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Test #4 - Flashcards

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Class:PSYC 104 - General Psychology
Subject:Psychology (PSYC)
University:University of Kansas
Term:Fall 2013
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3 factors that lead to "abnormal" behaivor
  • Distress
  • Disability
  • Deviance
Distress

Personal strain or difficulty,

*anything that causes you to be distressed, such as anxiety, depression, and hearing voices that tell you bad things about yourself

Disability

An impairment in the ability to function caused by thoughts and emotions

*being so depressed you stay in bed all day

Deviance

behaviors that depart from a cultural norm

*hallucinations is considered abnormal in American because of our culture but that might not be the case in other countries

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders

DSM for short

a book listing al behaviors that are recognized as psychiatric disorders

Exorcism A treatment for abnormal behavior n which prayers or punisments are used to drive demons out
Hippocrates Physician in ancient Greece who proposed that abnormal behavior were caused by imbalances I humors in the body
Humors Fluids in the body that were believed to cause abnormal behaviors when they were out of balance
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Phillip Pinel An early French physician who released psychiatric patients from their chains, ad began treating the patients humanely
Dorothea Dix An English school teacher who founded over 32 mental hospitals
Psychodynamic explanation the view that abnormal behavior is caused by stress and should be treated with psychotherapy
Psychotherapy treatment where an individual talks to a mental health professional and tries to eliminate or learn to be able to cope with stress
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Learning explanation

the view that abnormal behavior is learned and should be treated through extinction or relearning (behavior therapy)

*classic and operant conditioning

Behavior therapy An approach to treatment that is based on the principals of learning and in which the focus is on changing behaviors rather than underlying causes
cognitive explanation The view that abnormal behavior is caused by incorrect beliefs and should be treated with cognitive therapy
Cognitive therapy An approach to treatment where the individual eliminates incorrect beliefs and thereby changed behaivors
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Physiological explanation The view that abnormal behavior is caused by problems with brain functionings
drug therapy the use of drugs to change levels of neurotransmitters and thereby change behaviors
anxiety disorders a group of disorders (phobias, generalized anxiety, panic, port-traumatic stress, and obsessive compulsive disorder) where the major symptom in anxiety
phobia an irrational fear
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claustrophobia fear of small spaces
agorphobia a fear of being in a public place from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing if the individual suddenly becomes anxious
social phobia an irrational fear of being criticized by others
Specific Phobia All irrational fears other than agoraphobia and social phobia
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Systematic Desensitization a treatment for phobias in which the individual is taught to relax and then the relaxation is paired with the phobias stimulus, blocking the fear response
generalized anxiety disorder a disorder that involves persuasive anxiety that lasts for at least a month and which is not associated with any particular stimulus
inhibitory neurons neurons that reduce the activity of other neurons in the brain. In the case of generalized anxiety disorder they inhibit neurological activity that leads to anxiety
GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid) the neurotransmitter that is released by inhibitory neurons
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panic disorder a disorder that involves a sudden onset of intense anxiety tht only lasts for a few minutes
respiratory control center a cluster on neirons in the brain stem that monitors CO2 levels in the blood, can send false alarms suffocation that lead to panics
serotonin a neurotransmitter which inhibits activity in the respiratory control center. Low levels can also cause the obsessive0complusive disorder, cause depression, and lead to impulsivity
posttraumatic stress disorder

a disorder that involves the re-experiencing of a previous traumatic event "flashbacks"

 

 

 

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obsessive compulsive disorder

OCD

  a disorder that involves obsessions and/or compulsions

Obsessions Persistent thoughts or images that an individual cannot get out of his/her mind
Compulsions senseless behaviors that are performed repeatedly
exposure with response prevention a treatment for the obsessive-compulsive disorder in which the individual is exposed to the situation that triggers the ritual but is not allowed to perform the ritual
Generated by Koofers.com
somatization disorder

a somatoform disorder I which individuals have numerous somatic complaints

  • pains
  • loss of touch
  • double vision
  • urinary problems

No physical causes can be found

hypochondruas a somatoform disorder I which individuals report pains for which physical causes cannot be found
somatoform disorder Disorders when the individual reports symptoms of a physical disorder but a physical cause for the symptoms cannot be found
Pain Disorder a somatoform disorder n which individuals report pains for which physical causes cannot be found
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conversion disorder a somatoform disorder where the individual reports major symptoms involving motor or sensory functions (blindness, paralysis)
Body dysmorphic disorder

a somatoform disorder in which individuals have excessive concern about imagined or minor defects in physical appearance

 

Must be traumatic and make the person avoid going abot normal day tasks because of the physical issue

three factors that can form somatoform disorders
  1. suggestion- hearing about somebody else with the disorder, and misinterpret normal sensations as the disorder
  2. Stress- leads to headaches and high heart rate which can be misinterpreted as somatoform issues
  3. A high level of sensitivity to bodily sensations- very sensitive people who notice small natural issues (headaches, muscle pains etc) that other people normally would not and they take it as a disorder
dissociative disorders

Disorders in which the individual separates themselves from periods of times in their lives or aspects of their personality that they, or others,  find threatening

Example- getting raped (dissociative amnesia) r blocking out when you act promiscuously

 

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dissociative amnesia

a dissociative disorder where the individuals lose their memory for periods of time in which stressful event occurred

  • due to the physiological blocking out of an experience

Ex. rape, war, etc.

Dissociative Fugue

a dissociative disorder where the individuals lose their memory for their entire preceding life, move, and assume a whole new identity

  • no evidence to support existence
  • easy to fake

 

Dissociative identity disorder

develop two or more separate personalities, used to be called multiple personality disorder

  • professor does not believe in this
  • huge debate whether it is real or not
Depersonalization Disorder a dissociative disorder where the individuals report feeling like they are not attached to their body and/or mind

They can watch themselves as if they are a different person looking in

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Mood Disorders disorders that involve extremes of mood that range from depression to mania
  • Depressive Disorder
  • Bipolar disorder
Depressive Disorder mood disorder that involves deep depression, feelings of worthlessness, loss of interest in activities, change in appearance, problems with sleep, and loss of energy.
Dysthymic Disorder A mild form of the depressive disorder
Social Support Help and advice provided by others that can help reduce depression

  • mainly if depression is stress related
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aerobic exercise such as jogging, cycling, and swimming that can reduce depression

  • mainly if depression is stress related
norepinephrine a neurotransmitter, low levels of which can cause depression
hypothalamus a structure in the brain that plays a role in controlling ones mood (as well as their appetite, sex, and sleep)
tryptophan a substance which is converted into serotonin in the body. It is contained in foods such as dairy products and turkey/
Generated by Koofers.com
Left prefrontal Cortex the thin layer of neurons that cover the left-forward part of the frontal lobes, play a role in thinking and depression
reuptake the process where neurotransmitters are absorbed by the synaptic neuron before they cross the synaptic gap
SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  • drugs that reduce depression by blocking the reuptake of serotonin, making more available at the synapse
stimulants drugs such as amphetamines that can increase the production of neurotransmitters and thereby reduce depression
Generated by Koofers.com
St. john's wort an herbal medicine that may be effective for treating depression
ECT electroconvulsive Therapy the use of electric shocks to the brain that reduce depression
"Shock Therapy"

Transcranial magnetic stimulation electromagnetics are used to stimulate neurons on the left side of the brain to treat depression
Light Therapy The use of a bright light used to treat depression with a seasonal pattern (getting more depressed in the winter due to the lack of light)
Generated by Koofers.com
Postpartum Therapy occurs shortly after woman give birth

Bipolar Disorder Mood Disorder- individuals go through cycles of mania and depression - previously called the manic-depessive disorder
Lithium Drug used to treat bipolar disorder
Anticonvulsant drugs drugs originally used to treat epilepsy but can be used to treat bipolar disorder as well
Generated by Koofers.com
Suicide Voluntarily ending one's own life
Covert Suicides suicides that are disguised as accidents
Suicide Gestures Behaivors which apear to be suicidal but which are not really designed to kill the individual
  • overdosing, but not enough
  • cutting oneself
Schizophrenia a serious disorder involving symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions and disruptions of thought processes
Generated by Koofers.com
Hallucinations sensory experiences that do not have the basis in reality
Anything that affects the senses
  • seeing things (monks)
  • smelling things (Flesh)
  • hearing things (Insults)
Delusions bizarre Beliefs that are held despite overwhelming evidence inthe contrary
  • Cops
  • Ticker Tape (believing it was running across her head but never seeing it)
cognitive flooding The inability to screen out irrelevant stimuli
disturbed thought process problems with the thought process, usually results from distractions
Generated by Koofers.com
Inappropriate emotional response depression or mania as a result of schizoprenia
Decline in intellectual functioning poor cognitive functioning seen in people with schizophrenia that results from the disruption caused by other symptoms
Positive symptoms

symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations, delusions and disrupted cognitive processes

 

can be cured, not resulting in brain damage

negative symptoms

symptoms of schizophrenia such as apathy and poverty of thought

 

Often has to do with brain damage

Generated by Koofers.com
dopamine a neurotransmitter in the nerve tracts that carries stimulation to the cortex; high levels lead to symptoms of schizophrenia
season of birth effect the fact that persons with schizophrenia are more likely to have been born in January, February or March.
some causes of schizophrenia

Both high levels of neurological activity and low levels of neurological activity can result in schizophrenia

 

low levels usually result with structural errors in the brain, such as deterioration (found in amygdala and hippocampus)

prenatal period period when biological trauma can occur before birth
Generated by Koofers.com
perinatal period during or shortly after birth when biological traumas can occur
Biologiccal traumas diseases or accidents that influence brain develepment
neuroleptics drugs that are used to treat schizophrenia
tardive dyskinesia a disorder involving involuntary muscle contractions; can be a side effect of taking too much of the early neurleptics
Generated by Koofers.com
atypical neuroleptics newer drugs that are generally more successful and much less likely to cause tardive dyskinesia
psychoeducation a treatment where the patient and their family are taught about the disease aand how to live and cope with it
prefrontal lobotomy a surgical procedure that seperates and destroys the frontal lobes of the brain by a knife being inserted through the holes in the skull
transorbital lobotomy a surgical procedure that separates or destroys the frontal lobes of your brain by inserting a knife through your eye sockets
Generated by Koofers.com
ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder- symptoms revolve around the inability to maintain attention and/or excessive amounts of physical activity
Autistic disorder a disorder that is apparent shortly after birth and is characterized by serious problems with social interactions, communication, and repeated behavior patterns
aversive procedures severe punishments, such as mild electric shocks, that are used to control potentially dangerous symptoms in children with autism
personality disorders

disorders that fall somewhere between normal adjustments and the severe disorders (schizophrenia)

Generated by Koofers.com
List of personality disorders
  • paranoid
  • schizoid
  • schizotypal
  • borderline
  • histrionic
  • narcississtic
  • avoidant
  • antisocial
  • OCD
antisocial personality disorders symptoms revolve around the lack of anxiety that would ordinarily inhibit inappropriate behaviors
incompetence to stand trial a trial is postponed if the individual cannot understand the charges or participate for their defense
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 3 factors that lead to "abnormal" behaivor
  • Distress
  • Disability
  • Deviance
 Distress

Personal strain or difficulty,

*anything that causes you to be distressed, such as anxiety, depression, and hearing voices that tell you bad things about yourself

 Disability

An impairment in the ability to function caused by thoughts and emotions

*being so depressed you stay in bed all day

 Deviance

behaviors that depart from a cultural norm

*hallucinations is considered abnormal in American because of our culture but that might not be the case in other countries

 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders

DSM for short

a book listing al behaviors that are recognized as psychiatric disorders

 ExorcismA treatment for abnormal behavior n which prayers or punisments are used to drive demons out
 HippocratesPhysician in ancient Greece who proposed that abnormal behavior were caused by imbalances I humors in the body
 HumorsFluids in the body that were believed to cause abnormal behaviors when they were out of balance
 Phillip PinelAn early French physician who released psychiatric patients from their chains, ad began treating the patients humanely
 Dorothea DixAn English school teacher who founded over 32 mental hospitals
 Psychodynamic explanationthe view that abnormal behavior is caused by stress and should be treated with psychotherapy
 Psychotherapytreatment where an individual talks to a mental health professional and tries to eliminate or learn to be able to cope with stress
 Learning explanation

the view that abnormal behavior is learned and should be treated through extinction or relearning (behavior therapy)

*classic and operant conditioning

 Behavior therapyAn approach to treatment that is based on the principals of learning and in which the focus is on changing behaviors rather than underlying causes
 cognitive explanationThe view that abnormal behavior is caused by incorrect beliefs and should be treated with cognitive therapy
 Cognitive therapyAn approach to treatment where the individual eliminates incorrect beliefs and thereby changed behaivors
 Physiological explanationThe view that abnormal behavior is caused by problems with brain functionings
 drug therapythe use of drugs to change levels of neurotransmitters and thereby change behaviors
 anxiety disordersa group of disorders (phobias, generalized anxiety, panic, port-traumatic stress, and obsessive compulsive disorder) where the major symptom in anxiety
 phobiaan irrational fear
 claustrophobiafear of small spaces
 agorphobiaa fear of being in a public place from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing if the individual suddenly becomes anxious
 social phobiaan irrational fear of being criticized by others
 Specific PhobiaAll irrational fears other than agoraphobia and social phobia
 Systematic Desensitizationa treatment for phobias in which the individual is taught to relax and then the relaxation is paired with the phobias stimulus, blocking the fear response
 generalized anxiety disordera disorder that involves persuasive anxiety that lasts for at least a month and which is not associated with any particular stimulus
 inhibitory neuronsneurons that reduce the activity of other neurons in the brain. In the case of generalized anxiety disorder they inhibit neurological activity that leads to anxiety
 GABA(gamma-amino butyric acid) the neurotransmitter that is released by inhibitory neurons
 panic disordera disorder that involves a sudden onset of intense anxiety tht only lasts for a few minutes
 respiratory control centera cluster on neirons in the brain stem that monitors CO2 levels in the blood, can send false alarms suffocation that lead to panics
 serotonina neurotransmitter which inhibits activity in the respiratory control center. Low levels can also cause the obsessive0complusive disorder, cause depression, and lead to impulsivity
 posttraumatic stress disorder

a disorder that involves the re-experiencing of a previous traumatic event "flashbacks"

 

 

 

 obsessive compulsive disorder

OCD

  a disorder that involves obsessions and/or compulsions

 ObsessionsPersistent thoughts or images that an individual cannot get out of his/her mind
 Compulsionssenseless behaviors that are performed repeatedly
 exposure with response preventiona treatment for the obsessive-compulsive disorder in which the individual is exposed to the situation that triggers the ritual but is not allowed to perform the ritual
 somatization disorder

a somatoform disorder I which individuals have numerous somatic complaints

  • pains
  • loss of touch
  • double vision
  • urinary problems

No physical causes can be found

 hypochondruasa somatoform disorder I which individuals report pains for which physical causes cannot be found
 somatoform disorderDisorders when the individual reports symptoms of a physical disorder but a physical cause for the symptoms cannot be found
 Pain Disordera somatoform disorder n which individuals report pains for which physical causes cannot be found
 conversion disordera somatoform disorder where the individual reports major symptoms involving motor or sensory functions (blindness, paralysis)
 Body dysmorphic disorder

a somatoform disorder in which individuals have excessive concern about imagined or minor defects in physical appearance

 

Must be traumatic and make the person avoid going abot normal day tasks because of the physical issue

 three factors that can form somatoform disorders
  1. suggestion- hearing about somebody else with the disorder, and misinterpret normal sensations as the disorder
  2. Stress- leads to headaches and high heart rate which can be misinterpreted as somatoform issues
  3. A high level of sensitivity to bodily sensations- very sensitive people who notice small natural issues (headaches, muscle pains etc) that other people normally would not and they take it as a disorder
 dissociative disorders

Disorders in which the individual separates themselves from periods of times in their lives or aspects of their personality that they, or others,  find threatening

Example- getting raped (dissociative amnesia) r blocking out when you act promiscuously

 

 dissociative amnesia

a dissociative disorder where the individuals lose their memory for periods of time in which stressful event occurred

  • due to the physiological blocking out of an experience

Ex. rape, war, etc.

 Dissociative Fugue

a dissociative disorder where the individuals lose their memory for their entire preceding life, move, and assume a whole new identity

  • no evidence to support existence
  • easy to fake

 

 Dissociative identity disorder

develop two or more separate personalities, used to be called multiple personality disorder

  • professor does not believe in this
  • huge debate whether it is real or not
 Depersonalization Disordera dissociative disorder where the individuals report feeling like they are not attached to their body and/or mind

They can watch themselves as if they are a different person looking in

 Mood Disordersdisorders that involve extremes of mood that range from depression to mania
  • Depressive Disorder
  • Bipolar disorder
 Depressive Disordermood disorder that involves deep depression, feelings of worthlessness, loss of interest in activities, change in appearance, problems with sleep, and loss of energy.
 Dysthymic DisorderA mild form of the depressive disorder
 Social SupportHelp and advice provided by others that can help reduce depression

  • mainly if depression is stress related
 aerobic exercisesuch as jogging, cycling, and swimming that can reduce depression

  • mainly if depression is stress related
 norepinephrinea neurotransmitter, low levels of which can cause depression
 hypothalamusa structure in the brain that plays a role in controlling ones mood (as well as their appetite, sex, and sleep)
 tryptophana substance which is converted into serotonin in the body. It is contained in foods such as dairy products and turkey/
 Left prefrontal Cortexthe thin layer of neurons that cover the left-forward part of the frontal lobes, play a role in thinking and depression
 reuptakethe process where neurotransmitters are absorbed by the synaptic neuron before they cross the synaptic gap
 SSRIselective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  • drugs that reduce depression by blocking the reuptake of serotonin, making more available at the synapse
 stimulantsdrugs such as amphetamines that can increase the production of neurotransmitters and thereby reduce depression
 St. john's wortan herbal medicine that may be effective for treating depression
 ECT electroconvulsive Therapythe use of electric shocks to the brain that reduce depression
"Shock Therapy"

 Transcranial magnetic stimulationelectromagnetics are used to stimulate neurons on the left side of the brain to treat depression
 Light TherapyThe use of a bright light used to treat depression with a seasonal pattern (getting more depressed in the winter due to the lack of light)
 Postpartum Therapyoccurs shortly after woman give birth

 Bipolar DisorderMood Disorder- individuals go through cycles of mania and depression - previously called the manic-depessive disorder
 LithiumDrug used to treat bipolar disorder
 Anticonvulsant drugsdrugs originally used to treat epilepsy but can be used to treat bipolar disorder as well
 SuicideVoluntarily ending one's own life
 Covert Suicidessuicides that are disguised as accidents
 Suicide GesturesBehaivors which apear to be suicidal but which are not really designed to kill the individual
  • overdosing, but not enough
  • cutting oneself
 Schizophreniaa serious disorder involving symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions and disruptions of thought processes
 Hallucinationssensory experiences that do not have the basis in reality
Anything that affects the senses
  • seeing things (monks)
  • smelling things (Flesh)
  • hearing things (Insults)
 Delusionsbizarre Beliefs that are held despite overwhelming evidence inthe contrary
  • Cops
  • Ticker Tape (believing it was running across her head but never seeing it)
 cognitive floodingThe inability to screen out irrelevant stimuli
 disturbed thought processproblems with the thought process, usually results from distractions
 Inappropriate emotional responsedepression or mania as a result of schizoprenia
 Decline in intellectual functioningpoor cognitive functioning seen in people with schizophrenia that results from the disruption caused by other symptoms
 Positive symptoms

symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations, delusions and disrupted cognitive processes

 

can be cured, not resulting in brain damage

 negative symptoms

symptoms of schizophrenia such as apathy and poverty of thought

 

Often has to do with brain damage

 dopaminea neurotransmitter in the nerve tracts that carries stimulation to the cortex; high levels lead to symptoms of schizophrenia
 season of birth effectthe fact that persons with schizophrenia are more likely to have been born in January, February or March.
 some causes of schizophrenia

Both high levels of neurological activity and low levels of neurological activity can result in schizophrenia

 

low levels usually result with structural errors in the brain, such as deterioration (found in amygdala and hippocampus)

 prenatal periodperiod when biological trauma can occur before birth
 perinatal periodduring or shortly after birth when biological traumas can occur
 Biologiccal traumasdiseases or accidents that influence brain develepment
 neurolepticsdrugs that are used to treat schizophrenia
 tardive dyskinesiaa disorder involving involuntary muscle contractions; can be a side effect of taking too much of the early neurleptics
 atypical neurolepticsnewer drugs that are generally more successful and much less likely to cause tardive dyskinesia
 psychoeducationa treatment where the patient and their family are taught about the disease aand how to live and cope with it
 prefrontal lobotomya surgical procedure that seperates and destroys the frontal lobes of the brain by a knife being inserted through the holes in the skull
 transorbital lobotomya surgical procedure that separates or destroys the frontal lobes of your brain by inserting a knife through your eye sockets
 ADHDAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder- symptoms revolve around the inability to maintain attention and/or excessive amounts of physical activity
 Autistic disordera disorder that is apparent shortly after birth and is characterized by serious problems with social interactions, communication, and repeated behavior patterns
 aversive proceduressevere punishments, such as mild electric shocks, that are used to control potentially dangerous symptoms in children with autism
 personality disorders

disorders that fall somewhere between normal adjustments and the severe disorders (schizophrenia)

 List of personality disorders
  • paranoid
  • schizoid
  • schizotypal
  • borderline
  • histrionic
  • narcississtic
  • avoidant
  • antisocial
  • OCD
 antisocial personality disorderssymptoms revolve around the lack of anxiety that would ordinarily inhibit inappropriate behaviors
 incompetence to stand triala trial is postponed if the individual cannot understand the charges or participate for their defense
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