off the cause of the observed symptoms.

Why was malarial therapy effective in treating general paresis?

focused on the moral and spiritual development of mental patients rather than their disorder.

The moral management treatment

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the way the genotype may shape the phenotype.

Ian was predisposed to being very aggressive with his peers in school, who responded by rejecting him. Later in life Ian began to associate with other aggressive youth and to participate in a variety of delinquent behaviors. This is an example of

he is not getting a representative sample.

Dr. Katz is researching the causes of phobias. He puts an ad in a newspaper asking for people who have an intense, distressing fear of snakes to come and participate in his study. The major problem with this is

recognizing symptoms that occurred together often enough to be regarded as a type of mental disorder.

The first classification of mental disorders involved

cognitive

It is a hot day and a child sprays you with a garden hose. You might react with amusement (and even thanks!) or considerable anger. The fact that one event can be interpreted in different ways is central to the ________ approach to therapy.

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are specified on Axis IV.

In DSM-IV-TR, psychosocial stressors

Carol's answers were comparable to those given by a group of schizophrenics.

What does it mean if Carol scores high on the Schizophrenia scale of the MMPI?

begins with the assumption that the affected individual was functioning well before the current crisis.

Short-term crisis therapy

the existing criteria tend to lead to a prototypal approach.

While the DSM is designed to be a categorical classification scheme,

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symptoms vary considerably depending on the characteristics of the trauma and the victim.

PTSD

a person's ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired.

Stress tolerance is

a DSM diagnosis is only the first step, much more is needed to determine treatment.

The DSM acknowledges that

All of the above.

Why is it important to have an appropriate classification of the presenting problem?

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when a stressful situation overwhelms the individual.

Crisis is

they can influence both other people's and the diagnosed person's perception of themselves in negative ways.

One criticism of diagnostic labels is that

intelligence tests and personality tests.

There are two general categories of psychological tests used in clinical practice. They are

Dimensional

Which approach to the classification of abnormal behavior uses statistical criteria to differentiate between normal and abnormal?

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treat the symptoms the client is experiencing.

The psychotropic medications used in the treatment of PTSD

some people are predisposed to respond poorly to demands.

Which of the following statements about stress is correct?

Social isolation has been associated with increased risk of the disease.

Clyde is unmarried and has few friends. Why is he at greater risk for developing coronary heart disease than the general population?

EEG

Which of the following would be used to reveal a dysrhythmia in brain activity?

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Coping strategies

Which of the following terms refers to efforts to deal with stress?

can make a difference even for victims of torture - if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be less affected by the stressor over the long term.

Feelings of control over stressors

Valid tests are usually reliable.

Which of the following statements about reliability and validity is true?

is an imperfect means of quantifying the level of stress experience over a period of time.

The Social Readjustment Rating Scale

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b. Overestimating the likelihood that the event will reoccur

Which of the following is likely to maintain or strengthen conditioned fears over time?

d. Major depressive disorder

Many people who are depressed

c. enter REM sleep earlier than normal and have larger amounts of REM sleep early in the night.

George, a 22-year-old mechanic, always seems to have a cloud over his head. For the past three years, he has had problems sleeping and he seems to always overeat. While he may sometimes seem to be relatively content for short periods of time, this happens very rarely and it never lasts for more than a week. If George were to seek help for his negative mood state, which of the following diagnoses would he most likely receive?

b. has obsessive compulsive disorder.

Mark feels the need to tap everything within his arms reach twice. He doesn't have any particular thoughts associated with this, he just becomes anxious if he doesn't do it, because "something bad might happen." Mark

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b. the degree of impairment is judged severe enough to warrant a diagnosis.

"Normal" depression becomes a mood disorder when

a. marital distress can lead to depression and depression can lead to marital distress.

According to Hammen's stress-generation model of depression,

d. A 25-year-old divorced woman

Which of the following is most likely to attempt suicide?

a. SSRI

Quentin is seeking medication to treat his panic disorder. Due to Quentin's history of substance abuse, his doctor hesitates. After some consideration, the doctor is most likely to write Quentin a prescription for a ________, confident that abuse won't be an issue.

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b. Attempting to not think about something may lead to thinking about it more.

Which of the following provides a unique challenge when trying to eliminate the obsessions seen in OCD?

a. vicarious conditioning of a phobia.

Nicole's mother is terribly afraid of snakes. Although Nicole has never actually seen a snake, her mother has told her time and again to be careful to look for them when she is walking. Now Nicole has an intense fear of snakes and refuses to walk in the grass. This is an example of

d. is a noninvasive biological treatment for depression.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

c. learned helplessness

No matter what prisoners try to do, they cannot escape. Eventually, they become passive and depressed. This illustrates the central idea in the ________ theory of depression.

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a. Amygdala

Which of the following is a brain area that has been found to exhibit abnormalities in depressed patients?

d. Increased cortisol levels

Which of the following is a hormonal abnormality associated with both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression?

c. Whether there are occasional brief periods of normal moods during the disorder.

What is the most important characteristic used to distinguish dysthymia from major depression?

b. abnormalities in the functioning of the basal ganglia.

As discussed in your text, much evidence now suggests a number of biological causal factors in obsessive-compulsive disorder including

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a. Dysthymia

In which of the following disorders must symptoms be present for at least 2 years in order for a diagnosis to be made?

c. diagnostic criteria are now based on shared, observable symptoms and are more clearly defined.

The new DSM classification, which omits the concept of neurosis, is an improvement because

d. behavior by a spouse that can be interpreted as criticism.

One factor that is especially likely to produce depression relapse is

a. find that angry faces act as fear-relevant stimuli.

Studies of preparedness and social phobia

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c. provide factual information about eating and dieting.

In addition to altering the eating patterns of clients with Binge Eating Disorder, therapists using cognitive-behavioral therapy will also

b. A seizure that resembles an epileptic seizure but is different.

What is a pseudoseizure?

b. Parents who emphasize rules, control, and good physical appearance.

Which of the following is most commonly found in families of girls with anorexia?

a. malingering.

Consciously faking symptoms is characteristic of

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d. These conditions are too rare to permit more extensive study.

Why has there been little systematic research conducted on dissociative amnesia and fugue?

a. both ask for reassurance about their symptoms but don't feel relief when they get it.

People with body dysmorphic disorder are similar to people with hypochondriasis in that

d. Although the findings to date are mixed, the evidence does indicate that a susceptibility to eating disorders may be inherited along with a diathesis for other psychological conditions.

Which of the following statements about the role of genetics as a risk factor for eating disorders is true?

d. It is not the original identity.

Which of the following is most commonly true of the host identity in DID?

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c. Substance abuse

In studies of the long-term outcomes of women treated for eating disorders, which of the following predicted poor outcomes for those diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia?

d. Low parental education

Which of the following factors is associated with an increased risk for obesity?

b. assimilation into white culture and middle class values.

Rates of eating disorders tend to be much lower in black women than in white women. However, one factor that can increase risk in black women is

a. Eating disorders rarely start during the mid-thirties.

In her mid-thirties, Cheryl became preoccupied with her weight and began dieting and exercising. After losing a substantial amount of weight, she was still not happy with how she looked and continued to restrict her food intake. After several fainting spells resulting from her low calorie intake, her employer referred her to a clinician who recognized the signs of anorexia nervosa. Which of the following is unique about Cheryl's case?

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c. Lessened preoccupation with physical appearance.

Which of the following is an effect of antidepressants on symptoms of bulimia nervosa ?

b. support the assertion that DID is a real disorder.

Studies of the brains of individuals with DID

b. people with eating disorders often have depression as well.

One of the reasons it is difficult to know if a disruption in the serotonin system causes eating disorders is

a. The use of laxatives

Which of the following is characteristic of the binge-eating/purging type of anorexia?

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d. involves binges comparable to those in bulimia but without any inappropriate "compensatory" behavior to limit weight gain.

Binge-eating disorder

c. binge eating is likely after a period of caloric restriction.

Set-point theory explains why

c. is extremely common and not necessarily pathological.

Dissociation

a. People with conversion disorder are very willing to talk about their symptoms, malingerers will be more cautious.

Which of the following is a way to distinguish between someone with conversion disorder and someone who is malingering?

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b. splitting.

Donna has borderline personality disorder. She is in therapy, but progress is slow. One problem is that some days she thinks her therapist is the most wonderful person in the world. On other days, she thinks he is worthless and untrustworthy. This type of thinking is called

b. experience greater lessening of feelings of stress after alcohol consumption than nonalcoholic men.

Men who are at high risk for becoming alcoholics

d. lower; a mutant enzyme that leads to hypersensitive reactions to alcohol

Rates of alcoholism among Asian populations are ________ than among European peoples. This fact may be related to ________.

d. The behaviors exhibited by people with borderline personality disorder lie on continuum between neurotic and psychotic disorders.

What "border" did the term "borderline" in borderline personality refer to?

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b. Disorientation for time and place and vivid hallucinations

Betty was admitted to the hospital in a state of withdrawal from alcohol. She was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal delirium (formerly known as delirium tremens). She most likely showed which of the following behaviors?

b. High introversion and high neuroticism

Which basic personality traits from the five-factor model seem most important in the development of avoidant personality disorder?

a. One who has fearlessness, low anxiety, and high callousness

Which type of child is most likely to show the personality traits of a psychopath as an adult?

c. schizotypal personality disorder.

Tom tells you that he can make his roommate take out the trash by simply thinking about his roommate doing it. He agrees with you that this could sometimes just be a coincidence, but he seems to truly believe he can sometimes get people to do things just by thinking about it. You find him understandable when he talks, but sometimes hard to follow. His clothes are messy and don't match. Tom tells you not to tell anyone about his power, because he knows that other people don't like him because they are jealous and they would hurt him if they could. The best diagnosis for Tom is

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b. many of the personality disorders share common features.

Misdiagnoses are common when looking at potential personality disorders because

a. he is basically alone.

A cognitive explanation for schizoid personality disorder proposes that the individual with this disorder believes that

c. $1.2 million; $2 million

According to your textbook, each very high-risk antisocial youth may cost society between ____ and ____ in rehabilitation, incarceration, and costs to victims.

d. be hypersensitive to any sign of criticism or rejection.

Helena has avoidant personality disorder. She is likely to

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b. cause withdrawal symptoms within approximately 8 hours of the last dose.

Opium and its derivatives

d. Judgment becomes impaired long before this blood alcohol level is reached.

What evidence is there that the legal definition of alcohol intoxication (a blood alcohol content of 0.08) should be changed?

c. symptom or feature similarities.

The "clusters" of personality disorders found in the DSM-IV-TR are grouped based on

b. are problematic - the abuse most likely is occurring with other factors that might be more important.

The research on the association between borderline personality disorder and childhood sexual abuse

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b. Depression

The individual with which of the following Axis I diagnoses is most likely to also abuse alcohol?

b. Alcoholics Anonymous

"I am a person who has an affliction-I cannot drink like social drinkers. Spiritual change may help me in recovering from my addiction, but I will be an alcoholic for life." The person who said this would feel most comfortable in ________.

c. suggest that an inherited altered sensitivity to alcohol might create a vulnerability to alcohol abuse.

Studies of the genetics of alcoholism

c. may occur in alcoholics since alcohol interferes with the body's ability to use nutrients.

Malnutrition

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b. a significant loss of contact with reality.

Psychosis is a striking and essential feature of schizophrenia. Psychosis means

b. there is no strong evidence that people with schizophrenia have too much dopamine.

There is a new trend to focus on dopamine receptor sensitivity rather than on dopamine itself because

c. Over 90 percent of those with schizophrenia experience delusions.

How common are delusions in schizophrenia?

c. suggest that all rapists have both aggressive and sexual motives.

Studies of sex offenders

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c. occur near where the rapist lives.

Most rapes

c. limit the amount of information about a victim's past sexual history that can be used in court.

Rape shield laws

d. Schizophreniform disorder

Which of the following could be described as "short-term" schizophrenia?

d. a variation of sexual function; a pathological escape from heterosexuality

Among psychoanalysts in the 1930s and 1940s, homosexuality was first seen as ________ but later was seen as ________.

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a. most individuals are satisfied

The most recent studies of satisfactory outcome from sex reassignment surgery find

d. decreases steadily with age.

The recidivism rate for rapists

auditory

What type of hallucinations are the most common?

delusion of reference

Sterling believes that the TV special that was on last night was shown to tell her that she should break up with her boyfriend. She is absolutely certain this is true and plans to do it. This type of belief is an example of a

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c. tries to help people gain the skills they need for daily living outside the hospital.

Social-skills training for people with schizophrenia

c. may reflect a cognitive error.

Neuroimaging studies of hallucinating patients suggest that auditory hallucinations

a. revealed that homosexuality was much more common than expected.

One of the reasons the Kinsey report is noteworthy is that it

a. work by blocking dopamine receptors.

First-generation antipsychotics

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a. Healthy food.

According to abstinence theory, which of the following is necessary for health?

a. About one-third of children show no symptoms.

Which of the following statements about sexual abuse is TRUE?

d. involves a multitude of genes that work in concert.

Most of the evidence suggests that, if schizophrenia is inherited, it

b. Genetics increase a person's vulnerability to develop schizophrenia.

Based on current research, which statement is most justified?

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d. may be increased by taking SSRIs.

Suicidal behavior in children and adolescents

b. When Yula's dementia became obvious, her family looked back on her behavior and realized that she had been exhibiting memory deficits.

Which of the following is the most typical example of the onset of Alzheimer's disease?

c. I got lucky.

Juliet is a depressed child. When she wins a prize at school for her art project, how is she likely to explain it?

d. has been inconclusive.

Research on the effectiveness of antidepressants for the treatment of childhood depression

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d. Marlon, who is not sure where he is or what month or year it is.

Which of the following is a good example of a person with an impairment of orientation?

c. usually produce long-term, minor problems, particularly in older people.

Mild brain injuries

b. focal brain lesion.

When Mrs. Thomason experienced a stroke, a small area of her brain was deprived of oxygenated blood. This resulted in a

d. may be due to the HIV virus directly attacking brain cells.

Dementia in HIV

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b. motor vehicle accidents.

The most common cause of traumatic brain injury is

b. brain damage can result in symptoms that look like psychological conditions.

It is important that mental health professionals have an understanding of the effects of brain damage because

c. frontal lobe damage.

Emotional dyscontrol and personality alterations are expected with

b. increases the ability to concentrate.

Treatment of ADHD with drugs such as Ritalin is thought to be effective as it

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b. a penetrating head injury.

A bullet is most likely to cause

c. Lionel, because he is more likely to be motivated to recover.

Before the accident, Bob was unemployed and had few friends. Lionel, who suffered comparable head trauma, was a successful businessman and had just married. Which of these men should have the more favorable outcome and why?

a. Parental psychopathology.

Which of the following is a risk factors for ODD and conduct disorder?

d. is one of the most strongly genetic disorders in the DSM-IV.

Autism

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d. Neurocognitive Disorders

In the DSM-5, the disorders now known as "Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic and Other Cognitive Disorders" will be part of a newly proposed category called ________________.

c. he had good memory for remote events but no memory for events that just occurred.

The text presented a case study of a retired man who was hospitalized by his wife and son. He was typical of many patients with Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT) in that

b. are at risk for teen pregnancy.

Girls with conduct disorder

c. as the age of the parents increases.

The incidence of Down syndrome increases

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a. portray the defendant as someone who was him- or herself a victim.

A typical defense strategy, to try to counteract public anger about the insanity defense, is to

c. aversion therapy.

Punishment is a component of

b. a token economy.

Dennis has disorganized type of schizophrenia. He has lived in an institution for years. He rarely shows any attempt at socializing. A new program is started - every time Dennis speaks to another person he is given a piece of red paper. At the end of each week, he can use the red papers to get cigarettes or extra privileges. This new program is

c. understanding the present in terms of the past.

Psychodynamic interpersonally oriented therapies agree with classical psychoanalysis in the importance of

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b. Past history of violence

What is one of the best predictors of future violence?

d. There is no "typical" client

Which person described below is the "typical" client in psychotherapy?

d. Medication in combination with therapy yields the best results.

What has research on the use of a combined approach to the treatment of depression demonstrated?

c. explore unconscious and preconscious material.

The technique of free association is designed to

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d. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

Prozac is a

b. universal interventions.

"Efforts that are aimed at influencing the general population" best describes

c. transference

A son of a critical father comes to therapy one day and with no provocation is extremely hostile in his remarks to the therapist. The therapist might consider that ________ is occurring.

c. The drugs most abused by adolescents are alcohol and tobacco, which are easily available.

Why has the attempt to reduce the drug supply from other countries not reduced the rate of adolescent substance abuse?

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GABA

Valium exerts its anxiolytic effects by increasing the activity of

b. selective

Efforts at reducing racism as a means of preventing mental illness would be a(n) ________ intervention.

c. Eclectic

When asked what their orientation is, what do most of today's psychotherapists say?

a. currently experience psychotic symptoms.

Although the majority of currently disordered persons shows no tendency toward violence, an increased risk of violence is likely among those who

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c. abnormal behavior is learned the same ways as normal behavior and can be unlearned.

Behavior therapy is based on the belief that

c. To teach children about drugs so that they can make informed choices

What is the goal of school-based drug and alcohol education programs?

c. he believed defenses were lowered during sleep and repressed material would start to come out in dreams.

Freud called dreams "the royal road to the unconscious" because

a. it has a low potential for abuse.

The newer anti-anxiety drug Buspar has the advantage that

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d. Measures of several types of disorders were not included.

Why is it believed that the NCS survey used to estimate the prevalence of mental illness underestimated that prevalence?

c. Increasing contact with individuals who have a mental illness

Which of the following has been shown to reduce stigma of the mentally ill?

positively

It has been demonstrated that those who were prenatally exposed to the influenza virus are more likely to develop schizophrenia. In other words, prenatal exposure to the influenza virus is ________ correlated with developing schizophrenia.

d. Mental illness can have a significant impact on one's life.

What does Monique's case best illustrate?

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d. it is a disorder that is short in duration.

Describing a disorder as acute means that

a. Point prevalence

What type of prevalence estimate tends to be lowest?

d. A disorder seen only in certain cultures

What is a culture-specific disorder?

b. When a label is used to describe an individual's behavior, information about the person is lost.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of having a classification system for mental disorders?

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c. weak because it rarely provides information we can generalize to others with the disorder.

A psychologist reports a single case of a disorder, detailing the person's feelings and responses. This research strategy is

c. delay seeking treatment, sometimes for many years.

Most people with psychological disorders

c. the concordance rate for monozygotic twins would be greater than the concordance rate for dizygotic twins.

If trait is highly heritable, it would be expected that

b. the process by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the axon.

Reuptake of neurotransmitters is

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b. unconscious

Freud is the first to describe the ________: that the mind could contain information of which it is unaware, but by which it is still affected.

d. positively

It has been demonstrated that those who were prenatally exposed to the influenza virus are more likely to develop schizophrenia. In other words, prenatal exposure to the influenza virus is ________ correlated with developing schizophrenia.

c. conditioned stimulus.

After being bitten by a dog, Jose finds that he feels afraid whenever he sees a dog. In classical conditioning terms, the dog can be described as a(n)

d. the way the genotype may shape the phenotype.

Ian was predisposed to being very aggressive with his peers in school, who responded by rejecting him. Later in life Ian began to associate with other aggressive youth and to participate in a variety of delinquent behaviors. This is an example of

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b. Classification

________ is a necessary first step toward introducing order to any discussion of the cause or treatment of abnormal behavior.

b. behaviorists failed to attend to the importance of mental processes.

From the cognitive-behavioral perspective, an important limitation with the behavioral perspective is the fact that

d. Some of those released would have been better off remaining hospitalized.

Which of the following was an effect of the deinstitutionalization movement?

b. demonstrated the power of suggestion.

The physicians of the Nancy School

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d. He publicized the brutal treatment that many mental patients received.

What is Clifford Beers known for?

Depression

According to your textbook, which mental disorder received the most attention from early scholars?

d. the power of animal magnetism.

Mesmer was a proponent of

d. punitive.

During the first half of the twentieth century, mental hospital care would best be characterized as

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d. A person with that gene may or may not become schizophrenic.

Suppose that the presence of a particular gene is a necessary cause for the occurrence of schizophrenia. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

b. the likelihood that most behaviors are determined by the interaction of many genes and the environment.

The genetic influences that determine behavior may never be fully understood due to

d. results from an infection of the brain.

The insanity associated with general paresis

c. taking a scientific approach to the study and treatment of mental disorders.

Benjamin Rush is credited with all of the following EXCEPT

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c. a control group.

To determine whether certain characteristics are true of people in general, and not just of people with mental disorders, it is important to use

b. The publication of "The Snake Pit"

Which of the following served to publicize the plight of the mentally ill in the mid 1940s?

d. have led to a recognition of the role that genetic factors and other biological influences play in the development of many disorders.

Biological discoveries

a. unresolved conflicts between the id, the ego, and the superego.

Freud's view of mental disorders was that they were a result of

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a. The fever that was induced killed off the cause of the observed symptoms.

Why was malarial therapy effective in treating general paresis?

c. the drinking and rejection influence and maintain each other.

A couple is in counseling. She states that she drinks because he rejects her. He states that he rejects her because she drinks. It appears that

c. Islamic forms of treatment were more humane than European approaches.

Which statement about treatment of abnormal behavior in the Middle Ages is accurate?

b. control

In Dr. Lu's study of eating disorders, she looked at the academic histories of girls with an eating disorder and girls who did not have such problems. In this example, the girls without eating disorders are the ________ group.

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a. the hospitals run by Philippe Pinel.

Humanitarian treatment would be most typical of

c. weak because it rarely provides information we can generalize to others with the disorder.

A psychologist reports a single case of a disorder, detailing the person's feelings and responses. This research strategy is

a. research showed that it had never been effective.

The demise of moral management occurred for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

c. help others

According to the textbook, Zell Kravinsky the burden to _______ was almost unbearable.

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d. as x increases, y decreases

Which of the following may be safely inferred when a significant negative correlation is found between variables x and y?

c. thought to be possessed by a good spirit or god.

In ancient societies, if a person's abnormal conduct consisted of speech that appeared to have a religious or mystical significance, then the person was

c. represented the first clear-cut defeat of a mental disorder by medicine.

The use of malarial fever to treat paresis

c. Supernatural explanations for mental disorders grew in popularity.

What trend was observed during the Middle Ages in Europe?

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c. schema

A(n) ________ serves to guide our processing of information and may serve to distort memories.

b. mental disorders could not be caused by psychological factors.

Aristotle believed that

c. Authoritative

Which parental style is characterized by warmth, control, and communication?

c. are likely to show inconsistent attachment behavior.

Abused infants and toddlers

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d. determine the range of characteristics a person has.

Genes

c. emphasizes social rather than inner determinants of behavior.

The interpersonal perspective

d. experimental

A researcher who provides a certain treatment for one group and withholds treatment from a completely comparable group is using the ________ research method.

b. provide insight into the workings of the unconscious.

Free association and dream analysis

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b. necessary cause.

In order to develop chicken pox, one must be exposed to the virus that causes chicken pox. Note, however, that not everyone who is exposed to the virus is affected. In other words, the virus is a

a. Dorothea Dix

Which one of the following increased the availability of treatment for the mentally ill in the United States?

b. The publication of "The Snake Pit"

Which of the following served to publicize the plight of the mentally ill in the mid 1940s?

a. Point prevalence

What type of prevalence data only counts active cases of a disorder?

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b. is processed at a nonconscious level.

According to cognitive theorists, a lot of information that contributes to a person's psychopathology

d. A disorder seen only in certain cultures

What is a culture-specific disorder?

c. provided funding for mental health treatment in the community.

The Hill-Burton Act

b. a concern that prolonged hospitalization could keep patients from being able to adjust to and function in the outside world.

The rationale behind deinstitutionalization was

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a. Mandy visited the accident site.

Which of the following would be an example of direct therapeutic exposure?

c. Preparing for the stressor

Which of the following will lessen the impact of a stressful situation?

b. A highly demanding job and little decision-making control

Work-related stress can elevate risk of coronary heart disease by which key factors?

b. placed too much emphasis on physical exhaustion.

During WWII, the descriptors of the traumatic reactions seen to combat conditions

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d. the TAT

Which of the following is an unstructured approach to studying personality?

a. indirect means of assessing psychological characteristics.

Intelligence and personality tests can best be described as

c. picking items that differentiate between different groups, no subjective judgment is needed.

The empirical keying approach to making a test like the MMPI involves

d. They are expensive.

Which of the following statements about individually administered IQ tests is correct?

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a. When using resources to deal with one stressor, the ability to tolerate additional stressors may be compromised.

I often find that when I am ill, I am not able to cope effectively with the normal hassles of life. I find myself becoming irritated by things that I would usually be able to ignore. Which of the following would explain this phenomenon?

a. Preparing for chemotherapy

For which of the following would the use of stress-inoculation training be most effective?

a. Psychoanalysis

Which was not an effective treatment for stress-related disorders, according to your text?

d. treat the symptoms the client is experiencing.

The psychotropic medications used in the treatment of PTSD

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b. there is still some doubt about the extent of its effectiveness.

A significant drawback of the use of medication for PTSD is

c. three

For an adjustment disorder, the symptoms must appear within __________ months of the stressor?

d. Both tax one's resources and coping skills.

What do positive and negative stressors have in common?

d. a DSM diagnosis is only the first step, much more is needed to determine treatment.

The DSM acknowledges that

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b. something in a person's history that makes that person more vulnerable to stress.

A risk factor is

c. Those with negative events and a highly diverse social network

Who is most likely to get a cold?

a. Coping strategies

Which of the following terms refers to efforts to deal with stress?

d. They are time-consuming

Which of the following statements about projective tests is correct?

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b. newly acquired coping skills are applied.

In the final phase of stress-inoculation training

b. three

People with heart disease are ____ times more likely than healthy people to be depressed.

a. efforts to deal with stress.

Coping strategies are

d. Carol's answers were comparable to those given by a group of schizophrenics.

What does it mean if Carol scores high on the Schizophrenia scale of the MMPI?

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d. Axes IV and V

Which axes are rarely used in most clinical settings?

b. The focus of the assessment will be largely determined by the professional orientation of the clinician.

Which of the following is a true statement about assessment and professional orientation?

c. begins with the assumption that the affected individual was functioning well before the current crisis.

Short-term crisis therapy

a. Scoring and interpretation is very subjective.

Several clinicians look at the TAT results of a hospitalized patient. The patient described the characters on the card as not speaking to each other. One clinician says this means the patient has a lot of unresolved anger. Another says it means the patient has a lot of social anxiety. The third says he thinks it means the patient is uninterested in people and prefers to be alone. This demonstrates the following problem with the TAT:

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a. become more objective.

Since it was first published, the DSM has

b. role-playing.

Joanne says that she cannot say "no" to her intrusive mother. Her therapist has her pretend to engage in such an interaction to assess how weak Joanne's assertiveness skills really are. This illustrates the use of

d. Axis V

Despite his condition, Jim went to work every day. On which of the five axes of the DSM would this information be found?

c. can vary depending on if the torture was perceived as uncontrollable or not.

The impact of torture

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b. Being diabetic

Which of the following is not considered a life change?

c. reliability.

Shanna goes to Dr. Henderson for a first interview. He diagnoses her with a depressive disorder. She then goes to Dr. Smithson, because her friend recommended her. Dr. Smithson diagnoses Shanna with an anxiety disorder. This demonstrates a problem with

d. examines the effects of stressors on the immune system.

The field of psychoneuroimmunology

d. A child is asked to draw her family.

Which of the following would be an example of a projective technique?

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d. Projective tests

Which of the following is a type of test that tries to find ways in which a person's personality and past experiences cause them to understand and perceive their world?

a. procedures used to summarize a client's problem.

Psychological assessment refers to the

d. releases hormones that regulate many bodily functions.

The pituitary gland

c. a person's ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired.

Stress tolerance is

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d. a DSM diagnosis is only the first step, much more is needed to determine treatment.

The DSM acknowledges that

d. are specified on Axis IV.

In DSM-IV-TR, psychosocial stressors

a. indirect means of assessing psychological characteristics.

Intelligence and personality tests can best be described as

b. re-experiencing of the traumatic event.

A main symptom of PTSD is

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b. Macrophages

Which type of cells release interleukin?

a. Formal diagnosis

Dr. Vera says, "It may only provide a limited view of a person's problems, but it is important for planning appropriate treatment. Administratively, it is essential so that a facility can know what kinds of problems clients need help with. Even if we don't want to do it, insurance claims require it." What is Dr. Vera is referring to?

d. They are time-consuming

Which of the following statements about projective tests is correct?

a. clinical observation.

A clinical psychologist notes that a client wears his clothes inside out, that his hair is matted, and there is dirt under his fingernails. This information is known as

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a. Psychoanalysis

Which was not an effective treatment for stress-related disorders, according to your text?

a. Vacation

Which is not a stressor linked to immunosuppression, according to the text?

c. participant modeling.

Lauren is phobic of birds. Her therapist shows her how to approach a bird in a cage. The therapist then takes the bird out, pets it and feeds it. She then encourages Lauren to do the same behaviors. This type of procedure is called

d. It is more acceptable for women to exhibit fear.

Which of the following is a sociocultural explanation for the higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women?

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a. find that angry faces act as fear-relevant stimuli.

Studies of preparedness and social phobia

c. Fear of dying

Which of the following is a typical symptom of panic attacks?

c. preparedness

It is fairly easy to condition monkeys and humans to fear snakes but almost impossible to condition either to fear a flower. This supports the ________ theory of phobias.

b. Attempting to not think about something may lead to thinking about it more.

Which of the following provides a unique challenge when trying to eliminate the obsessions seen in OCD?

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a. Cleaning

Which of the following is one of the five primary types of compulsive acts seen in individuals with OCD?

compulsions

Jessica spends much of her day counting or saying certain words to herself. When she is not doing this, she is checking whether she left her doors unlocked. These symptoms illustrate

that preparedness theory may help explain obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The fact that dirt and contamination were threats to our ancestors suggests

The incidence is about equal for men and women.

Which of the following is unique about OCD, as compared to other anxiety disorders?

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b. elderly men with chronic physical illnesses.

The director of a city health department wants to know who is most likely to complete suicide in her city. The group with the highest risk is

a. double depression.

Margaret has been suffering with dysthymia for several years and has sought treatment on several occasions. About one month ago she developed more severe symptoms of depression, which have been maintained almost daily. The condition she is experiencing is best described as

d. The occurrence of at least one manic episode

Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder?

d. agoraphobia.

"Fear of fear," fear of anger and depression, and fear of internal bodily sensations are all cognitive causal explanations for

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d. recurrent

Seasonal affective disorder is best described as a ________ depressive disorder.

d. is well-established.

A relationship between depression and marital dissatisfaction

a. SSRIs


Which of the following are the antidepressants most widely prescribed today for the treatment of panic disorder?

c. is a consequence of loss. According to Freud, depression


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b. Overestimating the likelihood that the event will reoccur Which of the following is likely to maintain or strengthen conditioned fears over time?


d. both a gene and certain environmental factors need to be present to cause depression. The finding that people with one type of serotonin transporter gene and childhood maltreatment had higher rates of depression than either those without the gene or those with the gene without the maltreatment suggests that


c. if he or she has a subjective belief that something awful is about to happen. The main way to tell someone is having an uncued panic attack rather than is in a state of fear is


c. Such drugs are frequently misused. Which of the following is a disadvantage of treating GAD with a benzodiazepine?


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b. They tend to engage in "safety behaviors" that they believe are the reason the catastrophe didn't happen. Why do many people with panic disorder continue to believe they are having a heart attack despite the fact that they never have had one?


c. Single episodes of the disorder are extremely rare. Which statement about bipolar I disorder is accurate?


a. Critical comments trigger negative affect in the spouse. Which statement best describes the relationship between mood disorders and domestic distress?


a. social phobia. Kayla has just started college and wants to make friends. She refuses to go to large parties because she is afraid that she will blush and sweat, and that other people will laugh at her. She is fine when talking to people in one-on-one settings. Kayla's most likely diagnosis is


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d. bipolar II. Carleen comes to therapy because she is feeling sad. She says her she has often had periods of extreme sadness in the past and they typically last between 6 and 8 months. During those times she overeats, has trouble sleeping, feels exhausted all the time, and thinks a lot about dying. At other times, however, Carleen says she feels wonderful. During those times, which last about a week, she gets a lot done, feels as if she could do anything, talks a lot and quickly, doesn't sleep, but doesn't feel tired. Carleen says her "up" times are great and have never caused her any trouble. Carleen's most likely diagnosis is


c. supports the role of dopamine in mania. The effectiveness of lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder


c. Clinically significant distress or impairment Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of cyclothymia?


c. Mania and depression What are the two key moods involved in mood disorders?


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b. Blood-injury phobia Which of the following phobias is a 10-year-old boy most likely to suffer from?


a. a depressed episode is not necessary for a diagnosis. Although bipolar I disorder is described as "bipolar,"


b. Increases in noradrenergic activity have been seen in the brains of depressed patients. Which of the following is a research finding that is inconsistent with the monoamine hypothesis of depression?


a. Amygdala

Which of the following is a brain area that has been found to exhibit abnormalities in depressed patients?

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d. avoid the feared stimulus. Individuals who suffer from phobias


b. Acquired fear responses can be elicited with subliminal exposure to fear-relevant stimuli. What has research on the preparedness theory of phobias found?


d. b. has obsessive compulsive disorder.. Mark feels the need to tap everything within his arms reach twice. He doesn't have any particular thoughts associated with this, he just becomes anxious if he doesn't do it, because "something bad might happen." Mark
d. cyclothymia. Lori has periods of dejection and apathy that are not as severe as are seen in major depression. She also has periods when she abruptly becomes elated and has little need for sleep. Her symptoms never reach the level of psychosis, but the mood swings have been recurrent for over four years. The best diagnosis for Lori is
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d. It is more acceptable for women to exhibit fear. Which of the following is a sociocultural explanation for the higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women?
d. Benzodiazepines Harold's panic attacks have become so severe that he has finally sought treatment. He sees a psychiatrist who writes Harold a prescription that should offer him some immediate relief. Which of the following drugs is Harold most likely to have been prescribed?
d. 80; 90

Approximately ___ to ___ of people with severe agoraphobia are women.

a. generalized anxiety disorder.

Amber feels anxious almost all the time. She finds herself worrying that her husband will leave her (although he has never shown any indication that he would), that she chose the wrong job, that her children might not be safe at their school, and that she might get sick and leave her family in financial ruin. She calls her husband almost everyday to find out when he will be home. She complains to her physician that she is always tired but cannot sleep or relax. Amber's most likely diagnosis is

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c. lithium.

Reynaldo has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The most effective drug for him is

d. Symptoms are mild to moderate but last for much longer than in major depressive disorder. How does dysthymia compare to major depressive disorder?
b. depersonalization. When Jill experienced her first panic attack, she felt as if she were outside of herself, watching herself struggle to catch her breath. Jill's sense of not being part of herself is one of the symptoms of a panic attack known as
a. can occur even in infants and very young children. Depression
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b. Carol was absolutely convinced that her mother wanted to kill her, although there was no evidence for this. Which of the following would eliminate a potential diagnosis of cyclothymia?
d. It is seen in 5-10 percent of those with bipolar disorder.

Which of the following is a true statement about rapid cycling in bipolar disorders?

c. Fear of dying Which of the following is a typical symptom of panic attacks?


c. About half of people who complete suicide do so during or in the recovery phase of a depressive episode.

Which statement about the risk of suicide is true?

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c. enter REM sleep earlier than normal and have larger amounts of REM sleep early in the night. Many people who are depressed
a. marital distress can lead to depression and depression can lead to marital distress.

According to Hammen's stress-generation model of depression,

c. bipolar I disorder.

Angela has had several periods of extremely "up" moods. They last for a couple of weeks and she has gotten into trouble several times. During those times she doesn't sleep, spends way too much money, gets involved in bad business decisions, talks quickly and thinks even more quickly and believes she can do anything. The best diagnosis for Angela is

d. Bipolar disorder is more strongly inherited than unipolar disorder.

Which of the following is true?                                                    

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b. People who ruminate a great deal tend to have more lengthy periods of depressive symptoms.

Which of the following statements about rumination is true, according to the ruminative response styles theory?

b. she is ambivalent about committing suicide.

Melissa is severely depressed and wants to commit suicide. If she is typical of most individuals who commit suicide,

a. Matt is more likely to become depressed than Jacob.

Jacob and Matt both flunk their math test. Jacob says to his friends that there is no point in his continuing in the course because the teacher just doesn't like him. Matt says he is going to drop the course because he is just stupid in math. According to the reformulated learned helplessness theory,

a. Lack of environmental reinforcers

Which of the following is a behavioral explanation for depression?

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d. bipolar II.

Carleen comes to therapy because she is feeling sad. She says her she has often had periods of extreme sadness in the past and they typically last between 6 and 8 months. During those times she overeats, has trouble sleeping, feels exhausted all the time, and thinks a lot about dying. At other times, however, Carleen says she feels wonderful. During those times, which last about a week, she gets a lot done, feels as if she could do anything, talks a lot and quickly, doesn't sleep, but doesn't feel tired. Carleen says her "up" times are great and have never caused her any trouble. Carleen's most likely diagnosis is

b. appear to increase the time to recovery from a manic episode.

Stressful life events

c. Both appear to be ways of alleviating anxiety.

What do the somatoform and dissociative disorders have in common?

a. Staying physically active despite the pain.

What would be most helpful to a person with pain disorder?

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d. seems quite normal other than his amnesia.

Jeremy suffers from psychogenic amnesia. He probably

a.

remembers only events from the past and does not remember skills he learned more recently.

b.

can perform only simple tasks, regardless of the complex work that he was able to do previously.

c.

is able to recognize close friends and relatives but not acquaintances.

d.

seems quite normal other than his amnesia.

c. works modestly well for obesity.

Orlistat, which works by interfering with the absorption of fat,

b. may help reduce activation in the stress response system.

Comfort food

b. pain disorder associated with psychological factors.

Ryan has diabetes but has no trouble functioning. One day, his wife informs him that she is leaving him. Ryan suddenly develops terrible pain in his back, to the point he is unable to get out of bed. His wife agrees to stay for "a while" to take care of him. Ryan probably has

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a. may be the result of her starving herself.

Ginger suffers from anorexia. She is often angry and irritable. These feelings

a. Localized

Jill did not remember the accident happening or the following two days. What form of amnesia is this memory loss characteristic of?

b. explicit memories.

Experimental studies of DID find that interpersonality amnesia exists for

a.

all types of memories.

b.

explicit memories.

c.

implicit memories.

d.

conditioned responses.

d. Idealization of low body weight

Which of the following is LEAST likely to be addressed in the treatment of binge eating disorder?

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d. Although the findings to date are mixed, the evidence does indicate that a susceptibility to eating disorders may be inherited along with a diathesis for other psychological conditions.

Which of the following statements about the role of genetics as a risk factor for eating disorders is true?

d. The amount of critical comments family members made about the person's appearance

Which of the following is the strongest predictor of a person developing bulimic symptoms?

a. Eating disorders rarely start during the mid-thirties.

In her mid-thirties, Cheryl became preoccupied with her weight and began dieting and exercising. After losing a substantial amount of weight, she was still not happy with how she looked and continued to restrict her food intake. After several fainting spells resulting from her low calorie intake, her employer referred her to a clinician who recognized the signs of anorexia nervosa. Which of the following is unique about Cheryl's case?

a. involves multiple symptoms of at least four different types.

Somatization disorder        

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c. anorexia has a much higher death rate than bulimia.

Someone who binges and purges and is severely underweight is diagnosed as anorexic, not bulimic. Treating physicians must be precise with this diagnosis because

c. Lessened preoccupation with physical appearance.

Which of the following is an effect of antidepressants on symptoms of bulimia nervosa ?

c. experienced shame, guilt, and self-deprecation.

The text presented the case of Nicole, a college student with bulimia nervosa. She is typical of such individuals because she

c. Amenorrhea

Which of the following is a controversial aspect of the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa?

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d. factitious disorder

Munchausen's syndrome by proxy is a variant of which of the following disorder?

b. assimilation into white culture and middle class values.

Rates of eating disorders tend to be much lower in black women than in white women. However, one factor that can increase risk in black women is

b. has not yet been formally recognized as a distinct clinical syndrome.

Binge-eating disorder

a. Body dissatisfaction

Which of the following is likely to put whites at higher risk of developing an eating disorder than non-whites?

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d. in somatization disorder, people are concerned about multiple different physical symptoms, in hypochondriasis, people are concerned about having an organic disease.

Somatization disorder and hypochondriasis differ because

a. avoid accepting a psychological explanation for his problems.

If Ronald is typical of people with hypochondriasis, he will

a.

avoid accepting a psychological explanation for his problems.

b.

avoid visiting a physician.

c.

have bizarre delusions about his body rotting out.

d.

feel relieved when his doctor tells him he is healthy.

c. over ten identities.

Recent estimates suggest that about 50 percent of those with DID have

a.

only two identities.

b.

two alters, in addition to the host identity.

c.

over ten identities.

d.

as many as two hundred identities.

d. United States

In which of the following countries are at least one-third of adults obese?

a.

China

b.

Japan

c.

United Kingdom

d.

United States

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d. hypochondriasis and obsessive compulsive disorder.

Response prevention has been used in the treatment of both

d. suggests that there should be a low prevalence of eating disorders among these peoples.

A lack of body distortions among the Amish

a. Asthma.

Which of the following is a danger associated with obesity?

b. may be useful in treating depressive and psychotic symptoms, but are not a primary treatment.

In the treatment of eating disorders, medications

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d. fugue disorder.

All of the following are somatoform disorders EXCEPT

c. The adoption of unhealthy life styles

Which of the following best explains the current trend in the prevalence of obesity?


d. impossible to binge eat but still possible to regain weight.

Gastric bypass surgery makes it

c. each was severely abused, both physically and sexually.

A recent in-depth study by Lewis and colleagues of 12 convicted murderers diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder looked into their backgrounds. The study found strong evidence that

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b. negative affect.

Internalizing the "thin ideal" is strongly associated with

b. Conversion disorder

Which of the following disorders was once the most frequently diagnosed disorder among soldiers in World War I?

b. she will not stop because her vomiting is reinforced by reducing her fear of gaining weight.

Elena binges on high calorie foods and then makes herself throw up. She feels terribly ashamed and horrified by what she does. You would predict

a. Implicit memory is generally intact.

Which of the following has been demonstrated about the effects of psychogenic amnesias on memory?

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c. Fully developed personalities are not present in DID, just varying expressions of different aspects of the patient's personality.

Why has the term "multiple personality disorder" been replaced with "dissociative identity disorder"?

b. She experienced an instance of derealization.

After learning of her father's death, Sophia felt dazed and confused but still retained her sense of self. When speaking of her response to the news, she said she felt like she was in a movie watching the events happening to her. Despite this strange feeling, she understood what was happening and did the things that she needed to do. What can be said of Sophia's response to her father's death?

d. suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy is the treatment of choice.

Our current knowledge of the efficacy of treating eating disorders

b. explicit memories.

Experimental studies of DID find that interpersonality amnesia exists for

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c. Wrestling

Which of the following has been identified as a risk factor for eating disorders in men?

c. other factors correlated with abuse may be the true causal factors in DID.

There is debate as to the relationship between DID and abuse because

c. Because the consequences are likely to remain with us

Why are family attitudes about obesity important?

a.

Because they reflect the genetic influences on obesity

b.

Because they will cause people to be happier when obese

c.

Because the consequences are likely to remain with us

d.

They aren't - peer influence is more important

d. young women are more likely to be dissatisfied than young men.

When it comes to comparing one's actual body image with the ideal body,

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c. body dysmorphic disorder.

Kristie is talking to a career counselor at college. She suddenly announces that it is pointless to discuss jobs, when she knows that her face is incredibly hideous due to her huge number of acne scars. The counselor is surprised, because, while she can barely see a couple of scars at Kristie's hairline, they were not noticeable until Kristie pointed them out. It is probable that Kristie suffers from

a. The use of laxatives

Which of the following is characteristic of the binge-eating/purging type of anorexia?

c. both pay more attention to bodily sensations and see them as symptoms.

Somatization disorder and hypochondriasis are similar in that

a. malingering.

Consciously faking symptoms is characteristic of

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d. mistrustful.

The best single-word description for the person with paranoid personality disorder is

c. symptom or feature similarities.

The "clusters" of personality disorders found in the DSM-IV-TR are grouped based on

b. schizotypal

Schizophrenic disorders seem to be most strongly linked genetically to ________ personality disorder.

b. Many people who have antisocial personality disorder do not have psychopathy.

Which of the following is true about the connection between psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder?

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c. both exploit others but the person with borderline personality disorder does it due to an angry reaction to disappointments and the person with antisocial personality disorder does it for gain and without guilt.

The main difference between borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder is that

b. can be characterized by five basic trait dimensions.

There is a general agreement among researchers that personality

d. A child with conduct disorder and A or B

7.

Who is most likely to develop antisocial personality disorder?

 

a.

A child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

b.

A child with oppositional defiant disorder

c.

A child with conduct disorder

d.

A child with conduct disorder and A or B

 

b. are problematic - the abuse most likely is occurring with other factors that might be more important.

The research on the association between borderline personality disorder and childhood sexual abuse

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a. he is basically alone.

A cognitive explanation for schizoid personality disorder proposes that the individual with this disorder believes that

a. The high likelihood that an individual with one personality disorder may also have another

Which of the following is a factor that complicates determining the causes of personality disorders?

a. expectancies of social benefit can influence adolescents to begin or to continue drinking.

The reciprocal influence model of alcohol use suggests that

narcissistic

At a young age, children are not able to understand that the world that others experience is different from their own. Children also tend to overestimate their own abilities. A failure to outgrow these youthful characteristics might explain the development of ________ personality disorder.

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d. Lack of monitoring the adolescent's activities
d. Exposure to all alcohol must be avoided.
c. Histrionic
a. impulsive

Persons at high risk for developing alcohol-related problems tend to be more ________ than those at low risk.

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c. there have not been enough studies of the majority of children of alcoholics (those who do not become alcoholics).

One limitation on the findings of genetic influences on alcoholism is that

a.

not enough research has been done using twins.

b.

there are so many cultural differences in the use of alcohol that it blurs the genetic differences.

c.

there have not been enough studies of the majority of children of alcoholics (those who do not become alcoholics).

d.

there has been too much of a focus on the study of the nonalcoholic children of alcoholics.

c. aggressiveness and withdrawal in the child.

Heavy drinking during pregnancy, especially the early part, often causes

b. are opium-like substances produced by the body.

Endorphins

a. low thiamine levels.

Alcoholic psychosis may occur due to

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c. People who were hospitalized for cancer or lung problems

Who has the highest self-reported quit rate among smokers?

c. is caused by overworking the liver trying to assimilate large amounts of alcohol.

Cirrhosis of the liver

a. may actually be a safety device.

Passing out from a high blood level of alcohol

d. A child with conduct disorder and A or B

Who is most likely to develop antisocial personality disorder?

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b. can be characterized by five basic trait dimensions.

There is a general agreement among researchers that personality

c. Ecstasy

Which of the following is both a stimulant and a hallucinogen?

a.

Amphetamine

b.

Cocaine

c.

Ecstasy

d.

Mescaline

b. these religions prohibit alcohol consumption.

The incidence of alcoholism among Muslims and Mormons is low because

a. he is basically alone.

Dialectical behavior therapy is

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a. a promising, problem-focused treatment for borderline personality disorder.

Dialectical behavior therapy is

d. Middle-aged and older persons who cannot get to sleep without them

Which of the following people is most likely to be dependent on barbiturates?

b. the ratio of male to female problem drinkers will decrease.

Observed changes in drinking patterns suggest that in the future

b. France

Which of the following countries has the highest per capita rate of alcohol consumption?

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a. High neuroticism and high agreeableness

Which basic personality traits from the five-factor model seem most important in the development of dependent personality disorder?

d. a personality disorder.

People find Adam difficult to be around. His behavior is unpredictable and erratic but most often is annoying to others. He doesn't seem to learn from his bad experiences, instead he keeps repeating the same mistakes over and over. His family says Adam has been like this since at least junior high school. Adam most likely has

d. the central role of sexuality is not present.

The borderline personality differs from histrionic disorder in that

d. a memory defect for recent events.

The central feature of alcohol amnestic disorder is

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b. The average life span of an alcoholic is twelve years shorter than the average citizen.

Which of the following statements about alcohol problems is accurate?

c. done to reduce anxiety and depression.

Self-mutilation, such as is seen in borderline personality disorder, is

c. glutamate

Alcohol's effects on ________ explain its ability to impair judgment.

a.

dopamine

b.

epinephrine

c.

glutamate

d.

endogenous opioids

b. greater than if he had one alcoholic parent.

James has two alcoholic parents. Research suggests that his risk for alcoholism is

a.

nearly 100 percent.

b.

greater than if he had one alcoholic parent.

c.

no greater than if he had one alcoholic parent.

d.

about 10 percent higher than if he had no alcoholic parents.

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c. a mood disorder

About half of the individuals with borderline personality disorder also qualify for a diagnosis of ________ at some time.

b. obsessive-compulsive

Harold is perfectionistic and extremely concerned with maintaining a set routine. He probably suffers from ________ personality disorder.

b. many of the personality disorders share common features.

Misdiagnoses are common when looking at potential personality disorders because

b. are problematic - the abuse most likely is occurring with other factors that might be more important.

The research on the association between borderline personality disorder and childhood sexual abuse

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c. personality traits are inherited that predispose a person to developing a personality disorder.

The best description of the biological component of personality disorders is

b. High impulsivity and affective instability

Which basic personality traits from the five-factor model seem most important in the development of borderline personality disorder?

d. "If I am not fun, they will abandon me."

Which of the following core dysfunctional beliefs might explain the development of histrionic personality disorder?

a. generalized social phobia.

Avoidant personality disorder is extremely similar to and hard to distinguish from

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b. fear of rejection.

The individual with avoidant personality disorder is unlikely to develop lasting relationships as a result of his or her

b. all those who experience stress-reduction following alcohol consumption are at an increased risk for alcoholism.

According to the tension-reduction explanation for alcoholism,

c. what used to be called "delirium tremens" and "Korsakoff's psychosis."

Your text describes two commonly recognized psychotic reactions to alcohol. They are

b. Women metabolize alcohol less quickly than men.

Which of the following best explains why women tend to not "hold their booze" as well as men?

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a. may actually be a safety device.

Passing out from a high blood level of alcohol

b. it may be possible to interrupt the cycle by changing expectancies about drinking.

The reciprocal influence model suggests that         

b. is more dangerous and long-lasting than most drugs.

Barbiturate withdrawal              

a. physiological symptoms such as tolerance and withdrawal.

Unlike psychoactive substance abuse, psychoactive substance dependence usually involves

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a. It is the area of the brain that is activated by drugs and that produces euphoria.

What is the role of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway (MCLP)?

a.

It is the area of the brain that is activated by drugs and that produces euphoria.

b.

It is the area of the brain that is destroyed by alcohol and leads to amnestic disorder.

c.

It metabolizes all psychoactive drugs.

d.

It explains why genetically vulnerable individuals have altered brain wave patterns.

a. expectancies of social benefit can influence adolescents to begin or to continue drinking.

The reciprocal influence model of alcohol use suggests that

c. Relapse Prevention Treatment

In what type of treatment are clients taught to recognize situations that are likely to trigger drinking?

a.

Alcoholics Anonymous

b.

Motivational Enhancement Therapy

c.

Relapse Prevention Treatment

d.

Abstinence Violation Prevention

c. The personality disorder most often associated with alcohol abuse is antisocial personality disorder.

Which statement about alcohol abuse disorders and other psychological disorders is accurate?

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a. we may have overestimated the influence of genetics in schizophrenia.

The fact that a significant number of monozygotic twins share the same placenta, while no dizygotic twins do, suggests that

c. Over 90 percent of those with schizophrenia experience delusions.

How common are delusions in schizophrenia?

a.

They are experienced by approximately 50 percent of schizophrenics.

b.

Delusions are an essential feature of schizophrenia; the presence of delusions is required for a diagnosis of schizophrenia.

c.

Over 90 percent of those with schizophrenia experience delusions.

d.

While hallucinations are a common occurrence in schizophrenia, delusions are rare.

c. that homosexual people were exposed to early hormonal influences that were more typical of the opposite gender.

The current most influential model of the cause of sexual orientation is

b. often doesn't apply to women.

Newer research suggests that desire leading to sexual activity ending in orgasm

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c. was based on a vote by mental health professionals.

The decision by APA to remove homosexuality from the DSM

c. is often associated with severe sexual symptoms.

Post-traumatic stress disorder, when caused by a rape,

a. Have delusions of grandeur

Which of the following is most likely seen in an individual with paranoid schizophrenia?

a. degeneracy

"Semen is responsible for masculine characteristics such as beard growth and for general physical and sexual vigor. Therefore, wasting semen through masturbation and patronizing prostitutes is damaging to the nervous system" This statement best illustrates the ________ theory of sexual behavior.

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c. the recognition that such abuse may lead to other problems later in life.

Concern about childhood sexual abuse has increased in the past decade due to

c. is sexual activity with a person who is legally defined to be under the age of consent.

Statutory rape                                        

c. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder usually has no identifiable biological basis and appears to be psychological.

Which of the following statements about hypoactive sexual desire disorder is true?

a. the level of expressed emotion.

One aspect of family environment that has been found to be important in schizophrenia is

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c. Measurable traits that are thought to be linked to specific genes that might be important in schizophrenia

What are endophenotypes?

a. most likely accurate.

Research suggesting sexual dysfunctions are common has been shown to be

a. Taboos on sex between close relatives are found in all known cultures.

When it comes to cross-cultural similarities and differences concerning sexual behavior, which of the following statements is accurate?

d. disturbances in the content of thought.

Delusions are

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d. no disorder.

Patricia, age 10, refuses to wear dresses and insists on being called Pat. She knows she is a girl, but she says boys have it better. She prefers playing with boys and only plays the games they play. She says she wants to be a football player and a mother when she grows up. Pat has

a. eating meat increased sexual desire.

Kellogg's cornflakes were designed to be anti-masturbation food because it was believed that

a. exposure to a foul odor when becoming sexually aroused to a deviant stimulus.

Aversion therapy may involve

b. Sondra tried to ignore the voices in her head.

Which of the following is an example of the most common type of hallucination seen in schizophrenia?

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b. had gender identity disorder as children.

Most transsexuals       

a. Double-bind communication

A mother constantly demands that her son show her how much she is loved, but when he tries to hug her she yells at him to be more discreet. No matter what the child does, he is wrong. Further, the mother prohibits him from commenting on this paradox. What does this interaction pattern best illustrate?

b. fondling.

Pedophilia frequently involves

b. Pedophiles

________ often desire mastery or dominance over their partners, believe that their partners will benefit from sexual contact, and some tend to idealize their partners for their simplicity and innocence.

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d. More than one brain area or neurotransmitter is involved in producing the symptoms of schizophrenia.

Which of the following is suggested by the effectiveness of second generation antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia?

a. Sexual practices and standards are constantly evolving.

Which of the following statements is true?

a. they behave relatively normally.

Individuals with delusional disorder differ from those with schizophrenia in that

b. there is no strong evidence that people with schizophrenia have too much dopamine.

There is a new trend to focus on dopamine receptor sensitivity rather than on dopamine itself because

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b. very difficult to define because many things affect time to ejaculation.

Premature ejaculation is

d. has the disorder of interest.

In genetic studies, a "proband" or "index case" is someone who

c. the bodily maturity of the preferred partner.

Pedophilia is defined by

d. The duration of symptoms

What is the major difference between a diagnosis of undifferentiated schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder?

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b. transsexual.

Sam was a child with gender identity disorder. Now he is 26 and, feeling trapped in a man's body, he wants to become a woman. Adults with gender identity disorder are often referred to as a

c. tries to help people gain the skills they need for daily living outside the hospital.

Social-skills training for people with schizophrenia

d. autogynephilia.

A man who is aroused by the thought of himself as a woman has the paraphilia known as

a. Evidence suggests that there sometimes are progressive changes in brain volume over time in people with schizophrenia.

Why might Kraepelin's idea that schizophrenia was similar to dementia not be as far from the truth as previously thought?

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d. display a mix of positive and negative symptoms.

Over the course of the disorder, most individuals with schizophrenia

b. usually exhibits symptoms of schizophrenia that would fit only undifferentiated type.

The individual diagnosed with schizophreniform disorder

a. Auditory

What type of hallucinations are the most common?

c. a concept often used in the past by defense attorneys.

"Victim-precipitated rape" is

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a. A twenty-five-year-old pedophile

Which of the following sex offenders is most likely to reoffend?

c. typically choose girls as victims.

Incest offenders differ from extrafamilial child molesters in that the incest offenders

a.

don't show arousal to pictures of children.

b.

typically have more victims.

c.

typically choose girls as victims.

d.

are more introverted.

c. the validity of recovered (formerly repressed) memories of abuse.

One of the most controversial issues in psychology today concerns

a.

whether there are any serious consequences of childhood sexual abuse.

b.

whether there are any serious long-term consequences of rape and molestation in adult women.

c.

the validity of recovered (formerly repressed) memories of abuse.

d.

the validity of women's reports of rape.

b. A stepdaughter

Which of the following is most likely to be a victim of incest?

a.

A son

b.

A stepdaughter

c.

A daughter

d.

A stepson

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c. People tend to believe their current sexual standards are correct and to be intolerant of nonconformists.

Which of the following is true?

d. It permits semen conservation.

Why is ritualized homosexuality practiced in Sambia?

c. that classification of sexual practices as abnormal is strongly influenced by culture.

The beliefs about homosexuality among the Sambi tribe illustrate

c. suggest that all rapists have both aggressive and sexual motives.

Studies of sex offenders

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b. amount of sexual and aggressive motives.

The newest classification system for types of rapists (McCabe & Wauchope) varies in terms of

a.

amount of violence.

b.

amount of sexual and aggressive motives.

c.

whether the rapists know their victims.

d.

whether they target children or adults.

d. involve the impairment of either the desire for sexual gratification or the ability to achieve it.

Sexual dysfunctions

d. neologism.

"My father and I swiggered to the beach yesterday." This is an example of a

c. Being a recent immigrant

What is a stressor that has been found to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia?

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d. resist efforts to change their position.

Patients in a catatonic stupor

c. Maternal antibodies could cross the placenta and interfere with brain development such that the risk of developing schizophrenia is enhanced later in life.

Which of the following is a plausible explanation for how maternal influenza might lead to schizophrenia later in life?

c. Over 90 percent of those with schizophrenia experience delusions.

How common are delusions in schizophrenia?

b. Sondra tried to ignore the voices in her head.

Which of the following is an example of the most common type of hallucination seen in schizophrenia?

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b. delusion of reference.

Sterling believes that the TV special that was on last night was shown to tell her that she should break up with her boyfriend. She is absolutely certain this is true and plans to do it. This type of belief is an example of a

b. Subtypes of schizophrenia will be removed but the diagnosis of schizophrenia will remain

Which of the following statements is correct about proposed changes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia in the DSM-5?

c. a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia may remain unexpressed in some individuals unless it is released by some unknown environmental factors.

Studies of the offspring of nonschizophrenic co-twins from discordant twin pairs suggest that

a. Jake, who shows bizarre behavior, delusions, and disordered speech but has normal emotions.

Which of the following best describes the person with undifferentiated schizophrenia?

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b. increase levels of acetylcholine.

A hypothetical drug that might improve the cognitive functioning of Alzheimer's patients would probably

a.

decrease levels of acetylcholine.

b.

increase levels of acetylcholine.

c.

increase levels of beta amyloid.

d.

decrease the activity of all genes that produce ApoE.

d. Subcortical areas are more affected in VAD.

Which of the following best explains why mood disorders are more characteristic of vascular dementia (VAD) than of Alzheimer's disease?

c. frontal lobe damage.

Emotional dyscontrol and personality alterations are expected with

a.

amnestic syndrome.

b.

vascular dementia.

c.

frontal lobe damage.

d.

prolonged oxygen deprivation.

c. understand what she sees.

Ruth experienced a stroke that severely damaged her occipital lobe. We can expect that she has an impairment in her ability to

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b. are at extraordinarily high risk for depression.

Caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease

d. forgetfulness.

Damage to the temporal lobes of the brain is most likely to result in

c. usually produce long-term, minor problems, particularly in older people.

Mild brain injuries                                 

b. attention deficits.

Mild to moderate diffuse brain damage is most likely to result in

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b. how one is functioning before the damage occurs.

The extent of the deficits seen after brain damage are determined in part by

a. stroke.

Focal brain damage is most likely to be a consequence of

a. rapid; gradual

Delirium has a ________ onset and dementia has a ________ onset.

a.

rapid; gradual

b.

extensive brain damage; localized brain damage

c.

slow recovery; rapid recovery

d.

interference with complex processing; interference with simple processing

b. proposes that dysfunctional interactions have served to maintain the child's problematic behavior.

The cohesive family model is a treatment strategy for the child with conduct disorder that

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b. Takes place during non-REM sleep.

Which of the following is TRUE concerning sleepwalking disorder?

a.

If a child has one episode of sleepwalking, he or she is likely to have repeated episodes.

b.

Takes place during non-REM sleep.

c.

Awakening an individual who is sleepwalking will result in severe physiological stress for the person.

d.

While moving about, sleepwalkers' eyes are closed so they are in constant danger of injuring themselves.

b. having a favorable life situation to return to.

Positive outcomes following a traumatic brain injury are associated with:

a. diagnosed at an earlier age.

Compared to enuresis, encopresis is

a. The specific symptoms vary considerably from patient to patient and from day to day for the same patient.

Which of the following statements about Alzheimer's disease is true?

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a. brain tissue must be examined.

Which of the following is not a cause of traumatic brain injury?

d. Vitamin deficiency

In order for a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to be definitively made

c. Social withdrawal

It is suspected that June is in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Which of the following symptoms would suggest this?

d. Autistic disorder

Children with ________ are believed to be "mind blind," that is, they cannot take the attitude of or "see" things as others do. They are also deficient at locating and orienting to sounds in their environment.

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a. encopresis and sleep problems.

Children with autism often have additional problems such as

c. are usually associated with severe behavioral problems.

Tics                                 

b. respond less sensitively to their children and show more irritable behavior.

It is believed that depressed mothers negatively affect their infants because they

c. Competencies acquired before the injury

Which of the following is probably the most important factor in determining the functioning of a child who undergoes significant traumatic brain injury?

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c. impact on multiple functions.

Autism is similar to schizophrenia in its

c. A 7-year-old boy who soils himself when under stress.

Which child below best illustrates the typical child with functional encopresis?

d. did not know what happened.

After being hit on the head, Bob experienced some retrograde amnesia. Those who were there knew this because he

c. degenerative brain disease.

The most common cause of dementia is

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d. Tourette's syndrome.

Orlando, 14, frequently twists his head uncontrollably and yelps or grunts. If he has not done this for several hours, he has a sensation that can only be relieved by engaging in these movements and sounds. Orlando has had this problem since he was 8. The most likely diagnosis is

c. I got lucky.

Juliet is a depressed child. When she wins a prize at school for her art project, how is she likely to explain it?

a. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and separation anxiety disorders.

Among children, the most commonly diagnosed disorders are

b. The child with separation anxiety is likely to be immature and lack self-confidence.

Which statement about separation anxiety disorder is accurate?

a.

Children who have the disorder commonly develop antisocial personality disorder as adults.

b.

The child with separation anxiety is likely to be immature and lack self-confidence.

c.

The disorder is equally common in boys and girls.

d.

It is a severe but extremely rare form of childhood anxiety disorder.

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a. Coprolalia.

Which of the following is a symptom of Tourette's syndrome?

b. are at risk for teen pregnancy.

Girls with conduct disorder

a.

seek security from a father figure.

b.

are at risk for teen pregnancy.

c.

usually have a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD and/or a mood disorder.

d.

do not show the same social deficits seen in boys.

a. glutamate neurotransmitter system.

It has been suggested that the symptoms seen in autism might reflect a problem with the function of the

a. While good results are achieved when medication is combined with therapy, the medication appears to be the more effective element of the treatment.

In studies looking at the effectiveness of treatment for ADHD, what was found?

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a. 18.

The brain begins to decrease in size at age

d. is not associated with lasting behavioral problems.

The development of conduct disorder in adolescence

b. It is unusual for the onset of ODD to occur at age 12.

Brad has been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The disorder began around age 12 and is characterized by disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. What aspect of this case is unusual?

b. Childhood disorders were viewed as childhood versions of adult disorders.

Historically, why has little attention been paid to childhood psychopathology?

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c. Altering a familiar environment

Which of the following would be most distressing to a child with autism?

a. is a result of many small strokes.

Vascular dementia

a.

is a result of many small strokes.

b.

is what was once called amnestic infarct dementia.

c.

responds to the same treatments as Alzheimer's disease.

d.

affects more women than men.

d. difficulties that interfere with effective task-oriented behavior.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by

b. Giving birth to a child with Down syndrome before age 35

Which of the following is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease?

a.

Having a family history of vascular dementia

b.

Giving birth to a child with Down syndrome before age 35

c.

Living in a non-Western developed nation

d.

Excessive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

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b. the patient is vulnerable to sudden death from stroke or cardiovascular disease.

Vascular dementia is less common than Alzheimer's disease because

a. antisocial behavioral patterns may be learned.

Research on the families of children with conduct disorder suggests that

a. is a vocal tic involving yelling obscenities.

Coprolalia

d. Marlon, who is not sure where he is or what month or year it is.

Which of the following is a good example of a person with an impairment of orientation?

a.

Joe, who once thought he was a homosexual but now thinks he is heterosexual.

b.

Karla, who cannot accurately draw objects or copy designs on a piece of paper.

c.

Lois, who must constantly be reminded of what to do next when she is getting dressed.

d.

Marlon, who is not sure where he is or what month or year it is.

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a. tell you whom he or she met 5 minutes ago.

An individuals with amnestic disorder is likely to be unable to ____________.

c. are usually viewed negatively by their peers because of their behaviors.

Children with ADHD that have symptoms of hyperactivity

b. many continue to experience symptoms.

As children with ADHD become adolescents and adults,

d. parental participation.

Effective treatments for conduct disorder usually involve

a.

removing the child from the environment that has fostered the maladaptive behavior.

b.

legal intervention.

c.

teaching the child basic moral lessons.

d.

parental participation.

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c. Pemoline has fewer side effects.

What is the advantage of using Pemoline to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder instead of Ritalin?

b. children from cultures that favor inhibition and compliance report more fears.

Evidence that culture plays a role in the development of childhood anxiety disorders comes from the fact that

b. are clearly involved in the more severe forms of retardation.

Genetic factors

c. relatively withdrawn and uncommunicative.

William is an autistic child. He is probably

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c. The majority will continue to have, at minimum, social dysfunction as adults.

Which of the following statements about early-onset conduct disorder is true?

a.

Later problems are not likely.

b.

Most will develop antisocial personality disorder.

c.

The majority will continue to have, at minimum, social dysfunction as adults.

d.

Environmental factors predict whether or not the disorder persists.

c. is seen in boys more commonly than girls.

Functional enuresis           

d. they often show aversion to auditory stimulation and prefer a limited and solitary routine.

Despite what is shown in movies like Rain Man, most autistic children would not cope well being brought to a Las Vegas casino for the first time, because

b. Takes place during non-REM sleep.

Which of the following is TRUE concerning sleepwalking disorder?

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a. It focuses on all relationships, not just early experiences.

How has psychodynamic therapy changed over time?

d. There is no "typical" client

Which person described below is the "typical" client in psychotherapy?

a. Physicians and the clergy

What two professional groups deal extensively with emotional problems but typically do not have specific training in counseling?

b. as a salt substitute.

Lithium was once used

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b. Be careful what you eat.

Julia has just been prescribed a monoamine oxidase inhibitor to treat her depression. What warning should her doctor give her?

c. A pregnant and depressed 25 year-old

Which of the following would be the most likely candidate for ECT?

a. Wilson, whose complaint is premature ejaculation.

For which client is behavior therapy most likely to be effective?

a. Even people who are happy and successful can benefit from therapy.

Which of the following statements about therapy is TRUE?

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c. psychodynamic

Dr. Patel says this about his goals in therapy: "I want my patients to become aware of their repressed memories from childhood and come to terms with them in the light of adult realities." Dr. Patel most likely prefers ________ therapy.

a. problems develop because people view themselves and their world in biased ways.

The basic assumption of cognitive-behavior therapy is

a. Wilson, whose complaint is premature ejaculation.

For which client is behavior therapy most likely to be effective?

a. uses training in communication skills and problems solving to increase caring behaviors in couples.

Traditional behavioral couples therapy

a.

uses training in communication skills and problems solving to increase caring behaviors in couples.

b.

tries to involve spouses in the treatment of people with severe mental disorders to prevent relapse after they are released from the hospital.

c.

treats the couple together for any problems that only one of them has, because the couple is seen as a "system" that influences each other.

d.

uses training in relaxation skills and imagery to reduce anxiety in couples.

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b. Contingency management

Lawrence, a hypochondriac, gains a great deal of attention from his family when he complains about health problems; they tend to ignore him when he talks about other topics. A behavior therapist has instructed the family to reverse these responses: ignore the complaints and reinforce other topics. What kind of treatment does this best illustrate?

c. A therapist's interaction with a client is guided by theory.

In what way does therapy differ from simply talking to a friend or family member about a problem?

c. They all try to improve services and educate the government and public about various problems.

What do the National Association for Mental Health, the National Association for Retarded Citizens, and the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) have in common?

b. universal interventions.

"Efforts that are aimed at influencing the general population" best describes


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c. are in a majority of states but vary quite a bit.

Tarasoff-style laws

d. Goals are not clear

Which of the following is a criticism of humanistic-experiential therapies?

c. The lack of sufficient mental health services in the community

Which of the following is a barrier to effective deinstitutionalization?


a. Noting that the client is able to talk freely about his mother but not report anything about his father

Which of the following best illustrates the analysis of resistance?


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a. Ones that combine different intervention strategies

Dr. Jones says, "These projects have clearly shown a promising path toward reducing the extent of substance abuse in young people." What projects is Dr. Jones talking about?

c. rational emotive behavior

Dr. Lucas says to a client with anxiety disorders, "It is your unrealistic beliefs and perfectionistic values that cause you to be so anxious, not the events of your life." Dr. Lucas probably supports the assumptions of ________ therapy.

b. does not give answers or interpretations nor even steer the client onto certain topics.

In contrast to most other forms of therapy, the client-centered therapist

a. M'Naghten rule.

Darryl has schizophrenia, disorganized type. He has visual hallucinations, and one day he saw a giant bug standing in from of him. He picked up a large knife and stabbed it. In reality, Darryl stabbed his mother who had come to tell him dinner was ready. His lawyer argues that Darryl cannot be found guilty because he had no idea what he was doing or that it was wrong. His lawyer is arguing the

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d. Systematic desensitization

Which of the following is a form of behavior therapy that is commonly used in the treatment of anxiety disorders?

d. Support professional training and provide the public with information on mental health

Which of the following activities does NIMH perform?

d. GABA.

Valium exerts its anxiolytic effects by increasing the activity of

b. monoamine oxidase inhibitors

Which of the following is a type of "classical antidepressant"?

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a. Individual responsibility

Which of the following is a characteristic of a therapeutic community?

a.

Individual responsibility

b.

Minimal interaction amongst the patients

c.

Extensive use of medications

d.

Many restrictions

a. inpatient hospitalization has been increasing due to the failures to provide adequate care in the community.

The most recent research on deinstitutionalization has found

d. the community must be educated so it will be tolerant of troubled people.

In order for community-based aftercare for psychiatric patients to be successful

b. may be enough by itself to produce positive change.

Andrea begins therapy and expects that the therapy will help her. This expectancy

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c. "We are going to 'target dose' your lithium: When you feel symptoms coming on, take your medication."

A doctor prescribing lithium should NEVER say

d. Early alcohol use is associated with later alcohol abuse and dependence.

Why is it important to prevent teen alcohol use?

a. make a reasonable effort to warn potential victims.

In most states that have a Tarasoff-type rule, when a client threatens someone, a therapist must

a.

make a reasonable effort to warn potential victims.

b.

continue trying to warn potential victims until he or she reaches them.

c.

not break confidentiality.

d.

warn as many people who know the client as possible.

b. It takes time.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of psychotherapy?

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b. Social learning

At Rush General, the inpatient mental ward employs a program that focuses on modifying the behavior of the patients by giving them gold stars for good behavior and ignoring undesirable behavior. What type of treatment program does this appear to be?

c. A pregnant and depressed 25 year-old

Which of the following would be the most likely candidate for ECT?

d. lack of fulfillment.

Humanistic-existential therapies are based in the belief that psychopathology is a result of

b. M'Naghten Rule; Durham Rule

Knowing right from wrong is to ________ as "unlawful act was the product of mental disease" is to ________.

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c. integration of mind and body, dream interpretation, and emotional impasse.

Key ideas in Gestalt therapy are

c. they have a low risk of movement-related side effects.

A major advantage of the atypical antipsychotic drugs is that

d. There is no "typical" client

Which person described below is the "typical" client in psychotherapy?

c. the coordination of services in the community.

The current practice of providing treatment stresses

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d. situational circumstances play as large a role as an individual's personality traits.

One of the main reasons it is so hard to predict future dangerousness is

c. Many companies have recently begun providing psychological services through employee assistance programs.

Which of the following is TRUE regarding the use of mental health resources in private industry?

d. Social security.

Which of the following is a sociocultural efforts toward universal prevention of mental disorders?

a. systematic use of reinforcement.

The text reported the case of a 6-year-old boy who hated school and showed off in class. His parents and teacher were instructed to ignore the showing-off behavior while reinforcing appropriate behavior. This is an example of

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c. tardive dyskinesia.

The conventional antipsychotic drugs have a problematic side effect involving abnormal movement. This side effect is called

d. preparing a weather forecast

Predicting dangerousness is most comparable to

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 a control group.

To determine whether certain characteristics are true of people in general, and not just of people with mental disorders, it is important to use

 Authoritative

Which parental style is characterized by warmth, control, and communication?

 differences in temperament.

Tracy and Shahid are both 3 months old. Tracy is highly active, easily irritated, and cries easily. Shahid is quiet, adapts easily to change, and seems fearless. These differences illustrate

 responses to stress vary cross-culturally.

Cross-cultural research on stress demonstrates that

 Kraepelin

Which one of the following is credited with developing a classification system for mental disorders?

 his description of consciousness.

Which one of the following is credited with developing a classification system for mental disorders?

 Classification

________ is a necessary first step toward introducing order to any discussion of the cause or treatment of abnormal behavior.

 Each viewpoint offers its own explanation of abnormal behavior.

Which of the following most accurately describes the notion of different viewpoints of abnormal behavior?

 is credited with establishing numerous humane mental hospitals in many countries.

Dorothea Dix

 Sibling rivalry

Which of the following is an example of a nonshared environmental influence?

 over half of the people with a history of one serious disorder had two or more comorbid disorders.

A major finding from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) was that

 still occasionally practiced today for the treatment of psychological problems, sometimes with fatal results.

Exorcism is

 demonstrated the power of suggestion.

The physicians of the Nancy School

 psychology vs. biology.

The Nancy School/Charcot debate is best described as one that focuses on

 The fever that was induced killed off the cause of the observed symptoms.

Why was malarial therapy effective in treating general paresis?

 focused on the moral and spiritual development of mental patients rather than their disorder.

The moral management treatment

 the way the genotype may shape the phenotype.

Ian was predisposed to being very aggressive with his peers in school, who responded by rejecting him. Later in life Ian began to associate with other aggressive youth and to participate in a variety of delinquent behaviors. This is an example of

 he is not getting a representative sample.

Dr. Katz is researching the causes of phobias. He puts an ad in a newspaper asking for people who have an intense, distressing fear of snakes to come and participate in his study. The major problem with this is

 recognizing symptoms that occurred together often enough to be regarded as a type of mental disorder.

The first classification of mental disorders involved

 cognitive

It is a hot day and a child sprays you with a garden hose. You might react with amusement (and even thanks!) or considerable anger. The fact that one event can be interpreted in different ways is central to the ________ approach to therapy.

 are specified on Axis IV.

In DSM-IV-TR, psychosocial stressors

 Carol's answers were comparable to those given by a group of schizophrenics.

What does it mean if Carol scores high on the Schizophrenia scale of the MMPI?

 begins with the assumption that the affected individual was functioning well before the current crisis.

Short-term crisis therapy

 the existing criteria tend to lead to a prototypal approach.

While the DSM is designed to be a categorical classification scheme,

 symptoms vary considerably depending on the characteristics of the trauma and the victim.

PTSD

 a person's ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired.

Stress tolerance is

 a DSM diagnosis is only the first step, much more is needed to determine treatment.

The DSM acknowledges that

 All of the above.

Why is it important to have an appropriate classification of the presenting problem?

 when a stressful situation overwhelms the individual.

Crisis is

 they can influence both other people's and the diagnosed person's perception of themselves in negative ways.

One criticism of diagnostic labels is that

 intelligence tests and personality tests.

There are two general categories of psychological tests used in clinical practice. They are

 Dimensional

Which approach to the classification of abnormal behavior uses statistical criteria to differentiate between normal and abnormal?

 treat the symptoms the client is experiencing.

The psychotropic medications used in the treatment of PTSD

 some people are predisposed to respond poorly to demands.

Which of the following statements about stress is correct?

 Social isolation has been associated with increased risk of the disease.

Clyde is unmarried and has few friends. Why is he at greater risk for developing coronary heart disease than the general population?

 EEG

Which of the following would be used to reveal a dysrhythmia in brain activity?

 Coping strategies

Which of the following terms refers to efforts to deal with stress?

 can make a difference even for victims of torture - if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be less affected by the stressor over the long term.

Feelings of control over stressors

 Valid tests are usually reliable.

Which of the following statements about reliability and validity is true?

 is an imperfect means of quantifying the level of stress experience over a period of time.

The Social Readjustment Rating Scale

 b. Overestimating the likelihood that the event will reoccur

Which of the following is likely to maintain or strengthen conditioned fears over time?

 d. Major depressive disorder

Many people who are depressed

 c. enter REM sleep earlier than normal and have larger amounts of REM sleep early in the night.

George, a 22-year-old mechanic, always seems to have a cloud over his head. For the past three years, he has had problems sleeping and he seems to always overeat. While he may sometimes seem to be relatively content for short periods of time, this happens very rarely and it never lasts for more than a week. If George were to seek help for his negative mood state, which of the following diagnoses would he most likely receive?

 b. has obsessive compulsive disorder.

Mark feels the need to tap everything within his arms reach twice. He doesn't have any particular thoughts associated with this, he just becomes anxious if he doesn't do it, because "something bad might happen." Mark

 b. the degree of impairment is judged severe enough to warrant a diagnosis.

"Normal" depression becomes a mood disorder when

 a. marital distress can lead to depression and depression can lead to marital distress.

According to Hammen's stress-generation model of depression,

 d. A 25-year-old divorced woman

Which of the following is most likely to attempt suicide?

 a. SSRI

Quentin is seeking medication to treat his panic disorder. Due to Quentin's history of substance abuse, his doctor hesitates. After some consideration, the doctor is most likely to write Quentin a prescription for a ________, confident that abuse won't be an issue.

 b. Attempting to not think about something may lead to thinking about it more.

Which of the following provides a unique challenge when trying to eliminate the obsessions seen in OCD?

 a. vicarious conditioning of a phobia.

Nicole's mother is terribly afraid of snakes. Although Nicole has never actually seen a snake, her mother has told her time and again to be careful to look for them when she is walking. Now Nicole has an intense fear of snakes and refuses to walk in the grass. This is an example of

 d. is a noninvasive biological treatment for depression.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

 c. learned helplessness

No matter what prisoners try to do, they cannot escape. Eventually, they become passive and depressed. This illustrates the central idea in the ________ theory of depression.

 a. Amygdala

Which of the following is a brain area that has been found to exhibit abnormalities in depressed patients?

 d. Increased cortisol levels

Which of the following is a hormonal abnormality associated with both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression?

 c. Whether there are occasional brief periods of normal moods during the disorder.

What is the most important characteristic used to distinguish dysthymia from major depression?

 b. abnormalities in the functioning of the basal ganglia.

As discussed in your text, much evidence now suggests a number of biological causal factors in obsessive-compulsive disorder including

 a. Dysthymia

In which of the following disorders must symptoms be present for at least 2 years in order for a diagnosis to be made?

 c. diagnostic criteria are now based on shared, observable symptoms and are more clearly defined.

The new DSM classification, which omits the concept of neurosis, is an improvement because

 d. behavior by a spouse that can be interpreted as criticism.

One factor that is especially likely to produce depression relapse is

 a. find that angry faces act as fear-relevant stimuli.

Studies of preparedness and social phobia

 c. provide factual information about eating and dieting.

In addition to altering the eating patterns of clients with Binge Eating Disorder, therapists using cognitive-behavioral therapy will also

 b. A seizure that resembles an epileptic seizure but is different.

What is a pseudoseizure?

 b. Parents who emphasize rules, control, and good physical appearance.

Which of the following is most commonly found in families of girls with anorexia?

 a. malingering.

Consciously faking symptoms is characteristic of

 d. These conditions are too rare to permit more extensive study.

Why has there been little systematic research conducted on dissociative amnesia and fugue?

 a. both ask for reassurance about their symptoms but don't feel relief when they get it.

People with body dysmorphic disorder are similar to people with hypochondriasis in that

 d. Although the findings to date are mixed, the evidence does indicate that a susceptibility to eating disorders may be inherited along with a diathesis for other psychological conditions.

Which of the following statements about the role of genetics as a risk factor for eating disorders is true?

 d. It is not the original identity.

Which of the following is most commonly true of the host identity in DID?

 c. Substance abuse

In studies of the long-term outcomes of women treated for eating disorders, which of the following predicted poor outcomes for those diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia?

 d. Low parental education

Which of the following factors is associated with an increased risk for obesity?

 b. assimilation into white culture and middle class values.

Rates of eating disorders tend to be much lower in black women than in white women. However, one factor that can increase risk in black women is

 a. Eating disorders rarely start during the mid-thirties.

In her mid-thirties, Cheryl became preoccupied with her weight and began dieting and exercising. After losing a substantial amount of weight, she was still not happy with how she looked and continued to restrict her food intake. After several fainting spells resulting from her low calorie intake, her employer referred her to a clinician who recognized the signs of anorexia nervosa. Which of the following is unique about Cheryl's case?

 c. Lessened preoccupation with physical appearance.

Which of the following is an effect of antidepressants on symptoms of bulimia nervosa ?

 b. support the assertion that DID is a real disorder.

Studies of the brains of individuals with DID

 b. people with eating disorders often have depression as well.

One of the reasons it is difficult to know if a disruption in the serotonin system causes eating disorders is

 a. The use of laxatives

Which of the following is characteristic of the binge-eating/purging type of anorexia?

 d. involves binges comparable to those in bulimia but without any inappropriate "compensatory" behavior to limit weight gain.

Binge-eating disorder

 c. binge eating is likely after a period of caloric restriction.

Set-point theory explains why

 c. is extremely common and not necessarily pathological.

Dissociation

 a. People with conversion disorder are very willing to talk about their symptoms, malingerers will be more cautious.

Which of the following is a way to distinguish between someone with conversion disorder and someone who is malingering?

 b. splitting.

Donna has borderline personality disorder. She is in therapy, but progress is slow. One problem is that some days she thinks her therapist is the most wonderful person in the world. On other days, she thinks he is worthless and untrustworthy. This type of thinking is called

 b. experience greater lessening of feelings of stress after alcohol consumption than nonalcoholic men.

Men who are at high risk for becoming alcoholics

 d. lower; a mutant enzyme that leads to hypersensitive reactions to alcohol

Rates of alcoholism among Asian populations are ________ than among European peoples. This fact may be related to ________.

 d. The behaviors exhibited by people with borderline personality disorder lie on continuum between neurotic and psychotic disorders.

What "border" did the term "borderline" in borderline personality refer to?

 b. Disorientation for time and place and vivid hallucinations

Betty was admitted to the hospital in a state of withdrawal from alcohol. She was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal delirium (formerly known as delirium tremens). She most likely showed which of the following behaviors?

 b. High introversion and high neuroticism

Which basic personality traits from the five-factor model seem most important in the development of avoidant personality disorder?

 a. One who has fearlessness, low anxiety, and high callousness

Which type of child is most likely to show the personality traits of a psychopath as an adult?

 c. schizotypal personality disorder.

Tom tells you that he can make his roommate take out the trash by simply thinking about his roommate doing it. He agrees with you that this could sometimes just be a coincidence, but he seems to truly believe he can sometimes get people to do things just by thinking about it. You find him understandable when he talks, but sometimes hard to follow. His clothes are messy and don't match. Tom tells you not to tell anyone about his power, because he knows that other people don't like him because they are jealous and they would hurt him if they could. The best diagnosis for Tom is

 b. many of the personality disorders share common features.

Misdiagnoses are common when looking at potential personality disorders because

 a. he is basically alone.

A cognitive explanation for schizoid personality disorder proposes that the individual with this disorder believes that

 c. $1.2 million; $2 million

According to your textbook, each very high-risk antisocial youth may cost society between ____ and ____ in rehabilitation, incarceration, and costs to victims.

 d. be hypersensitive to any sign of criticism or rejection.

Helena has avoidant personality disorder. She is likely to

 b. cause withdrawal symptoms within approximately 8 hours of the last dose.

Opium and its derivatives

 d. Judgment becomes impaired long before this blood alcohol level is reached.

What evidence is there that the legal definition of alcohol intoxication (a blood alcohol content of 0.08) should be changed?

 c. symptom or feature similarities.

The "clusters" of personality disorders found in the DSM-IV-TR are grouped based on

 b. are problematic - the abuse most likely is occurring with other factors that might be more important.

The research on the association between borderline personality disorder and childhood sexual abuse

 b. Depression

The individual with which of the following Axis I diagnoses is most likely to also abuse alcohol?

 b. Alcoholics Anonymous

"I am a person who has an affliction-I cannot drink like social drinkers. Spiritual change may help me in recovering from my addiction, but I will be an alcoholic for life." The person who said this would feel most comfortable in ________.

 c. suggest that an inherited altered sensitivity to alcohol might create a vulnerability to alcohol abuse.

Studies of the genetics of alcoholism

 c. may occur in alcoholics since alcohol interferes with the body's ability to use nutrients.

Malnutrition

 b. a significant loss of contact with reality.

Psychosis is a striking and essential feature of schizophrenia. Psychosis means

 b. there is no strong evidence that people with schizophrenia have too much dopamine.

There is a new trend to focus on dopamine receptor sensitivity rather than on dopamine itself because

 c. Over 90 percent of those with schizophrenia experience delusions.

How common are delusions in schizophrenia?

 c. suggest that all rapists have both aggressive and sexual motives.

Studies of sex offenders

 c. occur near where the rapist lives.

Most rapes

 c. limit the amount of information about a victim's past sexual history that can be used in court.

Rape shield laws

 d. Schizophreniform disorder

Which of the following could be described as "short-term" schizophrenia?

 d. a variation of sexual function; a pathological escape from heterosexuality

Among psychoanalysts in the 1930s and 1940s, homosexuality was first seen as ________ but later was seen as ________.

 a. most individuals are satisfied

The most recent studies of satisfactory outcome from sex reassignment surgery find

 d. decreases steadily with age.

The recidivism rate for rapists

 auditory

What type of hallucinations are the most common?

 delusion of reference

Sterling believes that the TV special that was on last night was shown to tell her that she should break up with her boyfriend. She is absolutely certain this is true and plans to do it. This type of belief is an example of a

 c. tries to help people gain the skills they need for daily living outside the hospital.

Social-skills training for people with schizophrenia

 c. may reflect a cognitive error.

Neuroimaging studies of hallucinating patients suggest that auditory hallucinations

 a. revealed that homosexuality was much more common than expected.

One of the reasons the Kinsey report is noteworthy is that it

 a. work by blocking dopamine receptors.

First-generation antipsychotics

 a. Healthy food.

According to abstinence theory, which of the following is necessary for health?

 a. About one-third of children show no symptoms.

Which of the following statements about sexual abuse is TRUE?

 d. involves a multitude of genes that work in concert.

Most of the evidence suggests that, if schizophrenia is inherited, it

 b. Genetics increase a person's vulnerability to develop schizophrenia.

Based on current research, which statement is most justified?

 d. may be increased by taking SSRIs.

Suicidal behavior in children and adolescents

 b. When Yula's dementia became obvious, her family looked back on her behavior and realized that she had been exhibiting memory deficits.

Which of the following is the most typical example of the onset of Alzheimer's disease?

 c. I got lucky.

Juliet is a depressed child. When she wins a prize at school for her art project, how is she likely to explain it?

 d. has been inconclusive.

Research on the effectiveness of antidepressants for the treatment of childhood depression

 d. Marlon, who is not sure where he is or what month or year it is.

Which of the following is a good example of a person with an impairment of orientation?

 c. usually produce long-term, minor problems, particularly in older people.

Mild brain injuries

 b. focal brain lesion.

When Mrs. Thomason experienced a stroke, a small area of her brain was deprived of oxygenated blood. This resulted in a

 d. may be due to the HIV virus directly attacking brain cells.

Dementia in HIV

 b. motor vehicle accidents.

The most common cause of traumatic brain injury is

 b. brain damage can result in symptoms that look like psychological conditions.

It is important that mental health professionals have an understanding of the effects of brain damage because

 c. frontal lobe damage.

Emotional dyscontrol and personality alterations are expected with

 b. increases the ability to concentrate.

Treatment of ADHD with drugs such as Ritalin is thought to be effective as it

 b. a penetrating head injury.

A bullet is most likely to cause

 c. Lionel, because he is more likely to be motivated to recover.

Before the accident, Bob was unemployed and had few friends. Lionel, who suffered comparable head trauma, was a successful businessman and had just married. Which of these men should have the more favorable outcome and why?

 a. Parental psychopathology.

Which of the following is a risk factors for ODD and conduct disorder?

 d. is one of the most strongly genetic disorders in the DSM-IV.

Autism

 d. Neurocognitive Disorders

In the DSM-5, the disorders now known as "Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic and Other Cognitive Disorders" will be part of a newly proposed category called ________________.

 c. he had good memory for remote events but no memory for events that just occurred.

The text presented a case study of a retired man who was hospitalized by his wife and son. He was typical of many patients with Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT) in that

 b. are at risk for teen pregnancy.

Girls with conduct disorder

 c. as the age of the parents increases.

The incidence of Down syndrome increases

 a. portray the defendant as someone who was him- or herself a victim.

A typical defense strategy, to try to counteract public anger about the insanity defense, is to

 c. aversion therapy.

Punishment is a component of

 b. a token economy.

Dennis has disorganized type of schizophrenia. He has lived in an institution for years. He rarely shows any attempt at socializing. A new program is started - every time Dennis speaks to another person he is given a piece of red paper. At the end of each week, he can use the red papers to get cigarettes or extra privileges. This new program is

 c. understanding the present in terms of the past.

Psychodynamic interpersonally oriented therapies agree with classical psychoanalysis in the importance of

 b. Past history of violence

What is one of the best predictors of future violence?

 d. There is no "typical" client

Which person described below is the "typical" client in psychotherapy?

 d. Medication in combination with therapy yields the best results.

What has research on the use of a combined approach to the treatment of depression demonstrated?

 c. explore unconscious and preconscious material.

The technique of free association is designed to

 d. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

Prozac is a

 b. universal interventions.

"Efforts that are aimed at influencing the general population" best describes

 c. transference

A son of a critical father comes to therapy one day and with no provocation is extremely hostile in his remarks to the therapist. The therapist might consider that ________ is occurring.

 c. The drugs most abused by adolescents are alcohol and tobacco, which are easily available.

Why has the attempt to reduce the drug supply from other countries not reduced the rate of adolescent substance abuse?

 GABA

Valium exerts its anxiolytic effects by increasing the activity of

 b. selective

Efforts at reducing racism as a means of preventing mental illness would be a(n) ________ intervention.

 c. Eclectic

When asked what their orientation is, what do most of today's psychotherapists say?

 a. currently experience psychotic symptoms.

Although the majority of currently disordered persons shows no tendency toward violence, an increased risk of violence is likely among those who

 c. abnormal behavior is learned the same ways as normal behavior and can be unlearned.

Behavior therapy is based on the belief that

 c. To teach children about drugs so that they can make informed choices

What is the goal of school-based drug and alcohol education programs?

 c. he believed defenses were lowered during sleep and repressed material would start to come out in dreams.

Freud called dreams "the royal road to the unconscious" because

 a. it has a low potential for abuse.

The newer anti-anxiety drug Buspar has the advantage that

 d. Measures of several types of disorders were not included.

Why is it believed that the NCS survey used to estimate the prevalence of mental illness underestimated that prevalence?

 c. Increasing contact with individuals who have a mental illness

Which of the following has been shown to reduce stigma of the mentally ill?

 positively

It has been demonstrated that those who were prenatally exposed to the influenza virus are more likely to develop schizophrenia. In other words, prenatal exposure to the influenza virus is ________ correlated with developing schizophrenia.

 d. Mental illness can have a significant impact on one's life.

What does Monique's case best illustrate?

 d. it is a disorder that is short in duration.

Describing a disorder as acute means that

 a. Point prevalence

What type of prevalence estimate tends to be lowest?

 d. A disorder seen only in certain cultures

What is a culture-specific disorder?

 b. When a label is used to describe an individual's behavior, information about the person is lost.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of having a classification system for mental disorders?

 c. weak because it rarely provides information we can generalize to others with the disorder.

A psychologist reports a single case of a disorder, detailing the person's feelings and responses. This research strategy is

 c. delay seeking treatment, sometimes for many years.

Most people with psychological disorders

 c. the concordance rate for monozygotic twins would be greater than the concordance rate for dizygotic twins.

If trait is highly heritable, it would be expected that

 b. the process by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the axon.

Reuptake of neurotransmitters is

 b. unconscious

Freud is the first to describe the ________: that the mind could contain information of which it is unaware, but by which it is still affected.

 d. positively

It has been demonstrated that those who were prenatally exposed to the influenza virus are more likely to develop schizophrenia. In other words, prenatal exposure to the influenza virus is ________ correlated with developing schizophrenia.

 c. conditioned stimulus.

After being bitten by a dog, Jose finds that he feels afraid whenever he sees a dog. In classical conditioning terms, the dog can be described as a(n)

 d. the way the genotype may shape the phenotype.

Ian was predisposed to being very aggressive with his peers in school, who responded by rejecting him. Later in life Ian began to associate with other aggressive youth and to participate in a variety of delinquent behaviors. This is an example of

 b. Classification

________ is a necessary first step toward introducing order to any discussion of the cause or treatment of abnormal behavior.

 b. behaviorists failed to attend to the importance of mental processes.

From the cognitive-behavioral perspective, an important limitation with the behavioral perspective is the fact that

 d. Some of those released would have been better off remaining hospitalized.

Which of the following was an effect of the deinstitutionalization movement?

 b. demonstrated the power of suggestion.

The physicians of the Nancy School

 d. He publicized the brutal treatment that many mental patients received.

What is Clifford Beers known for?

 Depression

According to your textbook, which mental disorder received the most attention from early scholars?

 d. the power of animal magnetism.

Mesmer was a proponent of

 d. punitive.

During the first half of the twentieth century, mental hospital care would best be characterized as

 d. A person with that gene may or may not become schizophrenic.

Suppose that the presence of a particular gene is a necessary cause for the occurrence of schizophrenia. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

 b. the likelihood that most behaviors are determined by the interaction of many genes and the environment.

The genetic influences that determine behavior may never be fully understood due to

 d. results from an infection of the brain.

The insanity associated with general paresis

 c. taking a scientific approach to the study and treatment of mental disorders.

Benjamin Rush is credited with all of the following EXCEPT

 c. a control group.

To determine whether certain characteristics are true of people in general, and not just of people with mental disorders, it is important to use

 b. The publication of "The Snake Pit"

Which of the following served to publicize the plight of the mentally ill in the mid 1940s?

 d. have led to a recognition of the role that genetic factors and other biological influences play in the development of many disorders.

Biological discoveries

 a. unresolved conflicts between the id, the ego, and the superego.

Freud's view of mental disorders was that they were a result of

 a. The fever that was induced killed off the cause of the observed symptoms.

Why was malarial therapy effective in treating general paresis?

 c. the drinking and rejection influence and maintain each other.

A couple is in counseling. She states that she drinks because he rejects her. He states that he rejects her because she drinks. It appears that

 c. Islamic forms of treatment were more humane than European approaches.

Which statement about treatment of abnormal behavior in the Middle Ages is accurate?

 b. control

In Dr. Lu's study of eating disorders, she looked at the academic histories of girls with an eating disorder and girls who did not have such problems. In this example, the girls without eating disorders are the ________ group.

 a. the hospitals run by Philippe Pinel.

Humanitarian treatment would be most typical of

 c. weak because it rarely provides information we can generalize to others with the disorder.

A psychologist reports a single case of a disorder, detailing the person's feelings and responses. This research strategy is

 a. research showed that it had never been effective.

The demise of moral management occurred for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

 c. help others

According to the textbook, Zell Kravinsky the burden to _______ was almost unbearable.

 d. as x increases, y decreases

Which of the following may be safely inferred when a significant negative correlation is found between variables x and y?

 c. thought to be possessed by a good spirit or god.

In ancient societies, if a person's abnormal conduct consisted of speech that appeared to have a religious or mystical significance, then the person was

 c. represented the first clear-cut defeat of a mental disorder by medicine.

The use of malarial fever to treat paresis

 c. Supernatural explanations for mental disorders grew in popularity.

What trend was observed during the Middle Ages in Europe?

 c. schema

A(n) ________ serves to guide our processing of information and may serve to distort memories.

 b. mental disorders could not be caused by psychological factors.

Aristotle believed that

 c. Authoritative

Which parental style is characterized by warmth, control, and communication?

 c. are likely to show inconsistent attachment behavior.

Abused infants and toddlers

 d. determine the range of characteristics a person has.

Genes

 c. emphasizes social rather than inner determinants of behavior.

The interpersonal perspective

 d. experimental

A researcher who provides a certain treatment for one group and withholds treatment from a completely comparable group is using the ________ research method.

 b. provide insight into the workings of the unconscious.

Free association and dream analysis

 b. necessary cause.

In order to develop chicken pox, one must be exposed to the virus that causes chicken pox. Note, however, that not everyone who is exposed to the virus is affected. In other words, the virus is a

 a. Dorothea Dix

Which one of the following increased the availability of treatment for the mentally ill in the United States?

 b. The publication of "The Snake Pit"

Which of the following served to publicize the plight of the mentally ill in the mid 1940s?

 a. Point prevalence

What type of prevalence data only counts active cases of a disorder?

 b. is processed at a nonconscious level.

According to cognitive theorists, a lot of information that contributes to a person's psychopathology

 d. A disorder seen only in certain cultures

What is a culture-specific disorder?

 c. provided funding for mental health treatment in the community.

The Hill-Burton Act