Koofers

Final Review Spring '13 Rozek - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:PSYC 104 - General Psychology
Subject:Psychology (PSYC)
University:University of Kansas
Term:Spring 2013
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Empirical Study
OLI U3M3


Results of verifiable evidence from a systematic collection and analysis of data that has been objectively observed, measured, and undergone experimentation
Basic Research OLI U3M3


Research that answers fundamental questions about behavior
Applied Research OLI U3M3


Research that investigates issues that have implications for everyday life and provides solutions to everyday problems
Theory OLI U3M3


Integrated set of principles that explains and predicts many, but not all observed relationships with in a given domain of inquiry
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4 Characteristics of Good Theories OLI U3M3


General- summarizes different outcomes
Parsimonious- provides simplest possible outcomes
Provides ideas for future research
Falsifiable - variables can be proven incorrect through research
Research Hypothesis OLI U3M3


Precise statement of presumed relationship among specific parts of a theory
Specific and falsifiable prediction about the relationship between or among 2 or more variables
Variable OLI U3M3


Any attribute that can assume different values among different people or across different times or places
Conceptual Variables OLI U3M3


Abstract ideas that form the basis of research hypothesis
Ex. age, gender, weight
  • Sometimes anxiety, self-esteem, sexism

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Measured Variables OLI U3M3


Variables consisting of numbers that represent the conceptual variables
Operational Defintion OLI U3M3


Precise statement of how a conceptual variable is turned into a measured variable.
Scientific Method OLI U3M3


Set of assumptions, rules and procedures scientists use to conduct research
Replication OLI U3M3


Process of repeating previous research, which forms the basis of all scientific inquiry
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Institutional Review Board OLI U3M3


Committee of at least 5 members whose goal it is to determine the cost-benefit ration of research conducted within an institution
Deception OLI U3M3


Occurs whenever research participants are not completely and fully informed about the nature of the resaerch project before participating in it
Informed consent OLI U3M3


Explanation of research procedures and inform the participant of his or her rights during the investigation
Debriefing OLI U3M3


Procedure designed to fully explain the purposes and procedures of the research and remove any harmful aftereffects of participation
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Research Design OLI U3M4


Specific method a researcher uses to collect, analyze, and interpret data
Descriptive Research OLI U3M4


Research designed to provide a snapshot of the current state of affairs
Correlational Research OLI U3M4


Research designed to discover relationships among variables and to allow the prediction of future events from present knowledge
Experimental Research OLI U3M4


Research in which there is random assignment of research participants into two groups. 
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Case Studies OLI U3M4


Descriptive records of one or more individuals' experiences and behavior
Survey OLI U3M4


A measure administered through either a face-to-face or telephone interview, or a written or computer-generated questionnaire- to get a picture of the beliefs or behaviors of a sample of people of interest.
Sample OLI U3M4


People chosen to participate in the research
Population OLI U3M4


Samples selected to be representative of all the people that the researcher wishes to know about
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Naturalistic Observation OLI U3M4


Research based on the observation of everyday events occurring in the natural environment of people or animals
Observer Bias OLI U3M4


When the individual observing behavior is influenced by their own experiences, expectations, or knowledge about the purpose of the observation or study
Observer Effect OLI U3M4


Interference with or modification of the subject's behaviors by the process of observation
Interrater Reliability OLI U3M4


Estimate how much agreement there is between the two observers about what the subjects were doing
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Scatter Plot OLI U3M4

Visual image of the relationship between two variables
Linear Relationship OLI U3M4


When the association between the variables on the scatter plot can be easily approximated with a straight line
Pearson Correlation Coefficient OLI U3M4


Most common statistical measure of the strength or linear relationships among variable
Common-Causal Variable OLI U3M4


Variable that is not part of the research hypothesis but that causes both the predictor and the outcome variable and thus produces the observed correlation between them
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Spurious Relationship OLI U3M4


Relationship between two variables in which a common-causal variable produces and "explains away" the relationship
Independent Variable OLI U3M4


causing variable that is created (manipulated) by the experimenter
Dependent Variable OLI U3M4


Measured variable that is expected to be influenced by the experimental manipulation
Random Assignment to Conditions OLI U3M4


Procedure in which the condition that each participant is assigned to is determined through a random process, such as drawing numbers out of an envelope or using a random number table
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Quasi-Experimental Design OLI U3M4


Compares two groups that already exist in the population
Two threats to validity of research OLI U3M4


Threats to internal- dependent variable actually may have been caused by a confounding variable
Threats to external validity- the observed effects may actually only be found under limited conditions or for specific groups of people
Internal Validity OLI U3M4


Extent to which we can trust the conclusions that have been drawn about the causal relationship between the independent and dependent variables
Confounding Variables OLI U3M4


Variables other than that independent variable on which the participants in one experimental condition differ systematically from those in other conditions
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Experimenter Bias OLI U3M4


Situation in which the experimenter subtly treats the research participants in the various experimental conditions differently, resulting in an invalid confirmation of the research hypothesis
Double-blind experiment OLI U3M4


Both the researcher and the research participants are blind to condition
External Validity OLI U3M4


Extent to which the results of a research design can be generalized beyond the specific way the original experiment was conducted
Generalization OLI U3M4


Extent to which relationships among conceptual variables can be demonstrated in a wide variety of people and a wide variety of manipulated or measured variables
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Replication OLI U3M4


Process of repeating previous research, which forms the basis of all scientific inquiry
Neuron OLI U4M5


Nerve cell
Cell in the nervous system whose function is to receive and transmit information
Soma OLI U4M5


Cell body that contains the nucleus of the cell and keeps the cell alive
Dendrite OLI U4M5


Treelike fiber which collects information from other cells and sends information to the soma
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Axon OLI U4M5


long-segmented fiber that transmits information away from the cell body toward other neurons or to the muscles and glands
Myelin Sheath OLI U4M5


layer of fatty tissue surrounding the axon of a neuron that both acts as an insulator and allows faster transmission of the electrical signal
Terminal Button U4M5


At the tip of each axon branch; Forms junctions with other cells
Synapses OLI U4M5


Space between cells
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Nodes of Ranvier OLI U4M5


Gaps between myelin sheaths
Resting Potential OLI U4M5


State in which the interior of the neuron contains a greater number of negatively charged ions that does the area outside the cell
Action Potential OLI U4M5


Change in electrical charge that occurs in a neuron when a nerve impulse is transmitted
Neurotransmitter OLI U4M5


Chemical that relays signals across the synapses between neurons
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Reuptake OLI U4M5


Process in which neurotransmitters that are in the synapse are reabsorbed into the transmitting terminal buttons
Acetylcholine CLASS U4M5

  • Plays a role in memory and learning
  • Located in every motor neuron
  • Blocking ACh causes paralysis, like some anesthesia
  • Curare: used on hunter's dart tips
Dopamine OLI U4M5


  • movement, motivation and emotion
  • produces feelings of pleasure
Endorphins CLASS U4M5

  • natural opiate-like neurotransmitters, pain control & pleasure
  • Released from neurons
  • "runner's-high"
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Glutamate OLI U4M5

  • Most common neurotransmitter
  • released in more than 90% of brain's synapses
  • MSG
Serotonin OLI U4M5

  • Involved in functions such as mood, appetite and sleep
Brain Stem (old brain) OLI U4M6


  • Oldest/innermost region of the brain
  • controls most basic functions of life: breathing, attention, motor responses
Medulla (older brain) OLI U4M6


Area of brain stem that controls heart rate and breathing
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Pons (older brain) OLI U4M6


  • Coordinates/controls movements of the body such as balance and walking
Reticular Formation OLI U4M6


Neurons running through medulla and pons whose job is to filter out some of the stimuli that are coming into the brain from the spinal cord and relay the remainder of signals to other brain areas
Thalamus (old brain) OLI U4M6


  • Egg-shaped structure sitting just above the brain stem that applies still more filtering to the sensory information coming from the spinal cord and through the reticular formation, and it relays some remaining signals to higher brain levels
Cerebellum (old brain) OLI U4M6


  • Little brain
  • nonverbal learning and memory; voluntary movement coordination
  • 2 wrinkled ovals behind brain stem
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Limbic System OLI U4M6

  • Hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, pituitary gland
  • Largely responsible for memory and emotions
Amygdala OLI U4M6

  • 2 almond shaped clusters primarily responsible for regulating our perceptions of and reactions to aggression and fear
  • emotion regulation

Hypothalamus OLI U4M6

  • regulates body temp, hunger, thirst, sex drive
  • fight flight, feeding, sex
  • Under thalamus
Hippocampus OLI U4M6


  • important in storing information in long-term memory
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Cerebral Cortex OLI/ CLASS U4M6

  • outer barklike layer of brain allowing us to successfully use langauge, acquire complex skills, create tools, and live in social groups
  • 2 Hemispheres with 4 lobes each, each separated by folds known as fissures


Corticalization OLI U4M6


Folding of cerebral cortex
Glial Cells (Glia) OLI U4M6


cells that surround and link to neurons, protecting them, providing the with nutrients, and absorbing unused neurotransmitters
Contralateral Control OLI U4M6


General principle about how the brain is structured specifically that the brain is wired such that in most cases the left hemisphere receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa
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Frontal Lobe OLI/ CLASS U4M6

  • behind forehead
  • contains motor cortex
  • thinking, planning,memory, judgment
Parietal Lobe OLI/CLASS U4M6


  • Middle to back of skull
  • sensory cortex
  • integration center
  • processes information about touch
Occipital Lobe OLI/CLASS U4M6

  • Back of Skull
  • processes visual information
Temporal Lobe OLI/CLASS U4M6


  • Between ears
  • hearing and language
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Motor Cortex OLI U4M6


Part of cortex that controls and executes movements of body by sending signals to the cerebellum and spinal cord
Somatosensory cortex OLI U4M6

  • Behind and parallel to motor cortex at back of frontal lobe
  • Receives information from skin's sensory receptors and movements of different body parts
Visual Cortex OLI U4M6


In occipital lobe
processes visual information
Auditory Cortex OLI U4M6


Located on the lower side of each hemispehre
Responsible for hearing and language
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Neuroplasticity OLI U4M6


Brain's ability to change its structure and function in response to experience or damage
Corpus Collosum CLASS U4M6


neutral fibers that connect left and right hemisphere
helps hemispheres communicate with each other
conductive and myelated
Neurogenesis OLI U4M6


Forming of new neurons
Phineas Gage OLI/CLASS U4M7

25-year-old railroad worker, as result of explosion, had iron rod driven into right cheek and out through top of his skull
major damage to frontal lobe

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Lesions OLI U4M7


Destroyed brain tissue
EEG OLI U4M7


Looks at brain waves of different brain regions
time latency
Single Unit Recording OLI U4M7


Used on animals
PET OLI U4M7


color coded images produced by invasive imaging technique
Not to asses time ,but where activity happens
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fMRI OLI U4M7


brain scan using magnetic field to create images of brain activity in each brain area
clear detailed pictures of structure and function
MRI CLASS u4M7


Structure
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation OLI U4M7


apply magnetic pulses to brain and see what happens
Central Nervous System OLI U4M8


  • Brain and spinal cord
  • Major controller of body's functions
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Peripheral Nervous System OLI U4M8


breaks down into autonomic and somatic
Autonomic Nervous System OLI U4M8

Subdivision of PNS that governs internal activities of human body, including heart rate, breathing, digestion, salivation, perspiration, urination and sexual arousal
Glands and muscles of internal organs
Breaks down into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
Somatic Nervous System OLI U4M8

Subdivision of PNS that controls the external aspects of the body, including skeletal muscles, skin, and sense organs
voluntary muscle control skeletal muscles
Sympathetic NS OLI U4M8

Prepares body for rapid action in response to stress from threats or emergencies by activating the organs and glands in endocrine system
system revs into action
dilates pupil, accelerated heart beat, inhibits digestion
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Parasympathetic NS OLI U4M8


Calms body by slowing heart and breathing and allowing body to recover from activities that the sympathetic nervous system as it calms the activated organs and glands of endocrine system returning body to homeostasis
contract pupil, slow heartbeat, stimulate digestion
Homeostasis OLI U4M8


Natural balance in body's systems
Glands OLI U4M8


Groups of cells that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Hypothalamus OLI U4M8

Brain region controlling pituitary gland
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Thyroid Gland OLI U4M8


Affects metabolism, among other things
Pituitary Gland OLI U4M8


Secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands
Parathyroids OLI U4M8


Help regulate level of calcium in the blood
Adrenal Glands OLI U4M8


Help trigger the fight-or-flight response
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Pancreas OLI U4M8


Regulates the level of sugar in the blood
Ovary OLI U4M8


Secretes female sex hormones
Testis OLI U4M8


Secretes male sex hormones
Endocrine System OLI U4M8


slowly Secretes chemical messengers called hormones that influence our emotions and behaviors
can have longer lasting effects than neurotransmitters
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Classical Conditioning OLI U6M13


Learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus that naturally produces a specific behavior


Unconditioned Stimulus OLI U6M13


Something (such as food) that triggers a natural occurring response
Unconditioned Response OLI U6M13


Naturally occurring response (such as salivation) that follows the unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus OLI U6M13


Neutral stimulus that after being repeatedly presented prior to the unconditioned stimulus, evokes a response similar to the response to the unconditioned stimulus
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Extinction OLI U6M13


Reduction in responding that occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery OLI U6M13


Increase in responding to Conditioned Stimulus following a pause after extinction
Generalization OLI U6M13

Tendency to respond to stimuli that resemble the original conditioned stimulus
Discrimination OLI U6M13


Tendency to respond differently to stimuli that are similar but not identical
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Second-Order Conditioning OLI U6M13


Existing conditioned stimulus can serve as an unconditioned stimulus for a pairing with a new conditioned stimulus
Class diagram of Conditioning CLASS U6M13

Example: The Office

NS - sound of computer  ------------> CS - sound of computer
US - offer of altoid
UR - reaching  -------------------------> CR - reaching for altoid



Phobia OLI U6M13


Strong irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or stiuation
PTSD OLI U6M13


Severe anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a fearful event, such as the threat of death
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Operant Conditioning OLI U6M14


Learning that occurs on the bases of the consequences of behavior and can involve the learning of new behaviors

Law of Effect OLI U6M14


Principle that responses that create a typically pleasant outcome in a particular situation are more likely to occur again in a similar situation, whereas responses that produce a typically unpleasant outcome are less likely to occur again in the situation
Skinner Box (operant chamber) OLI U6M14


Structure that is big enough to fit a rodent or bird and that contains a bar or key that the animal can press or pack to release food or water
Reinforcer OLI U6M14


any event that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior
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Punisher
Punisher OLI U6M14


Any event that weakens or decreases the likelihood of a behavior
Positive Reinforcement OLI U6M14


Add or increase pleasant stimulus to increase behavior

Ex. giving a student a prize after he gets an A on a test
Negative Reinforcement OLI U6M14


Reduce or remove unpleasant stimulus to increase behavior

Ex. Taking painkillers that eliminate pain increases the likelihood that you will take painkillers again
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Positive Punishment OLI U6M14


Present or add unpleasant stimulus to reduce behavior

Ex. Giving a student extra homework after she misbehaves in class
Negative Punishment OLI U6M14


Reduce or remove pleasant stimulus to reduce behavior

Ex. Taking away child's computer after missing curfew
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule OLI U6M14


Desired response is reinforced every time it occurs

Ex. Whenever a dog sits, it gets a treat
Partial (or intermittent) Reinforcement Schedule OLI U6M14


Schedule in which the responses are sometimes reinforced and sometimes not
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Fixed - Ratio Reinforcement Scheudle OLI U6M14


Behavior is reinforced after specific number of responses

Ex. Factory workers who are paid according to the number of products they produce
Variable - Ratio Reinforcement Schedule OLI U6M14


Behavior is reinforced after an average, but unpredictable number of responses

Ex. Payoffs from slot machines and other games of chance
Fixed - Interval OLI U6M14


Behavior is reinforced for the first response after a specific amount of time has passed

Ex. People who earn a monthly salary
Variable - Interval OLI U6M14


Behavior is reinforced for the first response after an average, but unpredictable, amount of time has passed

Ex. Person who checks voice mail for messages
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Shaping OLI U6M14


Process of guiding an organism's behavior to the desired outcome through the use of successive approximation to a final desired behavior
Primary Reinforcer OLI U6M14


Stimuli that are naturally preferred or enjoyed by the organism, such as food, water, relief from pain
Secondary Reinforcer (Sometimes called conditioned reinforcer) OLI U6M14


Neutral event that has become associated with a primary reinforcer through classical conditioning.
John B. Watson CLASS U6


Believed all of our behaviors are based on conditioned responses
Little albert case with rosalie rayner
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B.F. Skinner CLASS U6


Built off Thorndike's work with Law of Effect


5 Processes of Conditioning CLASS U6M13

Acquistion
Extinction
Spontaneous Recovery
Generalization
Discrimination
Insight OLI U6M15


Sudden understanding of a solution to a problem
Latent Learnign OLI U6M15


Learning that is not reinforced and not demonstrated until there is motivation to do so
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Edward Tolman (Tolman Experiment) OLI U6M15


3 hungry rats had to navigate mazes to find food
Memory OLI U7M16


Our capacity to acquire, store, and retrieve the information and habits that guide out behavior
Explicit Memory (Hippocampus) OLI U7M16

Knowledge or experiences that can be consciously and intentionally remembered
Episodic Memory (Explicit) OLI U7M16

Firsthand experiences, or episodes, that we have on a daily basis
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Semantic Memory (Explicit) OLI U7M16


Knowledge of facts and concepts about the world
Recall Test OLI U7M16


Measure of explicit memory that involves retrieving information that has been previously learned
Recognition Memory Test OLI U7M16



Measure of memory that involves determining whether information has been seen or learned before
Relearning (or savings) OLI U7M16


assessing how much more quickly information is processed or learned when it is studied again after it has already been learned but then forgotten
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Implicit Memory (Cerebellum) OLI U7M16


influence of experience on behavior, even if the individual is not aware of those influences
Procedural Memory (Implicit) OLI U7M16


Often unexplainable knowledge of how to do things
Classical Condition Effects (Implicit) OLI U7M16


We learn often without effort or awareness to associate neutral stimuli (such as sound or light) with another stimulus (such as food), which creates a naturally occurring response, such as enjoyment or salivation.
Priming (Implicit) OLI U7M16


Changes in behavior as a result of experiences that have happened frequently or recently
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Sensory Memory OLI U7M16


Brief storage of sensory information
Memory buffer lasts briefly, and unless given attention, forgotten quickly
Iconic Memory OLI U7M16


Visual sensory memory

Echoic Memory OLI U7M16


Auditory Sensory Memory
Eidetic Imagery OLI U7M16


Photographic memroy

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Short-Term Memory OLI U7M16


Place where small amounts of information can be temporarily kept for more than a few seconds but usually for less than one mintue
Working Memory OLI U7M16


Process that we use to make sense of, modify, interpret, and store information in STM 
Maintenance Rehearsal OLI U7M16


Process of repeating information mentally or out loud with the goal of keeping it in memory
Chunking OLI U7M16


Process of organizing information into smaller groups (chunks), thereby increasing the number of items that can be held in STM
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Long-Term Memory (LTM) OLI U7M16


Memory storage that can hold information for days, months, and years
Encoding OLI U7M16


Process by which we place our experiences into memory
Elaborative Encoding OLI U7M16



Processing new information in ways that make it more relevant or meaningful
Spacing Effect OLI U7M16


Fact that learning is better when the same amount of study is spread out over periods of time than it is when it occurs closer together or at the same time
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Overlearnign OLI U7M16


Continuing to practice and study even when we think that we have mastered the material
Retrieval OLI U7M16


Process of reactivating information that has been stored in memory
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon OLI U7M16


We are certain we know something that we are trying to recall but cannot quite come up with it
Context-Dependent Learnign OLI U7M16


Increase in retrieval when the external situation in which information is learned matches the situation in which it is remembered
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State-Dependent Learning OLI U7M16


Superior retrieval of memories when the individual is in the same physiological or psychological state as during encoding
Primacy Effect OLI U7M16


Tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented early in a list
Recency Effect OLI U716


Tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented later in a list
Retroactive Interference OLI U7M16


Learning something new impairs our ability to retrieve information learned earlier.
(New gets in the way of old)
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Proactive Interference OLI U7M16


Earlier learning impairs our ability to encode information that we try to learn later.
(Old gets in the way of new)
Categories OLI U7M16


Networks of associated memories that have features in common with each other

Ex. Fruit
Prototype OLI U7M16


Member of the category that is most average or typical of the category

Ex. Apple 
Schemas OLI U7M16


Patterns of knowledge in long-term memory that help us organize information
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Long-Term Potentiation OLI U7M17


Strengthening of the synaptic connections between neurons as result of frequent stimulation
Period of Consolidation OLI U7M17


Period of time in which Long term potentiation occurs and in which memories are stored
Hippocampus with regards to learning OLI U717


Preprocessor and elaborator of information
Cerebellum/Amygdala with regards to learning OLI U7M16


concentrating on implicit and emotional memories
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Atkinson & Shiffrin 3 stage memory model (1968) OLI U7M16


Sensory memory
short term memory
long-term memory
Digit Span OLI U7M16


Number storage capactiy
Cognitive Biases CLASS U7M17


Errors we make in memory or judgement because of the way our brains work
Misinformation Effect CLASS U7M17


Eye witness testimony
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Source Monitoring OLI U7M17


Thinking you did something when you weren't there
Overconfidence CLASS U7M17


Flashbulb memory
Generalized Intelligence Factor OLI U9M21


"g"
assessed by having person complete variety of tasks
General Intelligence OLI U9M21


Stanford-Binet measures this
tasks such as vocab, memory for pictures, naming familiar objects, repeating sentences, and following commands
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Crystallized Intelligence OLI U9M21


increases with age
facts

Fluid Intelligence OLI U9M21


decreases with age
intelligence allow us to adapt
what comes next? abbccc____?
Flynn Effect OLI U9M21


IQ measurements increase overtime
Standardization OLI U9M21


Giving a test to a large number of people of different ages and computing average score on the test at each age level
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IQ OLI U9M21


IQ = Mental age / chronological age * 100
WAIS-IV OLI U9M21


updated version of WAIS test, yielding scores on four domains: verbal, perceptual, working memory and processing speed
Reliability OLI U9M21


When a person scores high on a test and assessed at different times on the test, the person will score approximately the same every time with more than 95% accuracy rate
Degree to which a test keeps producing the same or similar results over repeated testing
Validity OLI U9M21


Extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and corresponds accurately to the real world.
Degree to which a test or other measure of some psychological construct actually measures that construct
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Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III) OLI U9M21


adopted version of Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale for preschool children
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) OLI U9M21


adopted version of WAIS for older children and adolescents
Achievement OLI U9M21


What one has already learned
Aptitude OLI U9M21


Ability to learn
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Aptitude Test OLI U9M21


Tests designed to measure one's ability to do well in college or in post graduate training
Normal Distribution OLI U9M22


Bell curve
Frequency Distribution OLI U9M22


Arrangement of values to show how frequently each score appears in a group
Triarchic (Three-Part) Theory of Intelligence OLI U9M23


Sternberg's proposal that people may display more or less analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence
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Convergent Thinking OLI U9M23


Thinking that is directed toward finding the correct answer to a given problem
Divergent Thinking OLI U9M23


Ability to generate many different ideas for or solutions to a single problem

Expertise OLI U9M23


Creative people have carefully studied and know a lot about the topic they are working in. Creativity comes with a lot of hard work
Imaginative Thinking OLI U9M23


Creative people often view a problem in a visual way, allowing them to see it from a new and different point of view
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Risk Taking OLI U9M23


Creative people are willing to take on new but potentially risky approaches
Intrinsic Interest OLI U9M23


Creative people tend to work on projects because they love doing them, not because they are paid for them.
Working in a creative environment OLI U9M23


Creativity is in part a social phenomenon. 
Practical Intelligence OLI U9M23


Intelligence that cannot be gained from books or formal learning
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Emotional Intelligence OLI U9M23


Ability to accurately identify, assess, and understand emotions, as well as to effectively control one's own emotions
Emotion Regulation OLI U9M23


Ability to control and productively use one's emotions
Entity Theory OLI U9M24


Belief that intelligence is determined by factors present at birth, particularly related to their genetic inheritance
Incremental Theory OLI U9M24


Belief that intelligence can be changed, particularly through efforts to learn and to excel
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Developmental Psychology OLI U10M25


Physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social changes that occur throughout human life, which are guided by both genetic predispositions (nature) and environmental influences (nurture)
Erik Erickson's Development Stages OLI U10M25


Ex's. Birth-18 mo. trust vs mistrust
12-18 identity vs role confusion
19-40 yrs intimacy vs isolation
Conception OLI U10M25


When an egg from the mother is fertilized by a sperm from the father
Ovulation OLI U10M25


When an ovum, or egg (largest cell in human body), which has been stored in one of the mother's two ovaries, matures and is released into the fallopian tube
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Zygote OLI U10M25


when 23 eggs (ova) fuse with 23 chromosomes from the sperm
Embryo OLI U10M25


When the zygote attaches to the wall of the uterus
Amniotic Sac OLI U10M25


Fluid-filled reservoir in which the embryo (soon to be known as a fetus) lives until birth
cushion against outside pressure and as a temperatuer regulator
Placenta OLI U10M25


Organ that allows the exchange of nutrients between the embryo and the mother, while at the same time filtering out harmful material
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Umbilical Cord OLI U10M25


Links the embryo directly to the placenta and transfers all material to the fetus
Fetus OLI U10M25


9 weeks after conception embryo becomes this (fetus)
Teratogens OLI U10M26


Substances that can harm the fetus
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) OLI U10M26


Condition caused by maternal alcohol drinking that can lead to numerous detrimental developmental effects, including limb and facial abnormalities, genital anomalies, and mental retardation
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Survival Reflexes OLI U10M27


Newborns variety of responses to environmental stimuli that appear from the first day of life and some even before birth
Assimilation OLI U10M27


Using already developed schemas to understand new information

Ex. Child calling a zebra a horse at a zoo
Accommodation OLI U10M27


Learning new information and thus changing the schema
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development OLI U10M27


Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational
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Sensorimotor OLI U10M27


Birth to about 2 years
Physical interactions babies have with objects around them
Child experiences the world through fundamental senses of seeing, hearing, touching, and tasting

Object Permanence (child's ability to know an object exists even when it cannot be perceived)
Preoperational OLI U10M27

2-7 years

Children acquire the ability to internally represent the world through language and mental imagery. Start to see the world from other people's perspectives

Theory of mind (ability to take anotehr person's viewpoint)
rapid increase in language ability
Concrete Operational OLI U10M27

7- 11 years
More frequent use of transitions, operations, and abstract concepts, including those of time, space, and numbers
Children become able to think logically. Can increasingly perform operations on objects that are only imagined

conservation (understanding that changes in the form of an object do not necessarily mean changes in the quantity of the object
Formal Operational OLI U10M27

11 yrs- adulthood

Adolescents can think systematically, can reason abstract concepts, and can understand ethics and scientific reasoning

Abstract Logic
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Internalized OLI U10M27


mental processes are internalized when they take place symbolically in our minds
Scaffolding OLI U10M27


caregivers support the child to achieve higher cognitive levels by providing support and guidance
Zone of Proximal Development OLI U10M27


Abilities that a child is just starting to be able to use
Self-Awareness OLI U10M28


child's realization that he/she is a distinct individual, whose body, mind and actions are separate from those of other people
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Self-Concept OLI U10M28


Knowledge representation or schema that contains knowledge about ourselves, including our beliefs about our personality traits, physical characteristics, abilities, values, goals, and roles, as well as the knowledge that we exist as individuals
Social Comparison OLI U10M28


After children enter grade school and begin to evaluate themselves against their observations of other children
Attachment OLI U10M28


Emotional bonds we develop with those with whom we feel closest, and particularly the bonds an infant develops with the mother or primary caregiver
Secure Attachment Style OLI U10M28


child usually explores freely while the mother is present and engages with the stranger
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Ambivalent (insecure-resistant) attachment style OLI U10M28


child is wary about the situation in general, particularly the stranger and stays close or even clings to the mother rather than exploring the toys
Avoidant (Insecure-avoidant) attachment style OLI U10M28


child will avoid or ignore mother showing little emotion when the mother departs or returns
Disorganized Attachment Style OLI U10M28


child seems to have no consistent way of coping with the stress of the strange situation - the child may cry during the separation but avoid the mother when she returns, or the child may approach the mother but then freeze or fall to the floor
Temperament OLI U10M28


Infant's distinctive pattern of attention, arousal and reactivity to new or novel situations
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Parenting styles OLI U10M28


Parental behaviors that determine the nature of parent- child interactions and that guide their interaction with the child
Authoritarian OLI U10M28


parents are demanding but not responsive
Permissive OLI U10M28


Make few demands and give little punishment, but they are responsive in the sense that they generally allow their children to make their own rules
Authoritative OLI U10M28


Parents are demanding, but are also responsive to the needs and opinions of the child
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Rejecting-Neglecting OLI U10M28


Parents who are undemanding and unresponsive overall
Adolescence OLI U10M29


Years between onset of puberty and beginning of adulthood
Puberty OLI U10M29


developmental period in which hormonal changes cause rapid physical alterations in the body, culminating in sexual maturity

Average 9-14 years girls and 10-17 years boys
Primary Sex Characteristics OLI U10M29


Sex organs concerned with reproduction

Ex. Enlarged testicles and penis (boys)
Development of ovaries, uterus, and vagina (girls)
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Secondary Sex Characteristics OLI U10M29


Features that distinguish two sexes from each other but are not involved in reproduction

Enlarged Adam's apple, deeper voice, pubic/underarm hair (boys)
Growing breasts, widening hips, and pubic/underarm hair (girls)
Menarche OLI U10M29


First menstrual period
12-13 years roughly
Spermarche OLI U10M29


Beginning of sperm development in boys' testicles
Prefrontal Cortex OLI U10M29


Area of brain responsible for reasoning, planning and problem solving
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Myelin OLI U10M29


Fatty tissue forms around axons and neurons and helps speed transmissions between different regions of the brain, also continues to grow
Egocentrism OLI U10M29

Adolescents believe the can do anything and that they know better than anyone else, including parents
Imaginary Audience OLI U10M29


Teens feel that everyone is consistently watching them
Role Experimentation OLI U10M29


when adolescents "try on" different roles to determine what their identity would become
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James Marcia's Stages of Identity Development OLI U10M29

Identity-Diffusion Status
Foreclosure status
Moratorium status
Identity-achievement status
Identity-Diffusion Status OLI U10M29



Individual does not have firm commitments regarding the issues in question and is not making progress toward them
Foreclosure Status OLI U10M29


Individual has not engaged in any identity experimentation and has established identity based on the choices or values of others
Moratorium Status OLI U10M29


Individual is exploring various choices but has not yet made a clear commitment to any of them
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Identity-Achievement Status OLI U10M29


Individual has attained a coherent and committed identity based on personal decisions
Preconventional Morality OLI U10M29


Until about age 9, children focus on self-interest. Punishment is avoided and rewards are sought
Conventional Morality OLI U10M29


By early adolescence child begins to care about how situational outcomes impact others and wants to please and be accepted.
People are able to value the good that can be derived from holding to social norms in form of laws or less formalized rules
Postconventional Morality OLI U10M29


Individuals employ abstract reasoning to justify behaviors. Moral behavior is based on self-chosen ethical principles that are generally comprehensive and universal, such as justice, dignity and equality
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Menopause OLI U10M30


Cessation of menstrual cycle
Social Clock OLI u10M30


culturally preferred "right time" for major life events

Ex. getting job, married, children, owning home
Late Adulthood OLI U10M30


Final life stage, beginning in the 60s
Dementia OLI U10M30


Progressive neurological disease that includes loss of cognitive abilities significant enough to interfere with everyday behaviors
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Alzheimer's Disease OLI U10M30


Form of dementia that, over period of years, leads to loss of emotions, cognitions, and physical functioning, and is ultimately fatal
Denial OLI U10M30


When one is dealing with death or loved one's death, not accepting the action
"I'm fine. this can't be happening; not to me"
Anger OLI U10M30

"Why me? It's not fair!"
Mad about the fact of death
Bargaining OLI U10M30


Trying to get yourself out of death
"Just let me live to see my children graduate"
"I'd do anything for a few more years"
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Depression OLI U10M30


Knowing your death is coming and not caring

"I'm so sad, why bother?" "I miss my loved ones-why go on?"
Acceptance OLI U10M30


Accepting death

"I know my time has come; it's almost my time"
Affect OLI U11M31


Experience of feeling or emotion
Essential part of the study of psychology because it plays such an important role in everyday life
Emotion OLI U11M31


Mental and physiological feeling state that directs our attention and guides our behavior.
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Motivation OLI U11M31


Driving force that initiates and directs behavior
Health Psychology OLI U11M31


Study of the interface between affect and physical health - that principle that "everything that is physiological is also psychological"
Cannon-Bard Theory OLI U11M31

Emotions and arousal occur at the same time
James-Lange Theory OLI U11M31


Experience of an emotion is the result of the arousal that we experience.
Arousal leads to emotion
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Schacter Singer two-factor theory OLI U11M31


Arousal we experience is basically same in every emotion, and that all emotions are differentiated only by our cognitive appraisal of the source of the arousal

Excitation Transfer OLI U11M31


Phenomenon that occurs when people who are already experiencing arousal from one event tend to also experience unrelated emotions more strongly
Basic Emotions OLI U11M31

Anger
Disgust
Fear
Happiness
sadness
Surprise
Contempt (?)
Cognitive Appraisal OLI U11M31


cognitive interpretations that accompany emotions
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Fast Pathway OLI U11M31


Stimulus --> Thalamus --> Amygdala --> External Response
Slow Pathway OLI U11M31


Stimuli --> Thalamus --> Frontal Cortex --> Amygdala --> External Response
Facial Feedback Hypothesis OLI U11M31


Movement of our facial muscles can trigger corresponding emotions
Optimism OLI U11M32

General tendency to expect positive outcomes
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Self-Efficacy OLI U11M32


Belief in our ability to carry out actions that produce desired outcomes
Hardiness OLI U11M32


Tendency to be less affected by life's stressors can be characterized as an individual difference measure that has a relationship to both optimism and self-efficacy
Social Support OLI U11M32

Positive social relationship with others
Affective Forecasting OLI U11M32


People's ability to predict their future emotinoal states
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Drives OLI U11M33


Internal states that are activated when the physiological characteristics of the body are out of balance
Goals OLI U11M33


Desired end states that we strive to attain
Intrinsically Motivated OLI U11M33


Working because you enjoy the task, they believe the task is important and they desire to do a good job
Extrinsically Motivated OLI U11M33


Work because you are getting a reward such as money or a praise
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Insulin OLI U11M33


Hormone secreted by the pancreas gland
Basal Metabolic Rate OLI U11M33


Amount of energy expended while at rest
Anorexia Nervosa OLI U11M33


Eating disorder characterized by low body weight, distorted by body image, obsession with exercise, and obsessive fear of gaining weight

Bradycardia (slow heart) , hypotension (low blood pressure), hypothermia, anemia (low iron)
Bulimia Nervosa OLI U11M33


Eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging

Irritation of esophogus, vitamin and mineral deficiencies
electrolyte imbalance, dehydration, acid reflux
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Obesity OLI U11M33


Medical condition in which so much excess body fat has accumulated in the body that it begins to have an adverse impact on health
Body Mass Index (BMI) OLI U11M33


Measurement that compares on's weight and height
Testosterone (an androgen) OLI U11M33


Main hormone responsible for arousal
Oxytocin OLI U11M33


hormone that has receive a lot of attention
Promotes closeness and bonding
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Hyperactive Sexual Desire Disorder OLI U11M33


Sex drive is so strong that it dominates life experiences
Sexual Orientation OLI U11M33


Direction of our sexual desire toward people of the opposite sex, people of same sex, or people of both sexes
Social Psychology OLI U13M37


Scientific study of how we feel about, think about, and behave toward the other people around us, and how those people influence our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
Social Situation OLI U13M37


People with whom we are interacting
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Social Cognition OLI U13M37


Part of human thinking that helps us understand and predict the behavior of ourselves and others
Attitudes OLI U13M37


Our enduring evaluations of people or things
Social Norms OLI U13M37


Accepted beliefs about what we do or what we should do in particular social situations
Stereotyping OLI U13M37


Tendency to attribute personality characteristics to people on the basis of their external appearance or their social group memberships
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Prejudice OLI U13M37


Tendency to dislike people because of their appearance or group memberships
Discrimination OLI U13M37


Negative behaviors toward others based on prejudice
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy OLI U13M37


When our expectations about the personality characteristics of others lead us to behave in ways that make those beliefs come true
Social Identity OLI U13M37


Positive emotions that we experience as a result of our group memberships
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Stereotype Threat OLI U13M37


Concerns about conforming the expectation that they will not do well relative to individuals who belong to stereotypically high-performing groups
Close Relationships OLI U13M37


The long-term intimate and romantic relationships that we develop with another person - for instance, in a marriage
Interpersonal Attraction OLI U13M37


What makes people like, and even love, each other
Self-Disclosure OLI U13M37


Tendency to communicate frequently, without fear or reprisal, and in an accepting and empathetic manner
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Proximity OLI U13M37


Extent to which people are physically near us
Mere Exposure OLI U13M37


Tendency to prefer stimuli (including but not limited to people) that we have seen more frequently
Commitment OLI U13M37


Feelings and actions that keep partners working together to maintain the relationship and is characterized by mutual expectations that the self and the partner will be responsive to each other's needs
Causal Attribution
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Causal Attribution OLI U13M37


Process of trying to determine the causes of people's behavior with the goal of learning about their personalities
Dispositional Attribution OLI U13M37


Source or cause of the behavior was due to characteristics that reside within the individual
Situational Attribution OLI U13M37


Behavior caused primarily by the situation
Self-Serving Attributions OLI U13M37


Judging the causes of our own behaviors in overly positive ways
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Fundamental Attribution OLI U13M37


Common tendency to overestimate the role of dispositional factors and overlook the impact of situations in judging others
Persuasive Communications OLI U13M37


Trying to convince another person to change their mind
Emphasis on nature of message is used to reason with the person to change their mind
Self-Monitoring OLI U13M37


Tendency to regulate behavior to meet the demands of social situations
Self-Perception OLI U13M37


When we use our own behavior as a guide to help us determine our own thoughts and feelings
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Cognitive Dissonance OLI U13M37


Discomfort experienced when we choose to behave in ways that we see as inappropriate
Altruism OLI U13M38


Any behavior that is designed to increase another person's welfare, and particularly those actions that do not seem to provide a direct reward to the person who performs them
Reciprocal Altruism OLI U13M38


principle that if we help other people now, those others return the favor should we need their help in the future
Social Responsibility Norm OLI U13M38


We should try to help others who need assistance, even without any expectation of future paybacks
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Diffusion of Responsiblity OLI U13M38


Occurs when we assume that others will take action and therefore we do not take action ourselves
Agression OLI U13M38


Behavior that is intended to harm another individual
Displaced Aggression OLI U13M38


Agression that is directed at an object or person other than the person who caused the frustration
Catharsis OLI U13M38


Idea that observing or engaging in less harmful aggressive actions will reduce the tendency to aggress later in a more harmful way
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Desensitization OLI U13M38


Tendency over time to show weaker emotional responses to emotional stimuli
Culture of Honor OLI U13M38


Social norm that condones and even encourages responding to insults with aggression
Conformity OLI U13M38


Change in beliefs or behavior that occurs as the result of the presence of the other people around us
Informational Conformity OLI U13M38


Conforming on belief that other people have accurate information and we want to have knowledge
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Normative Conformity OLI U13M39


Conforming to be liked by others
Asch Experiment OLI U13M38


Participants compare lines to original line by length and speak answer. Last person is the only real participant to see if the last person actually conforms
Obedience OLI U13M38


Tendency to conform to those in authority
Minority Influence OLI U13M38


Smaller number of individuals is able to influence the opinions or behaviors of the larger group
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Psychological Reactance OLI U13M38


Strong emotional reaction that leads people to resist pressures to conform
Social Facilitation OLI U13M39


Tendency to perform tasks better or faster in the presence of others
Social Inhibition OLI U13M39


Tendency to perform tasks more poorly or slowly in the presence of others
Group Process OLI U13M39


Events that occur while the group is working on the task
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Social Loafing OLI U13M39


Group process loss that occurs when people do not work as hard in a group as they do when they are working alone
Groupthink OLI U13M39


Phenomenon that occurs when a group made up of members who may be very competent and thus quite capable of making excellent decisions nevertheless ends up, as a result of a flawed group process and strong conformity pressures, making a poor decision
Wellness OLI U14M40


State of being in which a person actively maintains a proper balance of physical, mental, emotional, and social health
Balance OLI U14M40


Being mentally steady or emotionally stable
Having an internal state of harmony or symmetry


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External Wellness components OLI U14M40

Social
Occupational
Environmental
Familial

Internal Wellness Components OLI U14M40


Spiritual 
Physical
Intellectual
Emotional
Companionate Love OLI U14M41

Love that is based on friendship, mutual attraction, common interests, mutual respect, and concern for each other's welfare

Mind-Body Medicine CLASS U14M42


Form of wellness that allows one to see how the mind can impact body functions
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Dialetical Behavior Therapy OLI U14M42


Therapy based on three states of mind: Reasonable, Wise, and Emotional
Reasonable Mind OLI U14M42


Taking a more intellectual approach to life
Wise Mind OLI U14M42


Overlap of reasonable and emotional mind.
People are aware of escalating emotions but have not lost touch with logic
Emotional Mind OLI U14M42


Thinking and behavior are emotionall based
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PLEASE MASTER 6 levels of self-care OLI U14M42

Treat Physical Illness
Balanced Eating
Avoid Mood-Altering Drugs
Balanced Sleep
Get Exercise
Build MASTERy
Withdrawal OLI U14M42


Negative experiences that accompany reducing or stopping drug use, including physical pain and other symptoms
Hans Style stated stress is ? CLASS/OLI U14M43


Nonspecific response of the body to any demand for change"

Stress OLI/CLASS U14M43


Psychological responses that occur when an organism fails to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats
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Stressors OLI U14M43


Stimuli or external events that cause a person to experience stress of any kind
Thomas Holmes/Richard Rahe OLI/CLASS U14M43


Developed a measure of some everyday life events that might lead to stress
Ex. Death of Spouse 100 pts
Marriage 50 pts
Child leaves for college 29 pts
Christmas 12 pts
Daily Hassles OLI U14M43


Our everyday interactions with the environment that are essentially negative
Stress Body Characteristics CLASS OLI U14M43


Cold extremities, tension headaches, neck pain, rapid heartbeat, shallow breath
psychological: high blood pressure and heart disease
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Hans Selye (1907-1982) OLI U14M43


Studied stress by examining how rats responded to being exposed to stressors such as shock of infection or excessive exercise
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) OLI/CLASS U14M43


Three distinct phases of physiological change that occur in response to long-term stress: Alarm, Resistance, and Exhaustion

General Alarm Reaction OLI U14M43


First reaction to stress. 
Body releases stress hormones, including cortisol
Resistance OLI U14M43


After period of chronic stress the body adapts to the ongoing threat and tries to return to its normal functions
Glucose levels increase to sustain energy and blood pressure increases
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Exhaustion OLI U14M43


Body runs out of its reserves of energy and immunity. 
Blood sugar decrease, leading to decreased stress tolerance, progressive mental and physical exhaustion, illness, and collapse
Body's organs begin to fail, and eventually illness or death occurs
HPA Axis OLI U14M43

Physiological response to stress involving interactions among the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands
HPA response sequence OLI U14M43


Hypothalamus secretes hormones that direct pituitary gland to release hormone ACTH then directs the adrenal glands to secrete more hormones, including epinephrine, non epinephrine, and cortisol
Cortisol OLI U14M43


Stress hormone that releases sugars into the blood, helping preparing body to respond to threat
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Fight-or-Flight OLI U14M43


Emotional and behavioral reaction to stress that increases the readiness for action
Tend-and-Befriend OLI U14M43


behavioral reaction to stress that involves activities designed to create social networks that provide protection from threats
Emotion Regulation OLI U14M43


Ability to successfully control our emotions
Levels of Stress CLASS U14M43


Catastrophe
significant life change
daily hassles
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Coping-Perceive Control CLASS U14M43


Loss of control
can influence stress response
overcrowding
ex.pop quiz, roomates
Coping-Outlook CLASS U14M43


Happiness and Optimism tends to lead to more perceived control
Nun-Study: positive expressors lived longer
Coping-Social Support CLASS U14M43


Passing the cold!
Confiding is good for you
Open heart therapy (Someone you can talk to)
Acute Pain OLI U14M44


Sudden onset and short duration
tissue damage to bones, muscles, and/or organs
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Chronic Pain OLI U14M44

Lasting over three months and medical interventions may have limited success
result of medical condition or be the medical condition
Nerve damage
Breakthrough Pain OLI U14M44


Type of chronic pain that will breakthrough the effects of pain medication
prescribed medication
Nociceptive Pain OLI U14M44


Caused by tissue damage
Neuropathic Pain OLI U14M44


Caused by nerve damage
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Miscellaneous Pain OLI U14M44


pain classified by location
as an ache, sharp, stabbing, throbbin
Nociceptors CLASS U14M44


Pain receptors
Gate Control Theory CLASS U14M44


Fibers sent to brain
Phantom Limbs CLASS U14M44


Chronic Pain
Agitated limb has no nerve receptors but you can still feel something (learned paralysis)

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Psychological Pain CLASS U14M44


Don't remember pain in perfect detail
Memories of pain can be edited

Social-Culture Pain CLASS U14M44


Perceive pain increases when others appear to be in pain
Empathy
Somatization Disorder OLI U14M44


Psychological disorder in which a person experiences numerous long-lasting but seeming unrelated physical ailments that have no identifiable physical cause
Joint aches, vomiting, nausea, muscle weakness, sexual dysfunction
Conversion Disorder OLI U14M44


Psychological disorder where patients experience specific neurological symptoms such as numbness, blindness, or paralysis, but where no neurological explanation exists
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Hypochondriasis OLI U14M44


Psychological disorder accompanied by excessive worry about having a serious illness
Dialetical Behavior Therapy (DBT) OLI U14M44


Both physical and emotional pain is to be accepted as an aspect of life that all will endure
Nonacceptance OLI U14M44


Combating the reality of pain being a presence in life
Narcotic Analgesics OLI U14M44


Opium, morphine, and heroin
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Aguantar OLI U14M44


Physical pain, and even emotional pain, is more self managed and pain should be faced with dignity
Mindfulness OLI U14M45


Paying attention-without judgement- to what is happening right now, moment by moment, by moment
Distress Tolerance Skills OLI U14M45


Ability to be incorporated a particular type of coping skill in a given moment when experiencing a crisis
Abnormal Psychology OLI U15M46


Applying psychological science to our understanding and treatment of psychological disorders
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Prevalence OLI U15M46


Frequency of occurrence of a given condition in a population at a given time
Psychological Disorder OLI U15M46


Ongoing dysfunctional pattern of thought, emotion, and behavior that causes significant distress, and that is considered deviant in that person's culture or society
Bio-Psycho-Social Model of Illness OLI U15M46


A way of understanding disorder that assumes that disorders are caused by biological, psychological, and social fators
Biological component OLI U15M46


Influences on disorder that come from the functioning of the individual's body
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Psychological Component OLI U15M46


Influences that come form the individual, such as patterns of negative thinking and stress responses
Social Component OLI U15M46


Influences on disorder due to social and cultural factors such as socioeconomic status, homelessness, abuse, and discrimination
Comorbidity OLI U15M46


When people who suffer from one disorder also suffer at the same time from other disorders
Different "Remedies" for "demons" (disorders) CLASS/OLI U15M46


Whipping, bloodletting, purges, trepanation, lobotomies, electroshock therapy, cages/restraints
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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) OLI U15M46


Document that provides a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders
5 axes
1st published in 1952
Cluster A Personality Disorders OLI U15M46 


Odd or Eccentric

Ex. Paranoia, Schizoid, Schizotypal
Cluster B Personality Disorders OLI U15M46


Dramatic/Erratic

Ex. Antisocial, Borderline, Narcissistic
Cluster C Personality Disorders OLI U15M46


Anxious/Inhibited

Ex. Avoidant, Dependent, Obsessive-Compulsive
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Anxiety OLI U15M47


Nervousness or agitation that we sometimes experience, often about something that is going to happen
Anxiety Disorders OLI U15M47


Psychological disturbances marked by irrational fears, often of everyday objects and situations
Generalized Anxiety Disorder OLI U15M47


Psychological disorder diagnosed in situations in which a person has been excessively worrying about money, health, work, family life, or relationships for at least 6 months, even though he/she knows that the concerns are exaggerated, and when the anxiety causes significant distress and dysfunction
Panic Disorder OLI U15M47


Psychological disorder characterized by sudden attacks of anxiety and terror that have led to significant behavioral changes in the person's life
Symptoms: shortness of breath, heart palpitations, trembling, dizziness, choking sensations, nausea, and an intense feeling of dread or impending doom
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Phobia OLI U15M47


Specific fear of a certain object, situation, or activity
Social Phobia OLI U15M47


Extreme shyness around people or discomfort in social situations
Agoraphobia OLI U15M47


Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing, or in which help may not be available
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder OLI U15M47


Psychological disorder that is diagnosed when an individual continuously experiences obsessions (distressing, intrusive, or frightening thoughts), and engages in compulsions (repetitive behaviors or mental acts) in an attempt to calm these obsessions
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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder OLI U15M47


High levels of anxiety along with reexperiencing the trauma (flashbacks), and a strong desire to avoid any reminders of the event
Mood OLI U15M48


Positive or negative feelings that are in the background of our everyday experiences
Mood (affective) Disorders OLI U15M48


Psychological disorders in which the person's mood negatively influences his or her physical, perceptual, social, and cognitive processes
Dysthymia OLI U15M47


Condition characterized by mild, but chronic, depressive symptoms that last for at least 2 years
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Major Depressive Disorder (clinical depression) OLI U15M48


Mental disorder characterized by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities
Bipolar Disorder OLI U15M48


Psychological disorder characterized by swings in mood from overly "high" to sad and hopeless, and back again, with periods of near-normal mood in between
Schizophrenia OLI U15M49


Serious psychological disorder marked by delusions, hallucinations, loss of contact with reality, inappropriate affect, disorganized speech, withdrawal, and deterioration of adaptive behavior
Psychosis OLI U15M49


A Psychological condition characterized by a loss of contact with reality
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Schizophrenia 3 Symptoms OLI U15M49

Positive Symptoms - presence of abnormal behaviors or experiences that are not observed in normal people

Negative Symptoms - loss or deterioration of thoughts and behaviors that are typical of normal functioning

Cognitive Symptoms - changes in cognitive processes that accompany schizophrenia
Hallucinations OLI U15M49


False sensations that occur in the absence of a real stimulus or which are gross distortions of a real stimulus
Delusions OLI U15M49


False beliefs not commonly shared by others within one's culture, and maintained even though they are obviously out of touch with reality
Personality Disorder OLI U15M50


Disorder characterized by inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others that cause problems in personal, social, and work situations
Generated by Koofers.com
Borderline Personality Disorder OLI U15M50


Psychological disorder characterized by a prolonged disturbance of personality accompanied by mood swings, unstable personal relationships, identity problems, threats or self-destructive behavior, fears of abandonment, and impulsivity
Antisocial Personality Disorder OLI U15M50


Pervasive pattern of violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder OLI U15M51


Developmental behavior disorder characterized by problems with focus, difficulty maintaining attention, and inability to concentrate, in which symptoms start before 7 years of age
Autistic Diroder (Autism) OLI U15M51


Disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior, and in which symptoms begin before 7 years of age
Generated by Koofers.com
Asperger's Disorder OLI U15M51


Developmental disorder that affects a child's ability to socialize and communicated effectively with others and in which symptoms begin before 7 years of age
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) OLI U15M52


Psychological Disorder in which two or more distinct and individual personalities exist in the same person, and there is an extreme memory disruption regarding personal information about the other personalities
Sensation CLASS


Collecting information through senses
Perception CLASS


Integrating collected sense information
Generated by Koofers.com
Sensory Adaptation Class


Change over time in responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus
Proprioception CLASS


Sense of body position and movement
Vestibular System CLASS


contributes to balance
sense of spatial orientation
McGurk Effect CLASS


Interaction with seeing/hearing
listen only
watch and listen
watch only
say words
Generated by Koofers.com
Memory CLASS


Limbic System (hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus)
Form Perception CLASS


Distinguishing what is important from background
Consciousness CLASS


Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Dual Processing CLASS


Information can be processed consciously and subconsciously
Generated by Koofers.com
Inattentional Blindness CLASS


We miss things because we are directing attention else were
Sleep Health Benefits CLASS


Helps us recuperate
Helps us build memories
Helps us fuel creative thinking

Yawning CLASS


Increases alertness
Socially contagious
REM CLASS


Rapid Eye Movement
Generated by Koofers.com
Sleep Cycle Brain Waves CLASS

Awake, relaxed: alpha waves
stage 1 sleep
stage 2 sleep: spindle (burst of activity)
Stage 3 sleep
stage 4 sleep: delta waves
REM sleep: eye movement phase
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Empirical Study
OLI U3M3


Results of verifiable evidence from a systematic collection and analysis of data that has been objectively observed, measured, and undergone experimentation
 Basic ResearchOLI U3M3


Research that answers fundamental questions about behavior
 Applied ResearchOLI U3M3


Research that investigates issues that have implications for everyday life and provides solutions to everyday problems
 TheoryOLI U3M3


Integrated set of principles that explains and predicts many, but not all observed relationships with in a given domain of inquiry
 4 Characteristics of Good TheoriesOLI U3M3


General- summarizes different outcomes
Parsimonious- provides simplest possible outcomes
Provides ideas for future research
Falsifiable - variables can be proven incorrect through research
 Research HypothesisOLI U3M3


Precise statement of presumed relationship among specific parts of a theory
Specific and falsifiable prediction about the relationship between or among 2 or more variables
 VariableOLI U3M3


Any attribute that can assume different values among different people or across different times or places
 Conceptual VariablesOLI U3M3


Abstract ideas that form the basis of research hypothesis
Ex. age, gender, weight
  • Sometimes anxiety, self-esteem, sexism

 Measured VariablesOLI U3M3


Variables consisting of numbers that represent the conceptual variables
 Operational DefintionOLI U3M3


Precise statement of how a conceptual variable is turned into a measured variable.
 Scientific MethodOLI U3M3


Set of assumptions, rules and procedures scientists use to conduct research
 ReplicationOLI U3M3


Process of repeating previous research, which forms the basis of all scientific inquiry
 Institutional Review BoardOLI U3M3


Committee of at least 5 members whose goal it is to determine the cost-benefit ration of research conducted within an institution
 DeceptionOLI U3M3


Occurs whenever research participants are not completely and fully informed about the nature of the resaerch project before participating in it
 Informed consentOLI U3M3


Explanation of research procedures and inform the participant of his or her rights during the investigation
 DebriefingOLI U3M3


Procedure designed to fully explain the purposes and procedures of the research and remove any harmful aftereffects of participation
 Research DesignOLI U3M4


Specific method a researcher uses to collect, analyze, and interpret data
 Descriptive ResearchOLI U3M4


Research designed to provide a snapshot of the current state of affairs
 Correlational ResearchOLI U3M4


Research designed to discover relationships among variables and to allow the prediction of future events from present knowledge
 Experimental ResearchOLI U3M4


Research in which there is random assignment of research participants into two groups. 
 Case StudiesOLI U3M4


Descriptive records of one or more individuals' experiences and behavior
 SurveyOLI U3M4


A measure administered through either a face-to-face or telephone interview, or a written or computer-generated questionnaire- to get a picture of the beliefs or behaviors of a sample of people of interest.
 SampleOLI U3M4


People chosen to participate in the research
 PopulationOLI U3M4


Samples selected to be representative of all the people that the researcher wishes to know about
 Naturalistic ObservationOLI U3M4


Research based on the observation of everyday events occurring in the natural environment of people or animals
 Observer BiasOLI U3M4


When the individual observing behavior is influenced by their own experiences, expectations, or knowledge about the purpose of the observation or study
 Observer EffectOLI U3M4


Interference with or modification of the subject's behaviors by the process of observation
 Interrater ReliabilityOLI U3M4


Estimate how much agreement there is between the two observers about what the subjects were doing
 Scatter PlotOLI U3M4

Visual image of the relationship between two variables
 Linear RelationshipOLI U3M4


When the association between the variables on the scatter plot can be easily approximated with a straight line
 Pearson Correlation CoefficientOLI U3M4


Most common statistical measure of the strength or linear relationships among variable
 Common-Causal VariableOLI U3M4


Variable that is not part of the research hypothesis but that causes both the predictor and the outcome variable and thus produces the observed correlation between them
 Spurious RelationshipOLI U3M4


Relationship between two variables in which a common-causal variable produces and "explains away" the relationship
 Independent VariableOLI U3M4


causing variable that is created (manipulated) by the experimenter
 Dependent VariableOLI U3M4


Measured variable that is expected to be influenced by the experimental manipulation
 Random Assignment to ConditionsOLI U3M4


Procedure in which the condition that each participant is assigned to is determined through a random process, such as drawing numbers out of an envelope or using a random number table
 Quasi-Experimental DesignOLI U3M4


Compares two groups that already exist in the population
 Two threats to validity of researchOLI U3M4


Threats to internal- dependent variable actually may have been caused by a confounding variable
Threats to external validity- the observed effects may actually only be found under limited conditions or for specific groups of people
 Internal ValidityOLI U3M4


Extent to which we can trust the conclusions that have been drawn about the causal relationship between the independent and dependent variables
 Confounding VariablesOLI U3M4


Variables other than that independent variable on which the participants in one experimental condition differ systematically from those in other conditions
 Experimenter BiasOLI U3M4


Situation in which the experimenter subtly treats the research participants in the various experimental conditions differently, resulting in an invalid confirmation of the research hypothesis
 Double-blind experimentOLI U3M4


Both the researcher and the research participants are blind to condition
 External ValidityOLI U3M4


Extent to which the results of a research design can be generalized beyond the specific way the original experiment was conducted
 GeneralizationOLI U3M4


Extent to which relationships among conceptual variables can be demonstrated in a wide variety of people and a wide variety of manipulated or measured variables
 ReplicationOLI U3M4


Process of repeating previous research, which forms the basis of all scientific inquiry
 NeuronOLI U4M5


Nerve cell
Cell in the nervous system whose function is to receive and transmit information
 SomaOLI U4M5


Cell body that contains the nucleus of the cell and keeps the cell alive
 DendriteOLI U4M5


Treelike fiber which collects information from other cells and sends information to the soma
 AxonOLI U4M5


long-segmented fiber that transmits information away from the cell body toward other neurons or to the muscles and glands
 Myelin SheathOLI U4M5


layer of fatty tissue surrounding the axon of a neuron that both acts as an insulator and allows faster transmission of the electrical signal
 Terminal ButtonU4M5


At the tip of each axon branch; Forms junctions with other cells
 SynapsesOLI U4M5


Space between cells
 Nodes of RanvierOLI U4M5


Gaps between myelin sheaths
 Resting PotentialOLI U4M5


State in which the interior of the neuron contains a greater number of negatively charged ions that does the area outside the cell
 Action PotentialOLI U4M5


Change in electrical charge that occurs in a neuron when a nerve impulse is transmitted
 NeurotransmitterOLI U4M5


Chemical that relays signals across the synapses between neurons
 ReuptakeOLI U4M5


Process in which neurotransmitters that are in the synapse are reabsorbed into the transmitting terminal buttons
 AcetylcholineCLASS U4M5

  • Plays a role in memory and learning
  • Located in every motor neuron
  • Blocking ACh causes paralysis, like some anesthesia
  • Curare: used on hunter's dart tips
 DopamineOLI U4M5


  • movement, motivation and emotion
  • produces feelings of pleasure
 EndorphinsCLASS U4M5

  • natural opiate-like neurotransmitters, pain control & pleasure
  • Released from neurons
  • "runner's-high"
 GlutamateOLI U4M5

  • Most common neurotransmitter
  • released in more than 90% of brain's synapses
  • MSG
 SerotoninOLI U4M5

  • Involved in functions such as mood, appetite and sleep
 Brain Stem (old brain)OLI U4M6


  • Oldest/innermost region of the brain
  • controls most basic functions of life: breathing, attention, motor responses
 Medulla (older brain)OLI U4M6


Area of brain stem that controls heart rate and breathing
 Pons (older brain)OLI U4M6


  • Coordinates/controls movements of the body such as balance and walking
 Reticular FormationOLI U4M6


Neurons running through medulla and pons whose job is to filter out some of the stimuli that are coming into the brain from the spinal cord and relay the remainder of signals to other brain areas
 Thalamus (old brain)OLI U4M6


  • Egg-shaped structure sitting just above the brain stem that applies still more filtering to the sensory information coming from the spinal cord and through the reticular formation, and it relays some remaining signals to higher brain levels
 Cerebellum (old brain)OLI U4M6


  • Little brain
  • nonverbal learning and memory; voluntary movement coordination
  • 2 wrinkled ovals behind brain stem
 Limbic SystemOLI U4M6

  • Hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, pituitary gland
  • Largely responsible for memory and emotions
 AmygdalaOLI U4M6

  • 2 almond shaped clusters primarily responsible for regulating our perceptions of and reactions to aggression and fear
  • emotion regulation

 HypothalamusOLI U4M6

  • regulates body temp, hunger, thirst, sex drive
  • fight flight, feeding, sex
  • Under thalamus
 HippocampusOLI U4M6


  • important in storing information in long-term memory
 Cerebral CortexOLI/ CLASS U4M6

  • outer barklike layer of brain allowing us to successfully use langauge, acquire complex skills, create tools, and live in social groups
  • 2 Hemispheres with 4 lobes each, each separated by folds known as fissures


 CorticalizationOLI U4M6


Folding of cerebral cortex
 Glial Cells (Glia)OLI U4M6


cells that surround and link to neurons, protecting them, providing the with nutrients, and absorbing unused neurotransmitters
 Contralateral ControlOLI U4M6


General principle about how the brain is structured specifically that the brain is wired such that in most cases the left hemisphere receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa
 Frontal LobeOLI/ CLASS U4M6

  • behind forehead
  • contains motor cortex
  • thinking, planning,memory, judgment
 Parietal LobeOLI/CLASS U4M6


  • Middle to back of skull
  • sensory cortex
  • integration center
  • processes information about touch
 Occipital LobeOLI/CLASS U4M6

  • Back of Skull
  • processes visual information
 Temporal LobeOLI/CLASS U4M6


  • Between ears
  • hearing and language
 Motor CortexOLI U4M6


Part of cortex that controls and executes movements of body by sending signals to the cerebellum and spinal cord
 Somatosensory cortexOLI U4M6

  • Behind and parallel to motor cortex at back of frontal lobe
  • Receives information from skin's sensory receptors and movements of different body parts
 Visual CortexOLI U4M6


In occipital lobe
processes visual information
 Auditory CortexOLI U4M6


Located on the lower side of each hemispehre
Responsible for hearing and language
 NeuroplasticityOLI U4M6


Brain's ability to change its structure and function in response to experience or damage
 Corpus CollosumCLASS U4M6


neutral fibers that connect left and right hemisphere
helps hemispheres communicate with each other
conductive and myelated
 NeurogenesisOLI U4M6


Forming of new neurons
 Phineas GageOLI/CLASS U4M7

25-year-old railroad worker, as result of explosion, had iron rod driven into right cheek and out through top of his skull
major damage to frontal lobe

 LesionsOLI U4M7


Destroyed brain tissue
 EEGOLI U4M7


Looks at brain waves of different brain regions
time latency
 Single Unit RecordingOLI U4M7


Used on animals
 PETOLI U4M7


color coded images produced by invasive imaging technique
Not to asses time ,but where activity happens
 fMRIOLI U4M7


brain scan using magnetic field to create images of brain activity in each brain area
clear detailed pictures of structure and function
 MRICLASS u4M7


Structure
 Transcranial Magnetic StimulationOLI U4M7


apply magnetic pulses to brain and see what happens
 Central Nervous SystemOLI U4M8


  • Brain and spinal cord
  • Major controller of body's functions
 Peripheral Nervous SystemOLI U4M8


breaks down into autonomic and somatic
 Autonomic Nervous SystemOLI U4M8

Subdivision of PNS that governs internal activities of human body, including heart rate, breathing, digestion, salivation, perspiration, urination and sexual arousal
Glands and muscles of internal organs
Breaks down into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
 Somatic Nervous SystemOLI U4M8

Subdivision of PNS that controls the external aspects of the body, including skeletal muscles, skin, and sense organs
voluntary muscle control skeletal muscles
 Sympathetic NSOLI U4M8

Prepares body for rapid action in response to stress from threats or emergencies by activating the organs and glands in endocrine system
system revs into action
dilates pupil, accelerated heart beat, inhibits digestion
 Parasympathetic NSOLI U4M8


Calms body by slowing heart and breathing and allowing body to recover from activities that the sympathetic nervous system as it calms the activated organs and glands of endocrine system returning body to homeostasis
contract pupil, slow heartbeat, stimulate digestion
 HomeostasisOLI U4M8


Natural balance in body's systems
 GlandsOLI U4M8


Groups of cells that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
 HypothalamusOLI U4M8

Brain region controlling pituitary gland
 Thyroid GlandOLI U4M8


Affects metabolism, among other things
 Pituitary GlandOLI U4M8


Secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands
 ParathyroidsOLI U4M8


Help regulate level of calcium in the blood
 Adrenal GlandsOLI U4M8


Help trigger the fight-or-flight response
 PancreasOLI U4M8


Regulates the level of sugar in the blood
 OvaryOLI U4M8


Secretes female sex hormones
 TestisOLI U4M8


Secretes male sex hormones
 Endocrine SystemOLI U4M8


slowly Secretes chemical messengers called hormones that influence our emotions and behaviors
can have longer lasting effects than neurotransmitters
 Classical ConditioningOLI U6M13


Learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus that naturally produces a specific behavior


 Unconditioned StimulusOLI U6M13


Something (such as food) that triggers a natural occurring response
 Unconditioned ResponseOLI U6M13


Naturally occurring response (such as salivation) that follows the unconditioned stimulus
 Conditioned StimulusOLI U6M13


Neutral stimulus that after being repeatedly presented prior to the unconditioned stimulus, evokes a response similar to the response to the unconditioned stimulus
 ExtinctionOLI U6M13


Reduction in responding that occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus
 Spontaneous RecoveryOLI U6M13


Increase in responding to Conditioned Stimulus following a pause after extinction
 GeneralizationOLI U6M13

Tendency to respond to stimuli that resemble the original conditioned stimulus
 DiscriminationOLI U6M13


Tendency to respond differently to stimuli that are similar but not identical
 Second-Order ConditioningOLI U6M13


Existing conditioned stimulus can serve as an unconditioned stimulus for a pairing with a new conditioned stimulus
 Class diagram of ConditioningCLASS U6M13

Example: The Office

NS - sound of computer  ------------> CS - sound of computer
US - offer of altoid
UR - reaching  -------------------------> CR - reaching for altoid



 PhobiaOLI U6M13


Strong irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or stiuation
 PTSDOLI U6M13


Severe anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a fearful event, such as the threat of death
 Operant ConditioningOLI U6M14


Learning that occurs on the bases of the consequences of behavior and can involve the learning of new behaviors

 Law of EffectOLI U6M14


Principle that responses that create a typically pleasant outcome in a particular situation are more likely to occur again in a similar situation, whereas responses that produce a typically unpleasant outcome are less likely to occur again in the situation
 Skinner Box (operant chamber)OLI U6M14


Structure that is big enough to fit a rodent or bird and that contains a bar or key that the animal can press or pack to release food or water
 ReinforcerOLI U6M14


any event that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior
 Punisher 
 PunisherOLI U6M14


Any event that weakens or decreases the likelihood of a behavior
 Positive ReinforcementOLI U6M14


Add or increase pleasant stimulus to increase behavior

Ex. giving a student a prize after he gets an A on a test
 Negative ReinforcementOLI U6M14


Reduce or remove unpleasant stimulus to increase behavior

Ex. Taking painkillers that eliminate pain increases the likelihood that you will take painkillers again
 Positive PunishmentOLI U6M14


Present or add unpleasant stimulus to reduce behavior

Ex. Giving a student extra homework after she misbehaves in class
 Negative PunishmentOLI U6M14


Reduce or remove pleasant stimulus to reduce behavior

Ex. Taking away child's computer after missing curfew
 Continuous Reinforcement ScheduleOLI U6M14


Desired response is reinforced every time it occurs

Ex. Whenever a dog sits, it gets a treat
 Partial (or intermittent) Reinforcement ScheduleOLI U6M14


Schedule in which the responses are sometimes reinforced and sometimes not
 Fixed - Ratio Reinforcement ScheudleOLI U6M14


Behavior is reinforced after specific number of responses

Ex. Factory workers who are paid according to the number of products they produce
 Variable - Ratio Reinforcement ScheduleOLI U6M14


Behavior is reinforced after an average, but unpredictable number of responses

Ex. Payoffs from slot machines and other games of chance
 Fixed - IntervalOLI U6M14


Behavior is reinforced for the first response after a specific amount of time has passed

Ex. People who earn a monthly salary
 Variable - IntervalOLI U6M14


Behavior is reinforced for the first response after an average, but unpredictable, amount of time has passed

Ex. Person who checks voice mail for messages
 ShapingOLI U6M14


Process of guiding an organism's behavior to the desired outcome through the use of successive approximation to a final desired behavior
 Primary ReinforcerOLI U6M14


Stimuli that are naturally preferred or enjoyed by the organism, such as food, water, relief from pain
 Secondary Reinforcer (Sometimes called conditioned reinforcer)OLI U6M14


Neutral event that has become associated with a primary reinforcer through classical conditioning.
 John B. WatsonCLASS U6


Believed all of our behaviors are based on conditioned responses
Little albert case with rosalie rayner
 B.F. SkinnerCLASS U6


Built off Thorndike's work with Law of Effect


 5 Processes of ConditioningCLASS U6M13

Acquistion
Extinction
Spontaneous Recovery
Generalization
Discrimination
 InsightOLI U6M15


Sudden understanding of a solution to a problem
 Latent LearnignOLI U6M15


Learning that is not reinforced and not demonstrated until there is motivation to do so
 Edward Tolman (Tolman Experiment)OLI U6M15


3 hungry rats had to navigate mazes to find food
 MemoryOLI U7M16


Our capacity to acquire, store, and retrieve the information and habits that guide out behavior
 Explicit Memory (Hippocampus)OLI U7M16

Knowledge or experiences that can be consciously and intentionally remembered
 Episodic Memory (Explicit)OLI U7M16

Firsthand experiences, or episodes, that we have on a daily basis
 Semantic Memory (Explicit)OLI U7M16


Knowledge of facts and concepts about the world
 Recall TestOLI U7M16


Measure of explicit memory that involves retrieving information that has been previously learned
 Recognition Memory TestOLI U7M16



Measure of memory that involves determining whether information has been seen or learned before
 Relearning (or savings)OLI U7M16


assessing how much more quickly information is processed or learned when it is studied again after it has already been learned but then forgotten
 Implicit Memory (Cerebellum)OLI U7M16


influence of experience on behavior, even if the individual is not aware of those influences
 Procedural Memory (Implicit)OLI U7M16


Often unexplainable knowledge of how to do things
 Classical Condition Effects (Implicit)OLI U7M16


We learn often without effort or awareness to associate neutral stimuli (such as sound or light) with another stimulus (such as food), which creates a naturally occurring response, such as enjoyment or salivation.
 Priming (Implicit)OLI U7M16


Changes in behavior as a result of experiences that have happened frequently or recently
 Sensory MemoryOLI U7M16


Brief storage of sensory information
Memory buffer lasts briefly, and unless given attention, forgotten quickly
 Iconic MemoryOLI U7M16


Visual sensory memory

 Echoic MemoryOLI U7M16


Auditory Sensory Memory
 Eidetic ImageryOLI U7M16


Photographic memroy

 Short-Term MemoryOLI U7M16


Place where small amounts of information can be temporarily kept for more than a few seconds but usually for less than one mintue
 Working MemoryOLI U7M16


Process that we use to make sense of, modify, interpret, and store information in STM 
 Maintenance RehearsalOLI U7M16


Process of repeating information mentally or out loud with the goal of keeping it in memory
 ChunkingOLI U7M16


Process of organizing information into smaller groups (chunks), thereby increasing the number of items that can be held in STM
 Long-Term Memory (LTM)OLI U7M16


Memory storage that can hold information for days, months, and years
 EncodingOLI U7M16


Process by which we place our experiences into memory
 Elaborative EncodingOLI U7M16



Processing new information in ways that make it more relevant or meaningful
 Spacing EffectOLI U7M16


Fact that learning is better when the same amount of study is spread out over periods of time than it is when it occurs closer together or at the same time
 OverlearnignOLI U7M16


Continuing to practice and study even when we think that we have mastered the material
 RetrievalOLI U7M16


Process of reactivating information that has been stored in memory
 Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenonOLI U7M16


We are certain we know something that we are trying to recall but cannot quite come up with it
 Context-Dependent LearnignOLI U7M16


Increase in retrieval when the external situation in which information is learned matches the situation in which it is remembered
 State-Dependent LearningOLI U7M16


Superior retrieval of memories when the individual is in the same physiological or psychological state as during encoding
 Primacy EffectOLI U7M16


Tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented early in a list
 Recency EffectOLI U716


Tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented later in a list
 Retroactive InterferenceOLI U7M16


Learning something new impairs our ability to retrieve information learned earlier.
(New gets in the way of old)
 Proactive InterferenceOLI U7M16


Earlier learning impairs our ability to encode information that we try to learn later.
(Old gets in the way of new)
 CategoriesOLI U7M16


Networks of associated memories that have features in common with each other

Ex. Fruit
 PrototypeOLI U7M16


Member of the category that is most average or typical of the category

Ex. Apple 
 SchemasOLI U7M16


Patterns of knowledge in long-term memory that help us organize information
 Long-Term PotentiationOLI U7M17


Strengthening of the synaptic connections between neurons as result of frequent stimulation
 Period of ConsolidationOLI U7M17


Period of time in which Long term potentiation occurs and in which memories are stored
 Hippocampus with regards to learningOLI U717


Preprocessor and elaborator of information
 Cerebellum/Amygdala with regards to learningOLI U7M16


concentrating on implicit and emotional memories
 Atkinson & Shiffrin 3 stage memory model (1968)OLI U7M16


Sensory memory
short term memory
long-term memory
 Digit SpanOLI U7M16


Number storage capactiy
 Cognitive BiasesCLASS U7M17


Errors we make in memory or judgement because of the way our brains work
 Misinformation EffectCLASS U7M17


Eye witness testimony
 Source MonitoringOLI U7M17


Thinking you did something when you weren't there
 OverconfidenceCLASS U7M17


Flashbulb memory
 Generalized Intelligence FactorOLI U9M21


"g"
assessed by having person complete variety of tasks
 General IntelligenceOLI U9M21


Stanford-Binet measures this
tasks such as vocab, memory for pictures, naming familiar objects, repeating sentences, and following commands
 Crystallized IntelligenceOLI U9M21


increases with age
facts

 Fluid IntelligenceOLI U9M21


decreases with age
intelligence allow us to adapt
what comes next? abbccc____?
 Flynn EffectOLI U9M21


IQ measurements increase overtime
 StandardizationOLI U9M21


Giving a test to a large number of people of different ages and computing average score on the test at each age level
 IQOLI U9M21


IQ = Mental age / chronological age * 100
 WAIS-IVOLI U9M21


updated version of WAIS test, yielding scores on four domains: verbal, perceptual, working memory and processing speed
 ReliabilityOLI U9M21


When a person scores high on a test and assessed at different times on the test, the person will score approximately the same every time with more than 95% accuracy rate
Degree to which a test keeps producing the same or similar results over repeated testing
 ValidityOLI U9M21


Extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and corresponds accurately to the real world.
Degree to which a test or other measure of some psychological construct actually measures that construct
 Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III)OLI U9M21


adopted version of Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale for preschool children
 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV)OLI U9M21


adopted version of WAIS for older children and adolescents
 AchievementOLI U9M21


What one has already learned
 AptitudeOLI U9M21


Ability to learn
 Aptitude TestOLI U9M21


Tests designed to measure one's ability to do well in college or in post graduate training
 Normal DistributionOLI U9M22


Bell curve
 Frequency DistributionOLI U9M22


Arrangement of values to show how frequently each score appears in a group
 Triarchic (Three-Part) Theory of IntelligenceOLI U9M23


Sternberg's proposal that people may display more or less analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence
 Convergent ThinkingOLI U9M23


Thinking that is directed toward finding the correct answer to a given problem
 Divergent ThinkingOLI U9M23


Ability to generate many different ideas for or solutions to a single problem

 ExpertiseOLI U9M23


Creative people have carefully studied and know a lot about the topic they are working in. Creativity comes with a lot of hard work
 Imaginative ThinkingOLI U9M23


Creative people often view a problem in a visual way, allowing them to see it from a new and different point of view
 Risk TakingOLI U9M23


Creative people are willing to take on new but potentially risky approaches
 Intrinsic InterestOLI U9M23


Creative people tend to work on projects because they love doing them, not because they are paid for them.
 Working in a creative environmentOLI U9M23


Creativity is in part a social phenomenon. 
 Practical IntelligenceOLI U9M23


Intelligence that cannot be gained from books or formal learning
 Emotional IntelligenceOLI U9M23


Ability to accurately identify, assess, and understand emotions, as well as to effectively control one's own emotions
 Emotion RegulationOLI U9M23


Ability to control and productively use one's emotions
 Entity TheoryOLI U9M24


Belief that intelligence is determined by factors present at birth, particularly related to their genetic inheritance
 Incremental TheoryOLI U9M24


Belief that intelligence can be changed, particularly through efforts to learn and to excel
 Developmental PsychologyOLI U10M25


Physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social changes that occur throughout human life, which are guided by both genetic predispositions (nature) and environmental influences (nurture)
 Erik Erickson's Development StagesOLI U10M25


Ex's. Birth-18 mo. trust vs mistrust
12-18 identity vs role confusion
19-40 yrs intimacy vs isolation
 ConceptionOLI U10M25


When an egg from the mother is fertilized by a sperm from the father
 OvulationOLI U10M25


When an ovum, or egg (largest cell in human body), which has been stored in one of the mother's two ovaries, matures and is released into the fallopian tube
 ZygoteOLI U10M25


when 23 eggs (ova) fuse with 23 chromosomes from the sperm
 EmbryoOLI U10M25


When the zygote attaches to the wall of the uterus
 Amniotic SacOLI U10M25


Fluid-filled reservoir in which the embryo (soon to be known as a fetus) lives until birth
cushion against outside pressure and as a temperatuer regulator
 PlacentaOLI U10M25


Organ that allows the exchange of nutrients between the embryo and the mother, while at the same time filtering out harmful material
 Umbilical CordOLI U10M25


Links the embryo directly to the placenta and transfers all material to the fetus
 FetusOLI U10M25


9 weeks after conception embryo becomes this (fetus)
 TeratogensOLI U10M26


Substances that can harm the fetus
 Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)OLI U10M26


Condition caused by maternal alcohol drinking that can lead to numerous detrimental developmental effects, including limb and facial abnormalities, genital anomalies, and mental retardation
 Survival ReflexesOLI U10M27


Newborns variety of responses to environmental stimuli that appear from the first day of life and some even before birth
 AssimilationOLI U10M27


Using already developed schemas to understand new information

Ex. Child calling a zebra a horse at a zoo
 AccommodationOLI U10M27


Learning new information and thus changing the schema
 Piaget's Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentOLI U10M27


Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational
 SensorimotorOLI U10M27


Birth to about 2 years
Physical interactions babies have with objects around them
Child experiences the world through fundamental senses of seeing, hearing, touching, and tasting

Object Permanence (child's ability to know an object exists even when it cannot be perceived)
 PreoperationalOLI U10M27

2-7 years

Children acquire the ability to internally represent the world through language and mental imagery. Start to see the world from other people's perspectives

Theory of mind (ability to take anotehr person's viewpoint)
rapid increase in language ability
 Concrete OperationalOLI U10M27

7- 11 years
More frequent use of transitions, operations, and abstract concepts, including those of time, space, and numbers
Children become able to think logically. Can increasingly perform operations on objects that are only imagined

conservation (understanding that changes in the form of an object do not necessarily mean changes in the quantity of the object
 Formal OperationalOLI U10M27

11 yrs- adulthood

Adolescents can think systematically, can reason abstract concepts, and can understand ethics and scientific reasoning

Abstract Logic
 InternalizedOLI U10M27


mental processes are internalized when they take place symbolically in our minds
 ScaffoldingOLI U10M27


caregivers support the child to achieve higher cognitive levels by providing support and guidance
 Zone of Proximal DevelopmentOLI U10M27


Abilities that a child is just starting to be able to use
 Self-AwarenessOLI U10M28


child's realization that he/she is a distinct individual, whose body, mind and actions are separate from those of other people
 Self-ConceptOLI U10M28


Knowledge representation or schema that contains knowledge about ourselves, including our beliefs about our personality traits, physical characteristics, abilities, values, goals, and roles, as well as the knowledge that we exist as individuals
 Social ComparisonOLI U10M28


After children enter grade school and begin to evaluate themselves against their observations of other children
 AttachmentOLI U10M28


Emotional bonds we develop with those with whom we feel closest, and particularly the bonds an infant develops with the mother or primary caregiver
 Secure Attachment StyleOLI U10M28


child usually explores freely while the mother is present and engages with the stranger
 Ambivalent (insecure-resistant) attachment styleOLI U10M28


child is wary about the situation in general, particularly the stranger and stays close or even clings to the mother rather than exploring the toys
 Avoidant (Insecure-avoidant) attachment styleOLI U10M28


child will avoid or ignore mother showing little emotion when the mother departs or returns
 Disorganized Attachment StyleOLI U10M28


child seems to have no consistent way of coping with the stress of the strange situation - the child may cry during the separation but avoid the mother when she returns, or the child may approach the mother but then freeze or fall to the floor
 TemperamentOLI U10M28


Infant's distinctive pattern of attention, arousal and reactivity to new or novel situations
 Parenting stylesOLI U10M28


Parental behaviors that determine the nature of parent- child interactions and that guide their interaction with the child
 AuthoritarianOLI U10M28


parents are demanding but not responsive
 PermissiveOLI U10M28


Make few demands and give little punishment, but they are responsive in the sense that they generally allow their children to make their own rules
 AuthoritativeOLI U10M28


Parents are demanding, but are also responsive to the needs and opinions of the child
 Rejecting-NeglectingOLI U10M28


Parents who are undemanding and unresponsive overall
 AdolescenceOLI U10M29


Years between onset of puberty and beginning of adulthood
 PubertyOLI U10M29


developmental period in which hormonal changes cause rapid physical alterations in the body, culminating in sexual maturity

Average 9-14 years girls and 10-17 years boys
 Primary Sex CharacteristicsOLI U10M29


Sex organs concerned with reproduction

Ex. Enlarged testicles and penis (boys)
Development of ovaries, uterus, and vagina (girls)
 Secondary Sex CharacteristicsOLI U10M29


Features that distinguish two sexes from each other but are not involved in reproduction

Enlarged Adam's apple, deeper voice, pubic/underarm hair (boys)
Growing breasts, widening hips, and pubic/underarm hair (girls)
 MenarcheOLI U10M29


First menstrual period
12-13 years roughly
 SpermarcheOLI U10M29


Beginning of sperm development in boys' testicles
 Prefrontal CortexOLI U10M29


Area of brain responsible for reasoning, planning and problem solving
 MyelinOLI U10M29


Fatty tissue forms around axons and neurons and helps speed transmissions between different regions of the brain, also continues to grow
 EgocentrismOLI U10M29

Adolescents believe the can do anything and that they know better than anyone else, including parents
 Imaginary AudienceOLI U10M29


Teens feel that everyone is consistently watching them
 Role ExperimentationOLI U10M29


when adolescents "try on" different roles to determine what their identity would become
 James Marcia's Stages of Identity DevelopmentOLI U10M29

Identity-Diffusion Status
Foreclosure status
Moratorium status
Identity-achievement status
 Identity-Diffusion StatusOLI U10M29



Individual does not have firm commitments regarding the issues in question and is not making progress toward them
 Foreclosure StatusOLI U10M29


Individual has not engaged in any identity experimentation and has established identity based on the choices or values of others
 Moratorium StatusOLI U10M29


Individual is exploring various choices but has not yet made a clear commitment to any of them
 Identity-Achievement StatusOLI U10M29


Individual has attained a coherent and committed identity based on personal decisions
 Preconventional MoralityOLI U10M29


Until about age 9, children focus on self-interest. Punishment is avoided and rewards are sought
 Conventional MoralityOLI U10M29


By early adolescence child begins to care about how situational outcomes impact others and wants to please and be accepted.
People are able to value the good that can be derived from holding to social norms in form of laws or less formalized rules
 Postconventional MoralityOLI U10M29


Individuals employ abstract reasoning to justify behaviors. Moral behavior is based on self-chosen ethical principles that are generally comprehensive and universal, such as justice, dignity and equality
 MenopauseOLI U10M30


Cessation of menstrual cycle
 Social ClockOLI u10M30


culturally preferred "right time" for major life events

Ex. getting job, married, children, owning home
 Late AdulthoodOLI U10M30


Final life stage, beginning in the 60s
 DementiaOLI U10M30


Progressive neurological disease that includes loss of cognitive abilities significant enough to interfere with everyday behaviors
 Alzheimer's DiseaseOLI U10M30


Form of dementia that, over period of years, leads to loss of emotions, cognitions, and physical functioning, and is ultimately fatal
 DenialOLI U10M30


When one is dealing with death or loved one's death, not accepting the action
"I'm fine. this can't be happening; not to me"
 AngerOLI U10M30

"Why me? It's not fair!"
Mad about the fact of death
 BargainingOLI U10M30


Trying to get yourself out of death
"Just let me live to see my children graduate"
"I'd do anything for a few more years"
 DepressionOLI U10M30


Knowing your death is coming and not caring

"I'm so sad, why bother?" "I miss my loved ones-why go on?"
 AcceptanceOLI U10M30


Accepting death

"I know my time has come; it's almost my time"
 AffectOLI U11M31


Experience of feeling or emotion
Essential part of the study of psychology because it plays such an important role in everyday life
 EmotionOLI U11M31


Mental and physiological feeling state that directs our attention and guides our behavior.
 MotivationOLI U11M31


Driving force that initiates and directs behavior
 Health PsychologyOLI U11M31


Study of the interface between affect and physical health - that principle that "everything that is physiological is also psychological"
 Cannon-Bard TheoryOLI U11M31

Emotions and arousal occur at the same time
 James-Lange TheoryOLI U11M31


Experience of an emotion is the result of the arousal that we experience.
Arousal leads to emotion
 Schacter Singer two-factor theoryOLI U11M31


Arousal we experience is basically same in every emotion, and that all emotions are differentiated only by our cognitive appraisal of the source of the arousal

 Excitation TransferOLI U11M31


Phenomenon that occurs when people who are already experiencing arousal from one event tend to also experience unrelated emotions more strongly
 Basic EmotionsOLI U11M31

Anger
Disgust
Fear
Happiness
sadness
Surprise
Contempt (?)
 Cognitive AppraisalOLI U11M31


cognitive interpretations that accompany emotions
 Fast PathwayOLI U11M31


Stimulus --> Thalamus --> Amygdala --> External Response
 Slow PathwayOLI U11M31


Stimuli --> Thalamus --> Frontal Cortex --> Amygdala --> External Response
 Facial Feedback HypothesisOLI U11M31


Movement of our facial muscles can trigger corresponding emotions
 OptimismOLI U11M32

General tendency to expect positive outcomes
 Self-EfficacyOLI U11M32


Belief in our ability to carry out actions that produce desired outcomes
 HardinessOLI U11M32


Tendency to be less affected by life's stressors can be characterized as an individual difference measure that has a relationship to both optimism and self-efficacy
 Social SupportOLI U11M32

Positive social relationship with others
 Affective ForecastingOLI U11M32


People's ability to predict their future emotinoal states
 DrivesOLI U11M33


Internal states that are activated when the physiological characteristics of the body are out of balance
 GoalsOLI U11M33


Desired end states that we strive to attain
 Intrinsically MotivatedOLI U11M33


Working because you enjoy the task, they believe the task is important and they desire to do a good job
 Extrinsically MotivatedOLI U11M33


Work because you are getting a reward such as money or a praise
 InsulinOLI U11M33


Hormone secreted by the pancreas gland
 Basal Metabolic RateOLI U11M33


Amount of energy expended while at rest
 Anorexia NervosaOLI U11M33


Eating disorder characterized by low body weight, distorted by body image, obsession with exercise, and obsessive fear of gaining weight

Bradycardia (slow heart) , hypotension (low blood pressure), hypothermia, anemia (low iron)
 Bulimia NervosaOLI U11M33


Eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging

Irritation of esophogus, vitamin and mineral deficiencies
electrolyte imbalance, dehydration, acid reflux
 ObesityOLI U11M33


Medical condition in which so much excess body fat has accumulated in the body that it begins to have an adverse impact on health
 Body Mass Index (BMI)OLI U11M33


Measurement that compares on's weight and height
 Testosterone (an androgen)OLI U11M33


Main hormone responsible for arousal
 OxytocinOLI U11M33


hormone that has receive a lot of attention
Promotes closeness and bonding
 Hyperactive Sexual Desire DisorderOLI U11M33


Sex drive is so strong that it dominates life experiences
 Sexual OrientationOLI U11M33


Direction of our sexual desire toward people of the opposite sex, people of same sex, or people of both sexes
 Social PsychologyOLI U13M37


Scientific study of how we feel about, think about, and behave toward the other people around us, and how those people influence our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
 Social SituationOLI U13M37


People with whom we are interacting
 Social CognitionOLI U13M37


Part of human thinking that helps us understand and predict the behavior of ourselves and others
 AttitudesOLI U13M37


Our enduring evaluations of people or things
 Social NormsOLI U13M37


Accepted beliefs about what we do or what we should do in particular social situations
 StereotypingOLI U13M37


Tendency to attribute personality characteristics to people on the basis of their external appearance or their social group memberships
 PrejudiceOLI U13M37


Tendency to dislike people because of their appearance or group memberships
 DiscriminationOLI U13M37


Negative behaviors toward others based on prejudice
 Self-Fulfilling ProphecyOLI U13M37


When our expectations about the personality characteristics of others lead us to behave in ways that make those beliefs come true
 Social IdentityOLI U13M37


Positive emotions that we experience as a result of our group memberships
 Stereotype ThreatOLI U13M37


Concerns about conforming the expectation that they will not do well relative to individuals who belong to stereotypically high-performing groups
 Close RelationshipsOLI U13M37


The long-term intimate and romantic relationships that we develop with another person - for instance, in a marriage
 Interpersonal AttractionOLI U13M37


What makes people like, and even love, each other
 Self-DisclosureOLI U13M37


Tendency to communicate frequently, without fear or reprisal, and in an accepting and empathetic manner
 ProximityOLI U13M37


Extent to which people are physically near us
 Mere ExposureOLI U13M37


Tendency to prefer stimuli (including but not limited to people) that we have seen more frequently
 CommitmentOLI U13M37


Feelings and actions that keep partners working together to maintain the relationship and is characterized by mutual expectations that the self and the partner will be responsive to each other's needs
 Causal Attribution 
 Causal AttributionOLI U13M37


Process of trying to determine the causes of people's behavior with the goal of learning about their personalities
 Dispositional AttributionOLI U13M37


Source or cause of the behavior was due to characteristics that reside within the individual
 Situational AttributionOLI U13M37


Behavior caused primarily by the situation
 Self-Serving AttributionsOLI U13M37


Judging the causes of our own behaviors in overly positive ways
 Fundamental AttributionOLI U13M37


Common tendency to overestimate the role of dispositional factors and overlook the impact of situations in judging others
 Persuasive CommunicationsOLI U13M37


Trying to convince another person to change their mind
Emphasis on nature of message is used to reason with the person to change their mind
 Self-MonitoringOLI U13M37


Tendency to regulate behavior to meet the demands of social situations
 Self-PerceptionOLI U13M37


When we use our own behavior as a guide to help us determine our own thoughts and feelings
 Cognitive DissonanceOLI U13M37


Discomfort experienced when we choose to behave in ways that we see as inappropriate
 AltruismOLI U13M38


Any behavior that is designed to increase another person's welfare, and particularly those actions that do not seem to provide a direct reward to the person who performs them
 Reciprocal AltruismOLI U13M38


principle that if we help other people now, those others return the favor should we need their help in the future
 Social Responsibility NormOLI U13M38


We should try to help others who need assistance, even without any expectation of future paybacks
 Diffusion of ResponsiblityOLI U13M38


Occurs when we assume that others will take action and therefore we do not take action ourselves
 AgressionOLI U13M38


Behavior that is intended to harm another individual
 Displaced AggressionOLI U13M38


Agression that is directed at an object or person other than the person who caused the frustration
 CatharsisOLI U13M38


Idea that observing or engaging in less harmful aggressive actions will reduce the tendency to aggress later in a more harmful way
 DesensitizationOLI U13M38


Tendency over time to show weaker emotional responses to emotional stimuli
 Culture of HonorOLI U13M38


Social norm that condones and even encourages responding to insults with aggression
 ConformityOLI U13M38


Change in beliefs or behavior that occurs as the result of the presence of the other people around us
 Informational ConformityOLI U13M38


Conforming on belief that other people have accurate information and we want to have knowledge
 Normative ConformityOLI U13M39


Conforming to be liked by others
 Asch ExperimentOLI U13M38


Participants compare lines to original line by length and speak answer. Last person is the only real participant to see if the last person actually conforms
 ObedienceOLI U13M38


Tendency to conform to those in authority
 Minority InfluenceOLI U13M38


Smaller number of individuals is able to influence the opinions or behaviors of the larger group
 Psychological ReactanceOLI U13M38


Strong emotional reaction that leads people to resist pressures to conform
 Social FacilitationOLI U13M39


Tendency to perform tasks better or faster in the presence of others
 Social InhibitionOLI U13M39


Tendency to perform tasks more poorly or slowly in the presence of others
 Group ProcessOLI U13M39


Events that occur while the group is working on the task
 Social LoafingOLI U13M39


Group process loss that occurs when people do not work as hard in a group as they do when they are working alone
 GroupthinkOLI U13M39


Phenomenon that occurs when a group made up of members who may be very competent and thus quite capable of making excellent decisions nevertheless ends up, as a result of a flawed group process and strong conformity pressures, making a poor decision
 WellnessOLI U14M40


State of being in which a person actively maintains a proper balance of physical, mental, emotional, and social health
 BalanceOLI U14M40


Being mentally steady or emotionally stable
Having an internal state of harmony or symmetry


 External Wellness componentsOLI U14M40

Social
Occupational
Environmental
Familial

 Internal Wellness ComponentsOLI U14M40


Spiritual 
Physical
Intellectual
Emotional
 Companionate LoveOLI U14M41

Love that is based on friendship, mutual attraction, common interests, mutual respect, and concern for each other's welfare

 Mind-Body MedicineCLASS U14M42


Form of wellness that allows one to see how the mind can impact body functions
 Dialetical Behavior TherapyOLI U14M42


Therapy based on three states of mind: Reasonable, Wise, and Emotional
 Reasonable MindOLI U14M42


Taking a more intellectual approach to life
 Wise MindOLI U14M42


Overlap of reasonable and emotional mind.
People are aware of escalating emotions but have not lost touch with logic
 Emotional MindOLI U14M42


Thinking and behavior are emotionall based
 PLEASE MASTER 6 levels of self-careOLI U14M42

Treat Physical Illness
Balanced Eating
Avoid Mood-Altering Drugs
Balanced Sleep
Get Exercise
Build MASTERy
 WithdrawalOLI U14M42


Negative experiences that accompany reducing or stopping drug use, including physical pain and other symptoms
 Hans Style stated stress is ?CLASS/OLI U14M43


Nonspecific response of the body to any demand for change"

 StressOLI/CLASS U14M43


Psychological responses that occur when an organism fails to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats
 StressorsOLI U14M43


Stimuli or external events that cause a person to experience stress of any kind
 Thomas Holmes/Richard RaheOLI/CLASS U14M43


Developed a measure of some everyday life events that might lead to stress
Ex. Death of Spouse 100 pts
Marriage 50 pts
Child leaves for college 29 pts
Christmas 12 pts
 Daily HasslesOLI U14M43


Our everyday interactions with the environment that are essentially negative
 Stress Body CharacteristicsCLASS OLI U14M43


Cold extremities, tension headaches, neck pain, rapid heartbeat, shallow breath
psychological: high blood pressure and heart disease
 Hans Selye (1907-1982)OLI U14M43


Studied stress by examining how rats responded to being exposed to stressors such as shock of infection or excessive exercise
 General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)OLI/CLASS U14M43


Three distinct phases of physiological change that occur in response to long-term stress: Alarm, Resistance, and Exhaustion

 General Alarm ReactionOLI U14M43


First reaction to stress. 
Body releases stress hormones, including cortisol
 ResistanceOLI U14M43


After period of chronic stress the body adapts to the ongoing threat and tries to return to its normal functions
Glucose levels increase to sustain energy and blood pressure increases
 ExhaustionOLI U14M43


Body runs out of its reserves of energy and immunity. 
Blood sugar decrease, leading to decreased stress tolerance, progressive mental and physical exhaustion, illness, and collapse
Body's organs begin to fail, and eventually illness or death occurs
 HPA AxisOLI U14M43

Physiological response to stress involving interactions among the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands
 HPA response sequenceOLI U14M43


Hypothalamus secretes hormones that direct pituitary gland to release hormone ACTH then directs the adrenal glands to secrete more hormones, including epinephrine, non epinephrine, and cortisol
 CortisolOLI U14M43


Stress hormone that releases sugars into the blood, helping preparing body to respond to threat
 Fight-or-FlightOLI U14M43


Emotional and behavioral reaction to stress that increases the readiness for action
 Tend-and-BefriendOLI U14M43


behavioral reaction to stress that involves activities designed to create social networks that provide protection from threats
 Emotion RegulationOLI U14M43


Ability to successfully control our emotions
 Levels of StressCLASS U14M43


Catastrophe
significant life change
daily hassles
 Coping-Perceive ControlCLASS U14M43


Loss of control
can influence stress response
overcrowding
ex.pop quiz, roomates
 Coping-OutlookCLASS U14M43


Happiness and Optimism tends to lead to more perceived control
Nun-Study: positive expressors lived longer
 Coping-Social SupportCLASS U14M43


Passing the cold!
Confiding is good for you
Open heart therapy (Someone you can talk to)
 Acute PainOLI U14M44


Sudden onset and short duration
tissue damage to bones, muscles, and/or organs
 Chronic PainOLI U14M44

Lasting over three months and medical interventions may have limited success
result of medical condition or be the medical condition
Nerve damage
 Breakthrough PainOLI U14M44


Type of chronic pain that will breakthrough the effects of pain medication
prescribed medication
 Nociceptive PainOLI U14M44


Caused by tissue damage
 Neuropathic PainOLI U14M44


Caused by nerve damage
 Miscellaneous PainOLI U14M44


pain classified by location
as an ache, sharp, stabbing, throbbin
 NociceptorsCLASS U14M44


Pain receptors
 Gate Control TheoryCLASS U14M44


Fibers sent to brain
 Phantom LimbsCLASS U14M44


Chronic Pain
Agitated limb has no nerve receptors but you can still feel something (learned paralysis)

 Psychological PainCLASS U14M44


Don't remember pain in perfect detail
Memories of pain can be edited

 Social-Culture PainCLASS U14M44


Perceive pain increases when others appear to be in pain
Empathy
 Somatization DisorderOLI U14M44


Psychological disorder in which a person experiences numerous long-lasting but seeming unrelated physical ailments that have no identifiable physical cause
Joint aches, vomiting, nausea, muscle weakness, sexual dysfunction
 Conversion DisorderOLI U14M44


Psychological disorder where patients experience specific neurological symptoms such as numbness, blindness, or paralysis, but where no neurological explanation exists
 HypochondriasisOLI U14M44


Psychological disorder accompanied by excessive worry about having a serious illness
 Dialetical Behavior Therapy (DBT)OLI U14M44


Both physical and emotional pain is to be accepted as an aspect of life that all will endure
 NonacceptanceOLI U14M44


Combating the reality of pain being a presence in life
 Narcotic AnalgesicsOLI U14M44


Opium, morphine, and heroin
 AguantarOLI U14M44


Physical pain, and even emotional pain, is more self managed and pain should be faced with dignity
 MindfulnessOLI U14M45


Paying attention-without judgement- to what is happening right now, moment by moment, by moment
 Distress Tolerance SkillsOLI U14M45


Ability to be incorporated a particular type of coping skill in a given moment when experiencing a crisis
 Abnormal PsychologyOLI U15M46


Applying psychological science to our understanding and treatment of psychological disorders
 PrevalenceOLI U15M46


Frequency of occurrence of a given condition in a population at a given time
 Psychological DisorderOLI U15M46


Ongoing dysfunctional pattern of thought, emotion, and behavior that causes significant distress, and that is considered deviant in that person's culture or society
 Bio-Psycho-Social Model of IllnessOLI U15M46


A way of understanding disorder that assumes that disorders are caused by biological, psychological, and social fators
 Biological componentOLI U15M46


Influences on disorder that come from the functioning of the individual's body
 Psychological ComponentOLI U15M46


Influences that come form the individual, such as patterns of negative thinking and stress responses
 Social ComponentOLI U15M46


Influences on disorder due to social and cultural factors such as socioeconomic status, homelessness, abuse, and discrimination
 ComorbidityOLI U15M46


When people who suffer from one disorder also suffer at the same time from other disorders
 Different "Remedies" for "demons" (disorders)CLASS/OLI U15M46


Whipping, bloodletting, purges, trepanation, lobotomies, electroshock therapy, cages/restraints
 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)OLI U15M46


Document that provides a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders
5 axes
1st published in 1952
 Cluster A Personality DisordersOLI U15M46 


Odd or Eccentric

Ex. Paranoia, Schizoid, Schizotypal
 Cluster B Personality DisordersOLI U15M46


Dramatic/Erratic

Ex. Antisocial, Borderline, Narcissistic
 Cluster C Personality DisordersOLI U15M46


Anxious/Inhibited

Ex. Avoidant, Dependent, Obsessive-Compulsive
 AnxietyOLI U15M47


Nervousness or agitation that we sometimes experience, often about something that is going to happen
 Anxiety DisordersOLI U15M47


Psychological disturbances marked by irrational fears, often of everyday objects and situations
 Generalized Anxiety DisorderOLI U15M47


Psychological disorder diagnosed in situations in which a person has been excessively worrying about money, health, work, family life, or relationships for at least 6 months, even though he/she knows that the concerns are exaggerated, and when the anxiety causes significant distress and dysfunction
 Panic DisorderOLI U15M47


Psychological disorder characterized by sudden attacks of anxiety and terror that have led to significant behavioral changes in the person's life
Symptoms: shortness of breath, heart palpitations, trembling, dizziness, choking sensations, nausea, and an intense feeling of dread or impending doom
 PhobiaOLI U15M47


Specific fear of a certain object, situation, or activity
 Social PhobiaOLI U15M47


Extreme shyness around people or discomfort in social situations
 AgoraphobiaOLI U15M47


Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing, or in which help may not be available
 Obsessive-Compulsive DisorderOLI U15M47


Psychological disorder that is diagnosed when an individual continuously experiences obsessions (distressing, intrusive, or frightening thoughts), and engages in compulsions (repetitive behaviors or mental acts) in an attempt to calm these obsessions
 Posttraumatic Stress DisorderOLI U15M47


High levels of anxiety along with reexperiencing the trauma (flashbacks), and a strong desire to avoid any reminders of the event
 MoodOLI U15M48


Positive or negative feelings that are in the background of our everyday experiences
 Mood (affective) DisordersOLI U15M48


Psychological disorders in which the person's mood negatively influences his or her physical, perceptual, social, and cognitive processes
 DysthymiaOLI U15M47


Condition characterized by mild, but chronic, depressive symptoms that last for at least 2 years
 Major Depressive Disorder (clinical depression)OLI U15M48


Mental disorder characterized by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities
 Bipolar DisorderOLI U15M48


Psychological disorder characterized by swings in mood from overly "high" to sad and hopeless, and back again, with periods of near-normal mood in between
 SchizophreniaOLI U15M49


Serious psychological disorder marked by delusions, hallucinations, loss of contact with reality, inappropriate affect, disorganized speech, withdrawal, and deterioration of adaptive behavior
 PsychosisOLI U15M49


A Psychological condition characterized by a loss of contact with reality
 Schizophrenia 3 SymptomsOLI U15M49

Positive Symptoms - presence of abnormal behaviors or experiences that are not observed in normal people

Negative Symptoms - loss or deterioration of thoughts and behaviors that are typical of normal functioning

Cognitive Symptoms - changes in cognitive processes that accompany schizophrenia
 HallucinationsOLI U15M49


False sensations that occur in the absence of a real stimulus or which are gross distortions of a real stimulus
 DelusionsOLI U15M49


False beliefs not commonly shared by others within one's culture, and maintained even though they are obviously out of touch with reality
 Personality DisorderOLI U15M50


Disorder characterized by inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others that cause problems in personal, social, and work situations
 Borderline Personality DisorderOLI U15M50


Psychological disorder characterized by a prolonged disturbance of personality accompanied by mood swings, unstable personal relationships, identity problems, threats or self-destructive behavior, fears of abandonment, and impulsivity
 Antisocial Personality DisorderOLI U15M50


Pervasive pattern of violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.
 Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderOLI U15M51


Developmental behavior disorder characterized by problems with focus, difficulty maintaining attention, and inability to concentrate, in which symptoms start before 7 years of age
 Autistic Diroder (Autism)OLI U15M51


Disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior, and in which symptoms begin before 7 years of age
 Asperger's DisorderOLI U15M51


Developmental disorder that affects a child's ability to socialize and communicated effectively with others and in which symptoms begin before 7 years of age
 Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)OLI U15M52


Psychological Disorder in which two or more distinct and individual personalities exist in the same person, and there is an extreme memory disruption regarding personal information about the other personalities
 SensationCLASS


Collecting information through senses
 PerceptionCLASS


Integrating collected sense information
 Sensory AdaptationClass


Change over time in responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus
 ProprioceptionCLASS


Sense of body position and movement
 Vestibular SystemCLASS


contributes to balance
sense of spatial orientation
 McGurk EffectCLASS


Interaction with seeing/hearing
listen only
watch and listen
watch only
say words
 MemoryCLASS


Limbic System (hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus)
 Form PerceptionCLASS


Distinguishing what is important from background
 ConsciousnessCLASS


Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
 Dual ProcessingCLASS


Information can be processed consciously and subconsciously
 Inattentional BlindnessCLASS


We miss things because we are directing attention else were
 Sleep Health BenefitsCLASS


Helps us recuperate
Helps us build memories
Helps us fuel creative thinking

 YawningCLASS


Increases alertness
Socially contagious
 REMCLASS


Rapid Eye Movement
 Sleep Cycle Brain WavesCLASS

Awake, relaxed: alpha waves
stage 1 sleep
stage 2 sleep: spindle (burst of activity)
Stage 3 sleep
stage 4 sleep: delta waves
REM sleep: eye movement phase
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