Koofers

Test 2 - Flashcards

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Class:PSYC 230 - Lifespan Developmental Psychology
Subject:Psychology
University:Radford University
Term:Spring 2011
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gross motor skills : large motor movements: kicking, waving arms
fine motor skills: distal movements; close to body; none in infancy
Sucking automatically suck object placed in/near mouth -end around 3 months
Rooting infants cheek is stroked or side of mouth is touched
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Moro response when sudden loud movement or noise is made
Grasping Something touches palms, response to grab quickly
Cerebellum lose 25% of cells over lifetime -normative
parkinson’s disease accelerated loss of neurons in motor areas of the brain; loss of dopamine
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sensation information (stimuli) contacts sensory receptors
perception interpretation of sensation
habituation decreased responsiveness to stimulus (stare at something for too long get bored of it)
visual preference method used to determine if infants can distinguish between various stimuli (video examples: faces bulls eye etc)
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visual acuity + is acuteness or clearness of vision, especially form vision, which is dependent on the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye and the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain+ *loss of accomodation*
depth perception begin at 7-8 months (when baby begins to move around more)
size constancy recognition that object remains the same even though the retinal images change
shape constancy recognition that object remains the same even though the retinal image’s orientation changes
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perceptual constancy Size & shape constancy
far-sighted Cornea flattens out, becomes difficult with close tasks such as reading (age 50
far-sighted sx rubbing eyes, squinting, frustration with certain activities
dark adaptation normative - declining in: colors of green, blue, and violets, - and depth perception: falling, hip fractures
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presbyopia normative change - farsighted in older adults
visual field – increased blind spot
senile macular degeneration 4% of 66 to 74 year olds 12% of them over 75+ experience deteriation of the retina
glaucoma disease marked by hardening of the eyeball due to changes in fluid; hardening puts pressure on optic nerve; could even cause eyeball to detach -LEADING CAUSE OF BLINDNESS
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cataracts thickening of lens; distorts vision (age 50: 10% cloudy, age 70: 30% have visual loss)
otitis media middle ear infection (most children’s hearing is inadequate)
hair cells allow you to hear, as you age they break due to loud noises and contribute to hearing loss
tinnitus ringing in ears (10%)
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presbycusis age hearing loss NORMATIVE CHANGE
Piaget developed theory by observing own 3 kids; believed there are 6 processes used in constructing knowledge -unifies experiences and biology to explain knowledge
Vygotsky Children actively construct their knowledge and understanding through social interactions
Vygotsky Social contexts; minds are shaped by cultural context in which they live
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Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Vygotsky is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help.
Scaffolding social and instructional support for students learning new concepts, comparable to structures erected alongside newly constructed buildings
Schemes mental representations that organize knowledge
Assimilation stay same / ex: thinking every 4 legged animal is Milo
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Accommodation schemes broaden; recognize difference between horse and Milo
Goal for assimilation and accommodation Equilibrium
Sensorimotor Stage birth-2 yrs / construct understanding of world by coordinating sensory experience with motor like actions
Mobile Experiment string tied to baby’s foot, as baby kicks mobile moves, remove string and baby will still kick to make mobile move for up to 2 weeks / Sensorimotor stage
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Object Permanence one of infants most important accomplishments
Object Permanence develops by end of 1st stage; understanding that objects are there even when we can’t see or touch them
A not B error obj perm exmperiment : look where last saw object then give up
Preoperational stage 2-7; begin to represent world with words, images, and drawings
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Sensori & Preop Unable to perform reversible mental actions
Centration the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others / hard to move past own view point
Symbolism Representation of a concept through symbols or underlying meanings of objects or qualities
Conservation ex: inability to tell difference between liquid in glasses unable to do in peroperational
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Concrete operational stage 7-11 / begin to use concrete operations
Concrete operations internalized actions that allow children to do mentally what before they only did physically; no reversible mental actions in sensori and preop
Seriation involves stimuli along qualitative dimension (length)
Transitivity if relations hold b/w 1st and 2nd, and hold b/w 2nd and 3rd = 1 and 3
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Classification (important) concrete operational stage child understands one person can be dad, brother, grandson (ex. Family tree)
Formal operational stage move beyond concrete op. stage and think in more abstract logical ways
logical thinking f.o meaning and significance of what is observed or expressed -ability to determine if conclusion is true (formal operational stage) -replaces intuitive if applied with hands on example
Hypothetical-deductive reasoning f.o cognitive ability to develop hypothesis or best guesses, and systematically deduce the best path to follow in solving a problem
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Idealism f.o thought it full of idealism and possibilities
Private speech: 2 parts language of self-regulation – Self talk (3 to 7 years of age) – Inner talk: child’s thoughts Vygotsky
Social constructivist (approach) -emphasize social contexts of learning and construction of knowledge through social interaction (evaluating Vygotsky’s theory) Vygotsky
4 Lobes of brains frontal, parital., occiptiol, temporal
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frontal thinking, voluntary movements
parietal registers spatial location, attention motor control
occipital sight
temporal hear, language, memory
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Dendrites receive info -1st 3 years of life dvlp -*most branching will be made*
Axon carry info away
amygadla your gut
mylein sheath fatty substance that passes info (lang. and physical development) - build up during 1st 3 years of age - synapse/neruotransmitters
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1 of the 6 brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease 1.increased neurofibrillary tangles
1 of the 6 brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease 2. Increased plaques
1 of the 6 brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease 3. Increased vacuolization: “holes” get bigger
1 of the 6 brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease 4. Increased vidilation: wrinkles deepen; space between hemispheres enlarges
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1 of the 6 brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease 5. Cortical atrophy
1 of the 6 brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease 6. NTS imbalances (acetylcholine)
behaviors/symptoms: early, middle, and late stage AD • Steady decline in memory • Mood fluctuates how to distinguish b/w depression; mood always sad • Hallucinations, delusions possible • Restlessness/ agitation (sun-downers) when sun goes down, restless and agitation goes up
genetic and environmental causes of AD • AD is NOT a single disease, thus, it is unlikely that there is a single cause • Environmental views history of concussions, sleep disturbances, exposure to aluminum is no longer linked -Down syndrome -almost everyone with down syndrome develops the brain changes characteristic of AD by around 40 years
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The Nun Study Goal to determine the causes and prevention of AD, to examine mental and physical disability associated with old age. / positivity is a factor
Nun Study • a longitudinal study of aging and AD, begun in 1986, expanded in 1990 with more than 650 Nuns • The 678 participants in the Nun Study were 75 to 103 years old when the study began, average age was 85 years. • Over 85% had been teachers.
Piaget Accomplishment unifies experimentation and biology to define cognitive devlp. -new way of looking at children as active thinkers
Piaget Accomplishment -good observations (empirical support): own 3 kids – order of cognitive development appears correct (may have “set backs”
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Piaget Criticism - estimates of competence in earlier stages and later stages inaccurate -development ends in adolescence
iaget Criticism -culture not appropriately considered
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 gross motor skills : large motor movements: kicking, waving arms
 fine motor skills: distal movements; close to body; none in infancy
 Suckingautomatically suck object placed in/near mouth
-end around 3 months
 Rootinginfants cheek is stroked or side of mouth is touched
 Mororesponse when sudden loud movement or noise is made
 GraspingSomething touches palms, response to grab quickly
 Cerebellumlose 25% of cells over lifetime
-normative
 parkinson’s diseaseaccelerated loss of neurons in motor areas of the brain; loss of dopamine
 sensationinformation (stimuli) contacts sensory receptors


 perceptioninterpretation of sensation
 habituationdecreased responsiveness to stimulus (stare at something for too long get bored of it)
 visual preference methodused to determine if infants can distinguish between various stimuli (video examples: faces bulls eye etc)
 visual acuity+ is acuteness or clearness of vision, especially form vision, which is dependent on the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye and the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain+
*loss of accomodation*
 depth perceptionbegin at 7-8 months (when baby begins to move around more)
 size constancyrecognition that object remains the same even though the retinal images change


 shape constancy recognition that object remains the same even though the retinal image’s orientation changes
 perceptual constancySize & shape constancy
 far-sightedCornea flattens out, becomes difficult with close tasks such as reading (age 50
 far-sighted sxrubbing eyes, squinting, frustration with certain activities
 dark adaptationnormative
- declining in: colors of green, blue, and violets,
- and depth perception: falling, hip fractures
 presbyopia normative change
- farsighted in older adults


 visual field – increased blind spot
 senile macular degeneration 4% of 66 to 74 year olds
12% of them over 75+ experience deteriation of the retina


 glaucomadisease marked by hardening of the eyeball due to changes in fluid; hardening puts pressure on optic nerve; could even cause eyeball to detach
-LEADING CAUSE OF BLINDNESS
 cataracts thickening of lens; distorts vision
(age 50: 10% cloudy, age 70: 30% have visual loss)


 otitis mediamiddle ear infection (most children’s hearing is inadequate)
 hair cellsallow you to hear, as you age they break due to loud noises and contribute to hearing loss
 tinnitusringing in ears (10%)
 presbycusisage hearing loss NORMATIVE CHANGE
 Piagetdeveloped theory by observing own 3 kids; believed there are 6 processes used in constructing knowledge
-unifies experiences and biology to explain knowledge
 VygotskyChildren actively construct their knowledge and understanding through social interactions
 VygotskySocial contexts; minds are shaped by cultural context in which they live
 Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Vygotskyis the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help.
 Scaffoldingsocial and instructional support for students learning new concepts, comparable to structures erected alongside newly constructed buildings
 Schemesmental representations that organize knowledge
 Assimilationstay same / ex: thinking every 4 legged animal is Milo


 Accommodationschemes broaden; recognize difference between horse and Milo
 Goal for assimilation and accommodationEquilibrium
 Sensorimotor Stagebirth-2 yrs / construct understanding of world by coordinating sensory experience with motor like actions
 Mobile Experimentstring tied to baby’s foot, as baby kicks mobile moves, remove string and baby will still kick to make mobile move for up to 2 weeks /
Sensorimotor stage
 Object Permanenceone of infants most important accomplishments
 Object Permanencedevelops by end of 1st stage; understanding that objects are there even when we can’t see or touch them
 A not B errorobj perm exmperiment : look where last saw object then give up
 Preoperational stage2-7;
begin to represent world with words, images, and drawings
 Sensori & PreopUnable to perform reversible mental actions
 Centrationthe tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others / hard to move past own view point
 SymbolismRepresentation of a concept through symbols or underlying meanings of objects or qualities
 Conservationex: inability to tell difference between liquid in glasses
unable to do in peroperational
 Concrete operational stage7-11 / begin to use concrete operations
 Concrete operationsinternalized actions that allow children to do mentally what before they only did physically; no reversible mental actions in sensori and preop
 Seriationinvolves stimuli along qualitative dimension (length)
 Transitivityif relations hold b/w 1st and 2nd, and hold b/w 2nd and 3rd = 1 and 3
 Classification(important) concrete operational stage child understands one person can be dad, brother, grandson (ex. Family tree)
 Formal operational stage move beyond concrete op. stage and think in more abstract logical ways
 logical thinking f.omeaning and significance of what is observed or expressed
-ability to determine if conclusion is true (formal operational stage)
-replaces intuitive if applied with hands on example
 Hypothetical-deductive reasoning f.ocognitive ability to develop hypothesis or best guesses, and systematically deduce the best path to follow in solving a problem
 Idealism f.o thought it full of idealism and possibilities
 Private speech: 2 parts language of self-regulation
– Self talk (3 to 7 years of age)
– Inner talk: child’s thoughts Vygotsky
 Social constructivist (approach) -emphasize social contexts of learning and construction of knowledge through social interaction (evaluating Vygotsky’s theory)
Vygotsky
 4 Lobes of brainsfrontal, parital., occiptiol, temporal
 frontalthinking, voluntary movements
 parietalregisters spatial location, attention motor control
 occipitalsight
 temporalhear, language, memory
 Dendritesreceive info
-1st 3 years of life dvlp
-*most branching will be made*
 Axoncarry info away
 amygadlayour gut
 mylein sheathfatty substance that passes info (lang. and physical development) - build up during 1st 3 years of age - synapse/neruotransmitters
 1 of the 6 brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease1.increased neurofibrillary tangles
 1 of the 6 brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease 2. Increased plaques
 1 of the 6 brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease3. Increased vacuolization: “holes” get bigger
 1 of the 6 brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease4. Increased vidilation: wrinkles deepen; space between hemispheres enlarges
 1 of the 6 brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease5. Cortical atrophy
 1 of the 6 brain changes that occur in Alzheimer’s disease6. NTS imbalances (acetylcholine)
 behaviors/symptoms: early, middle, and late stage AD • Steady decline in memory
• Mood fluctuates how to distinguish b/w depression; mood always sad
• Hallucinations, delusions possible
• Restlessness/ agitation (sun-downers) when sun goes down, restless and agitation goes up
 genetic and environmental causes of AD
• AD is NOT a single disease, thus, it is unlikely that there is a single cause
• Environmental views history of concussions, sleep disturbances, exposure to aluminum is no longer linked
-Down syndrome
-almost everyone with down syndrome develops the brain changes characteristic of AD by around 40 years
 The Nun Study Goalto determine the causes and prevention of AD, to examine mental and physical disability associated with old age. / positivity is a factor
 Nun Study• a longitudinal study of aging and AD, begun in 1986, expanded in 1990 with more than 650 Nuns
• The 678 participants in the Nun Study were 75 to 103 years old when the study began, average age was 85 years.
• Over 85% had been teachers.
 Piaget Accomplishmentunifies experimentation and biology to define cognitive devlp.
-new way of looking at children as active thinkers

 Piaget Accomplishment-good observations (empirical support): own 3 kids – order of cognitive development appears correct (may have “set backs”
 Piaget Criticism- estimates of competence in earlier stages and later stages inaccurate

-development ends in adolescence
 iaget Criticism-culture not appropriately considered
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