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Test 3 - Flashcards

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Class:PSYC 4610 - Abnormal Psychology
Subject:Psychology
University:University of North Texas
Term:Fall 2012
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Psychophysiology The study of physical disorders caused or exacerrbated by stressor emotional factors
Somatoform Disorders disorders in which physical symptoms are caused by psychological factors
Cognitive appraisal an individual's perception of a potentially stressful event which weighs the events potential threat against resources available for managing the event
Stressors Stressful events, ranging from minor annoyances to traumatic esperiences
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Life events life changes, both positive and negative, that require adaptions
Social readjustment rating scale a scale used to rate stress by quantifying the amount of adaptation required by a variety of life events

Chronic stress onging stress related to difficult everyday life circumstances such as poverty or long-term family strife
daily hassles minor stresses of everyday life
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Prospective research based on data that is collected as the events being studied are occurring, rather than recalling them retrospectively
Catastrophes extreme and unusual negative events that invariably cause significant stress
Trauma an emotionally overwhelming experience in which there is a possibility of death or serious injury to oneself or a loved one
Posttraumatic stress disorder persistent debilitating anxiety symptoms occuring in the wake of a traumatic experience
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Psychophisiological disorders medical illnesses caused or exacerbated by stress
general adaptation syndrome according to some theories, a three stage response - alarm, resistance, and exhaustion- that occurs when animals(including humans) are faced with chronically stressful circumstances
psychoneuroimmunology a field that investigates the interaction between emotional phenomena and immune system functioning
Viral challenge studies studies in which research participants are deliberately exposed to an infectious agent in order to assess their immune system response
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antigens foreign substances such as viruses or bacteria, that typically trigger an immune system response
immuosuppression sub-normal functioning of the immune system
Hypertension chronically elevated blood pressure
Essential hypertension hypertension for which no physiological cause can be found
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asthma a medical condition in which the airways to and from the lungs become periodically constricted
migraine headaches painful headaches that result from the constriction of blood vessels in the cranium and are often heralded by extreme sensitivity to light and sound, dizziness, nausea, or vomiting
cancer a disease characterized by the uncontrolled growth of malignant cells in some part of the body
pessimism in cognitive terms, the tendency to make internal, global and stable explanations of negative events;associated with depression
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optimism in cognitive terms, the tendency to make external, specific, and unstable explanation  of negative events; associated with good health
Repressive coping a coping style characterized by general suppression of negative emotions
relaxation training Training people how to calm themselves by regulating their breathing and attendfing to bofdily sensatios
biofeedback training training people to attend to and partially control autonomic physiological function with the help of visual feedback
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cognitive- behavioral stress management an intervention designed to enhance or maintain adaptive coping strategies and decrease maladaptive coping strategies
Conversion disorder specific symptoms or deficits in voluntary motor or sensory functions with no physiological cause
somatization disordr recurrent gastrointestinal, sexual or pseudoneurological symptoms withour a physiological cause
pain disorder physical pain without physiological cause
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hypochondriasis preoccupation with the fear of contracting or the mistaken idea that one has a serious disease
Body dysmorphic disorder preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated defect in physical appearance
pain disorder physical pain without a physiological explanation
hyochondriasis preoccupation with the fear of contracting of the mistaken idea that one has a serious
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primary gain the relief of anxiety that occurs when an emotional conflict is converted into a physical symptom
secondary gain the desired attention and concern from others that results from the 'sick' role
Repression a defense mechanism consisting of the forgetting of painful mental content
regression a defense mechanism that involves a return to childlike behavior in order to avoid anxieties associated with progressive development
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displacement a defense mechanism in which feelings about someone or something are unconsciously  shifted onto someone or something else
Modeling learning based on observing and imitating the behavior of others; see also social/observational learning
reinforcement in operant condition theory, any reaction to a behavior that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated
amplification the anxious magnfication of minor physical sensations, such as in people with hypochondriasis
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catastrophizing cognitive term for the tendency to view mior problems as major catastrophes
exposure and response prevention a behavioral intervention in which people are encouraged to confront a frightening thought or situation and then prevented fro engaging in anxiety-reducing behaviors
cognitive restructuring therapy techniques that focus on changing irrational and problematic thoughts
auto-suggestive disorder disorder in which an individual convinces themselves thorugh a process akin to self-hypnosis, that they have lost some form of physical functioning
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dissociation a significant disruption in one's conscious experience, memory, sense of identity , or any combination of the three, without physical cause
depersonalization disorder persistent and distressing feelings of being detached from one's mind or body
dissociative amnesia psychogenic loss of ability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature
localized amnesia loss of memory for all of the events that occurred withina circumscribed period of time
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selective amnesia loss of memory for some but not all of the events fro a specific period of time
generalized amnesia loss of memory for events and information, including information pertaining to personal identity, fro the time both before and after a traumatic event
continuous amnesia loss of memory that begins at a specific time, continues through to the present and prevents the retention in memory of new experiences
systematized amnesia the loss of memory for a certain category of information
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dissociative fugue sudden and unexpected travel away from home accompanied by for getting of one's past and personal identity
dissociative identity disorder  presence of two or more distinct  personalities or identity states that recurrently control an individual's behavior
posttraumatic model a theory of dissociative identity disorder that argues that it results from traumatic childhood experiences
sociocognitive model a theory of dissociative identity disorder that argues that it is iatrogenic and or the disorder results from socially reinforced multiple role enactments
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iatrogenic a disorder unintentionally caused by a treatment
repression a defense mechanism in which specific upsetting thoughts feelings or events are pushed out of consciousness
splitting a defense mechanism in which one views oneself or others as all good or all bad in order to ward off conflicted or ambivalent feelings
identification taking on the traits of someone else; sometimes used as a defense mechanism
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self-hypnosis the ability to put oneself in a trance state; may contribute to dissociative disorders according to some experts
schema-focused cognitive therapy therapy for dissociative disorders that focuses on changing cognitive schemas that are based on traumatic childhood experiences
hippocampus a brain structure involved in the formation of memories
amygdala a brain structure which registers the emotional significance of the sensory signals and contributes to the expression of emotion
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narcosynthesis the use of medication to promote therapeutic remember; used during WWII to help soldiers remember forgotten traumatic incidents


multi-modal a treatment strategy that integrates a variety of theoretical perspectives
anorexia nervosa a disorder involving extreme thinness, often achieved through self-starvation
electolytes charged molecules that regulate nerve and muscle impulses throughout the body
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amenorrhea the cessation of the menstrual cycle
restricting type anorexia anorexia in which the individual loses weight by severely restricting food intake
binge eating purging type anorexia anorexia in which the individual loses weight by bingeing and purging
bullimia nervousa a disorder involving repeated binge eating followed by compensatory measures to avoid weight gain
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purging type bullimia bulimia in which the individual tries to avoid weight gain from binges by physically removing ingested food from her body usually through vomiting or the use of laxatives
non-purging type bulimia bulimia in which the individual tries to avoid weight gain from binges by burning off calories, usually though fasting or engaging in excessive exercise
eating disorder not otherwise specified The DSM_IV_TR diagnosis for eating behaviors which are disordered but do not meet diagnostic criteria for either anorexia or buolimia
Binge eating disorder a diagnostic category currently under study that describes recurrent episodes of binge eating not followed by compensatory behaviors
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subclinical the presence of symptoms at levels below the full diagnostic criteria for disorder
Reverse anorexia a condition usually affecting men, that involves excessive worry that muscles are too small and underdeveloped
enmeshed families in which boundaries between member are weak and relationships tend to be intrusive
identified patient the member of the family identified by the family as having problems; family system theorists see this as a manifestation of a problem in the family system, not an individual member
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Catastrophizing cognitive term for the tendency to view minor problems as major catastrophes
Endorphins brain chemicals that reduce pain and produce pleasurable sensations some times referred to as the body's natural opioids
SSRI antidepressants medications that block the reuptake of serotonin from the synapse; used in the treatment of depression and other disorders
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 PsychophysiologyThe study of physical disorders caused or exacerrbated by stressor emotional factors
 Somatoform Disordersdisorders in which physical symptoms are caused by psychological factors
 Cognitive appraisalan individual's perception of a potentially stressful event which weighs the events potential threat against resources available for managing the event
 StressorsStressful events, ranging from minor annoyances to traumatic esperiences
 Life eventslife changes, both positive and negative, that require adaptions
 Social readjustment rating scalea scale used to rate stress by quantifying the amount of adaptation required by a variety of life events

 Chronic stressonging stress related to difficult everyday life circumstances such as poverty or long-term family strife
 daily hasslesminor stresses of everyday life
 Prospectiveresearch based on data that is collected as the events being studied are occurring, rather than recalling them retrospectively
 Catastrophesextreme and unusual negative events that invariably cause significant stress
 Traumaan emotionally overwhelming experience in which there is a possibility of death or serious injury to oneself or a loved one
 Posttraumatic stress disorderpersistent debilitating anxiety symptoms occuring in the wake of a traumatic experience
 Psychophisiological disordersmedical illnesses caused or exacerbated by stress
 general adaptation syndromeaccording to some theories, a three stage response - alarm, resistance, and exhaustion- that occurs when animals(including humans) are faced with chronically stressful circumstances
 psychoneuroimmunologya field that investigates the interaction between emotional phenomena and immune system functioning
 Viral challenge studiesstudies in which research participants are deliberately exposed to an infectious agent in order to assess their immune system response
 antigensforeign substances such as viruses or bacteria, that typically trigger an immune system response
 immuosuppressionsub-normal functioning of the immune system
 Hypertensionchronically elevated blood pressure
 Essential hypertensionhypertension for which no physiological cause can be found
 asthmaa medical condition in which the airways to and from the lungs become periodically constricted
 migraine headachespainful headaches that result from the constriction of blood vessels in the cranium and are often heralded by extreme sensitivity to light and sound, dizziness, nausea, or vomiting
 cancera disease characterized by the uncontrolled growth of malignant cells in some part of the body
 pessimismin cognitive terms, the tendency to make internal, global and stable explanations of negative events;associated with depression
 optimismin cognitive terms, the tendency to make external, specific, and unstable explanation  of negative events; associated with good health
 Repressive copinga coping style characterized by general suppression of negative emotions
 relaxation trainingTraining people how to calm themselves by regulating their breathing and attendfing to bofdily sensatios
 biofeedback trainingtraining people to attend to and partially control autonomic physiological function with the help of visual feedback
 cognitive- behavioral stress managementan intervention designed to enhance or maintain adaptive coping strategies and decrease maladaptive coping strategies
 Conversion disorderspecific symptoms or deficits in voluntary motor or sensory functions with no physiological cause
 somatization disordrrecurrent gastrointestinal, sexual or pseudoneurological symptoms withour a physiological cause
 pain disorderphysical pain without physiological cause
 hypochondriasispreoccupation with the fear of contracting or the mistaken idea that one has a serious disease
 Body dysmorphic disorderpreoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated defect in physical appearance
 pain disorderphysical pain without a physiological explanation
 hyochondriasispreoccupation with the fear of contracting of the mistaken idea that one has a serious
 primary gainthe relief of anxiety that occurs when an emotional conflict is converted into a physical symptom
 secondary gainthe desired attention and concern from others that results from the 'sick' role
 Repressiona defense mechanism consisting of the forgetting of painful mental content
 regressiona defense mechanism that involves a return to childlike behavior in order to avoid anxieties associated with progressive development
 displacementa defense mechanism in which feelings about someone or something are unconsciously  shifted onto someone or something else
 Modelinglearning based on observing and imitating the behavior of others; see also social/observational learning
 reinforcementin operant condition theory, any reaction to a behavior that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated
 amplificationthe anxious magnfication of minor physical sensations, such as in people with hypochondriasis
 catastrophizingcognitive term for the tendency to view mior problems as major catastrophes
 exposure and response preventiona behavioral intervention in which people are encouraged to confront a frightening thought or situation and then prevented fro engaging in anxiety-reducing behaviors
 cognitive restructuringtherapy techniques that focus on changing irrational and problematic thoughts
 auto-suggestive disorderdisorder in which an individual convinces themselves thorugh a process akin to self-hypnosis, that they have lost some form of physical functioning
 dissociationa significant disruption in one's conscious experience, memory, sense of identity , or any combination of the three, without physical cause
 depersonalization disorderpersistent and distressing feelings of being detached from one's mind or body
 dissociative amnesiapsychogenic loss of ability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature
 localized amnesialoss of memory for all of the events that occurred withina circumscribed period of time
 selective amnesialoss of memory for some but not all of the events fro a specific period of time
 generalized amnesialoss of memory for events and information, including information pertaining to personal identity, fro the time both before and after a traumatic event
 continuous amnesialoss of memory that begins at a specific time, continues through to the present and prevents the retention in memory of new experiences
 systematized amnesiathe loss of memory for a certain category of information
 dissociative fuguesudden and unexpected travel away from home accompanied by for getting of one's past and personal identity
 dissociative identity disorder presence of two or more distinct  personalities or identity states that recurrently control an individual's behavior
 posttraumatic modela theory of dissociative identity disorder that argues that it results from traumatic childhood experiences
 sociocognitive modela theory of dissociative identity disorder that argues that it is iatrogenic and or the disorder results from socially reinforced multiple role enactments
 iatrogenica disorder unintentionally caused by a treatment
 repressiona defense mechanism in which specific upsetting thoughts feelings or events are pushed out of consciousness
 splittinga defense mechanism in which one views oneself or others as all good or all bad in order to ward off conflicted or ambivalent feelings
 identificationtaking on the traits of someone else; sometimes used as a defense mechanism
 self-hypnosisthe ability to put oneself in a trance state; may contribute to dissociative disorders according to some experts
 schema-focused cognitive therapytherapy for dissociative disorders that focuses on changing cognitive schemas that are based on traumatic childhood experiences
 hippocampusa brain structure involved in the formation of memories
 amygdalaa brain structure which registers the emotional significance of the sensory signals and contributes to the expression of emotion
 narcosynthesisthe use of medication to promote therapeutic remember; used during WWII to help soldiers remember forgotten traumatic incidents


 multi-modala treatment strategy that integrates a variety of theoretical perspectives
 anorexia nervosaa disorder involving extreme thinness, often achieved through self-starvation
 electolytescharged molecules that regulate nerve and muscle impulses throughout the body
 amenorrheathe cessation of the menstrual cycle
 restricting type anorexiaanorexia in which the individual loses weight by severely restricting food intake
 binge eating purging type anorexiaanorexia in which the individual loses weight by bingeing and purging
 bullimia nervousaa disorder involving repeated binge eating followed by compensatory measures to avoid weight gain
 purging type bullimiabulimia in which the individual tries to avoid weight gain from binges by physically removing ingested food from her body usually through vomiting or the use of laxatives
 non-purging type bulimiabulimia in which the individual tries to avoid weight gain from binges by burning off calories, usually though fasting or engaging in excessive exercise
 eating disorder not otherwise specifiedThe DSM_IV_TR diagnosis for eating behaviors which are disordered but do not meet diagnostic criteria for either anorexia or buolimia
 Binge eating disordera diagnostic category currently under study that describes recurrent episodes of binge eating not followed by compensatory behaviors
 subclinicalthe presence of symptoms at levels below the full diagnostic criteria for disorder
 Reverse anorexiaa condition usually affecting men, that involves excessive worry that muscles are too small and underdeveloped
 enmeshedfamilies in which boundaries between member are weak and relationships tend to be intrusive
 identified patientthe member of the family identified by the family as having problems; family system theorists see this as a manifestation of a problem in the family system, not an individual member
 Catastrophizingcognitive term for the tendency to view minor problems as major catastrophes
 Endorphinsbrain chemicals that reduce pain and produce pleasurable sensations some times referred to as the body's natural opioids
 SSRI antidepressantsmedications that block the reuptake of serotonin from the synapse; used in the treatment of depression and other disorders
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