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Test 3 ch. 8-10 - Flashcards

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Class:PSYCH 306 - HUMAN SEXUAL BEH
Subject:PSYCHOLOGY
University:Clemson University
Term:Fall 2010
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___ is your subjective sense of being a man or a woman. gender identity
___ combinations of chromosomes result in girls. XX
____ combinations of chromosomes result in boys. XY
Men with one or more extra X chromosomes is _____ syndrome Klinefelter's
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Women with only one X chromosome have ____ syndrome Turner's
Unless there are high levels of _____ at this critical stage of prenatal development, nature has programmed the body to develop into a _____. Testosterone; girl
an individual with a mismatch between genetic and anatomical sex is called _____. intersexuals
Individuals that feel that they are trapped inside a body of the wrong sex have ____. gender dysphoria
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Persons whose gender identity does not match their biological sex are said to have _____. gender identity disorder (transsexuals)
____ theory emphasizes unconscious identification with the parent of the same sex. Freudian
____ theory emphasizes the role of reinforcement and imitation. Social learning
Cognitive-developmental theory states that children do not acquire the concept of _____ until the age of ____. gender consistency; 6 or 7
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____ are norms about the behaviors and attitudes of men and women. gender roles
____ theory says that psychological sex differences that are a result of reproductive pressures over time. evolutionary (sociobiological)
____ emphasizes the role of the environment or social context in influencing the way gender roles develop over the life span. sociocultural
Masculinity and femininity are viewed as ___ constructs today. independent
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___ Theory says that a person can be both masculine and feminine and that it is the healthiest. androgyony
When children cognitively organize the world according to gender, they create gender ___. schemas
Children raised in single-parent households tend to be more ____ than children raised in two parent households. androgynous
TRUE/FALSE
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Transgendered and transsexual mean the same thing false
Hormone levels around the time of birth alter brain anatomy to be either male or female. true
By the age of 3, children know whether they are a boy or girl, but do not understand that this can't change. true
In the absence of testosterone during embryonic development, we would all be born anatomically a girl. true
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Fathers tend to treat their children in more gender-stereotypic ways than mothers true
According to sociocultural theory, the way to change gender roles is not the retain individ. but to restructure the social enviro. true
transsexual is a term for a type of homosexual false
according to social learning theory, imitation is a process by which children may learn gender identity and gender roles true
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the rise of industrialization helped create the male gender role of being independent and unemotional. true
gender role is the way you express your gender identity. true
the most common cause of pseudohermaphroditism in men is androgen insensitivity syndrome. true
Men's and Women's hypothalamuses are different. true
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a transsexual is someone who crossdresses for sexual arousal. false
children do not show gender stereotyped behavior until they have developed gender constancy false
a recent study found that young children view gender in dualistic terms, but as they grow older they view it as unidimensional. true
there is little noticeable difference btwn the behavior of boys and girls before the age of 2. true
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MATCHING
Tom believes he is a woman, but is anatomically a man and does not want sex reassignment surgery. gender dysphoric gender identity disorder hermaphrodite
bob is low in instrumental orientation ("getting the job done") and has great affective concern for the welfare of others. "feminine" on Bem Sex-Role inventory
Frank prefers men as sexual partners. homosexual
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Susan cannot reproduce; she is short and infertile and has one X chromosome. Turner's syndrome
Joe is neither instrumental nor expressive, neither assertive nor emotional. undifferentiated individual
David's body did not respond to testosterone during prenatal develop.; he has female genitalia and undescended testes. androgen insensitivity syndrome intersexual pseudohermaphrodite
Definition
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Sam was born with a very small penis that looked like a clitoris, an incomplete scrotum, and a short closed vaginal cavity. At puberty his voice depended, his testicles descended, and his "clitoris" became a penis. androgen insensitivity syndrome DHT-deficient individual intersexual pseudohermaphrodite
wayne is both instrumental and expressive, assertive and emotional. androgynous individual
phillip believes he is a woman trapped in a male body and wishes to have sex reassignment surgery. gender dysphoric gender identity disorder transsexual
Carol has an enlarged clitoris and labia because of too much masculinizing hormone during her fetal development. adrenogenital syndrome intersexual pseudohermaprodite
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Mike believes that men should be assertive, aggressive, success-oriented, and unemotional, and play a role in housekeeping and child-care responsibilities. stereotyped individual
Harold is tall, with long arms; he has a small penis, shrunken testicles, low sexual desire, and an extra x chromosome. Klinefelter's syndrome
Barbara is genetically a woman, but has both male and female reproductive systems as a result of the failure of her primitive gonads to differentiate during the embryonic stage. hermaphrodite intersexual
A child's knowledge that his or her sex does not change is called ___ in cognitive-developmental theory. gender consistancy
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According to Cancian, gender roles for men and woman did not start to differ until the ___. 1800's (when the US and other countries became industrialized)
According to ___ theory, an individual's gender role results from society's expectations of male and female behavior. sociocultural
According to Freud, children acquire the gender identity of the same-sex parent through the process of ___. identification
The process of internalizing society's beliefs is called ____. socialization
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Oversimplified, rigid beliefs that all members of a particular sex have distinct behavioral and emotional characteristics are called ___. stereotypes
On Bem's Sex-Role Inventory, a person who scores low on both dimensions is called ___. undifferentiated
If an individual scores high on both the femininity dimension and the masculine dimension of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, he or she would be called ___. androgynous
Money and Ehrhardt stated, "Nature's rule is, it would appear, that to masculinize, something must be added." That something is ____. testosterone
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___ Cross dress for sexual arousal and gratification, where as ____ cross-dress because they truly believe they are members of the opposite sex. transvestites; transsexuals
In social learning explanations of gender identity development, when children watch their mothers and fathers and copy them, it is called ___. imitation
The ___ view of gender-role development holds that biological influences establish predetermined limits to the effects of cultural influences. biological determinism
According to Bem, masculine is to instrumental as feminine is to ____. expressive
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According to Kagan, boys and girls behaviors do not differ at the age of ___. 2
Some languages classify all nouns as either masculine or feminine. This is an example of ___. gender schema
The presence of ___ shortly before and after birth changes the brain to male anatomy. testosterone
Among early North American indian tribes, a ___ was a highly respected man who cross-dressed and assumed the behaviors of a woman. two sprit
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According to freud, children acquire their gender identity in the ___ stage of psychosexual development. phallic
CHAPTER 9 Definition
Sexual orientation is defined as ___ constantly made after adolescence in the presence of clear alternatives. distinct preferences
Recent surveys indicate that ___% of the adult male pop. and ___ % of the female pop. have a homosexual orientation. 2.5- 3 % 1-2 %
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A true bisexual would have a rating of ____ on Kinsey's 7-point rating scale. 2,3, or 4
The ___ of the vas majority of homosexuals and bisexuals are just as strong and consistent with their anatomical sex as among heterosexuals. gender identities
Conformity or non conformity with gender ___ does not always predict one's sexual orientation. roles
Psychoanalytic explanations state that heterosexuality is the "normal" outcome that homosexuality results from problems in resolving the ___ complex. oedipus
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___ regards homosexuality and heterosexuality as learned behaviors social learning theory
In the ___ society in Melanesia, all boys engage in same sex sexual behaviors for many years, yet a large majority grow up to be heterosexual. Sambian
Studies with twins indicate a ___ factor, while anatomical studies have found differences in the __ of heterosexuals and homosexuals. genetic brains
Many researchers believe that differences in ___ before or shortly after we are born predispose us to a particular sexual orientation. hormones
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nearly all agree that biological and social/cultural influences ___ to produce sexual orientation. interact
Anthropologists find that most societies are ___ tolerant of homosexuality than prevailing attitudes in the US more
The ___ and ___ accepted homosexuality, as did early christians. ancient Greeks Romans
It was not until Saint ___ that homosexuality came to be viewed as unnatural or "against the laws of nature" Thomas Aquinas
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The process of ___, or identifying oneself as homosexual, involves several often painful stages. coming out
The first stage is ___. admitting to oneself that one has a homosexual orientation
Gaining acceptance is difficult in a society filled with ___, socially reinforced negative attitudes towards homosexuality. sexual predjuice
TRUE/FALSE Definition
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In some cultures, same-sex sexual behavior is considered normal for boys during adolescence. true
Homosexuals usually act and/or dress differently from heterosexuals. false
bisexuals are people who are afraid to admit to themselves their real homosexuality false
most homosexuals are unhappy with their sexual orientation and would like to become heterosexual. false
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a homosexual orientation indicates a gender identity problem. false
A male homosexual can be made heterosexual by administering large doses of testosterone. false
people who have had same-sex sexual experiences are by definition homosexual in orientation. false
women who have had same sex sexual relations are more likely to be bisexual than homosexual. true
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Freud believed that all people were capable of becoming either heterosexual or homosexual, depending on their early childhood experiences. true
Researchers have found a higher rate of concordance for homosexuality btwn identical twins than btwn nonidentical twins. true
A bisexual is anyone who has had sex with both men and women. false
Recent studies support kinsey's findings that 10% of american men are homosexual. false
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Many homosexuals and bisexuals have gender dysphoria. false
most lesbians have not had pleasurable sexual relations with men false
extremely effeminate (sissy) boys always develop a homosexual orientation. false
if one identical twin is homosexual, the other twin always is too. false
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studies have found that areas of the hypothalamus (in the brain) are different in male heterosexuals and homosexuals. true
Most homosexuals adopt a single role (masculine or feminine) in their relationships false
children raised by openly homosexual parents are more likely to develop a homosexual orientation than children raised by heterosexual parents. false
Same sex sexual experiences before age 15 are a good predictor of adult sexual orientation. false
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MATCHING Definition
Henry has had a few same sex sexual experiences, but has had sex with only women since he turned 15 ten years ago. probably heterosexual
Joyce has been married and enjoyed sexual relations with her husband, but now prefers relations with women. probably homosexual
Frank has had sex with both men and women not enough info.
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Michael believes he is a woman and has had sex with only men. probably transsexual
Carl sometimes enjoys sex with women but prefers sexual relations with men probably homosexual
Tom is 12 years old and his few sexual experiences have been exclusively with boys his age. not enough info.
Alice enjoys sex with men most of the time, but she often enjoys sex with women as well probably bisexual
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Diane has had sex with only men, but occasionally has homosexual fantasies. probably heterosexual
Matthew occasionally goes to bathhouses and lets other men give him oral-genital sex. not enough info.
Mary's gender identity is not consistent with her anatomical sex. probably transsexual
Steve is 19 years old and his only sexual experiences have been with women, but all his sexual fantasies are about men. probably homosexual
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FILL IN THE BLANK Definition
In this book, sexual orientation is defined as distinct preferences consistently made after ___ in the presence of clear alternatives. adolescence
Researchers believe that hormones may affect sexual orientation during which time of life? __ before or shortly after birth
According to the chapter, biological factors probably __ individuals to a particular sexual orientation. predispose
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The four stages of the coming out process. 1. admitting a homosexual orientation to oneself 2. getting to know other homosexuals 3. telling family and friends of one's sexual orientation 4. complete openness about one's homosexuality.
Name four nonliving homosexuals who made significant contributions to humankind. Socrates, Leonardo da Vinci, Michaelangelo, Gertrude Stein, Walt Whitman
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 ___ is your subjective sense of being a man or a woman. gender identity
 ___ combinations of chromosomes result in girls. XX
 ____ combinations of chromosomes result in boys.XY
 Men with one or more extra X chromosomes is _____ syndromeKlinefelter's
 Women with only one X chromosome have ____ syndromeTurner's
 Unless there are high levels of _____ at this critical stage of prenatal development, nature has programmed the body to develop into a _____.Testosterone; girl
 an individual with a mismatch between genetic and anatomical sex is called _____. intersexuals
 Individuals that feel that they are trapped inside a body of the wrong sex have ____. gender dysphoria
 Persons whose gender identity does not match their biological sex are said to have _____. gender identity disorder (transsexuals)
 ____ theory emphasizes unconscious identification with the parent of the same sex. Freudian
 ____ theory emphasizes the role of reinforcement and imitation.Social learning
 Cognitive-developmental theory states that children do not acquire the concept of _____ until the age of ____.gender consistency; 6 or 7
 ____ are norms about the behaviors and attitudes of men and women. gender roles
 ____ theory says that psychological sex differences that are a result of reproductive pressures over time. evolutionary (sociobiological)
 ____ emphasizes the role of the environment or social context in influencing the way gender roles develop over the life span.sociocultural
 Masculinity and femininity are viewed as ___ constructs today. independent
 ___ Theory says that a person can be both masculine and feminine and that it is the healthiest. androgyony
 When children cognitively organize the world according to gender, they create gender ___. schemas
 Children raised in single-parent households tend to be more ____ than children raised in two parent households.androgynous
 TRUE/FALSE 
 Transgendered and transsexual mean the same thingfalse
 Hormone levels around the time of birth alter brain anatomy to be either male or female. true
 By the age of 3, children know whether they are a boy or girl, but do not understand that this can't change. true
 In the absence of testosterone during embryonic development, we would all be born anatomically a girl.true
 Fathers tend to treat their children in more gender-stereotypic ways than motherstrue
 According to sociocultural theory, the way to change gender roles is not the retain individ. but to restructure the social enviro. true
 transsexual is a term for a type of homosexualfalse
 according to social learning theory, imitation is a process by which children may learn gender identity and gender rolestrue
 the rise of industrialization helped create the male gender role of being independent and unemotional.true
 gender role is the way you express your gender identity.true
 the most common cause of pseudohermaphroditism in men is androgen insensitivity syndrome. true
 Men's and Women's hypothalamuses are different.true
 a transsexual is someone who crossdresses for sexual arousal. false
 children do not show gender stereotyped behavior until they have developed gender constancyfalse
 a recent study found that young children view gender in dualistic terms, but as they grow older they view it as unidimensional.true
 there is little noticeable difference btwn the behavior of boys and girls before the age of 2. true
 MATCHING 
 Tom believes he is a woman, but is anatomically a man and does not want sex reassignment surgery. gender dysphoric
gender identity disorder
hermaphrodite
 bob is low in instrumental orientation ("getting the job done") and has great affective concern for the welfare of others."feminine" on Bem Sex-Role inventory
 Frank prefers men as sexual partners.homosexual
 Susan cannot reproduce; she is short and infertile and has one X chromosome.Turner's syndrome
 Joe is neither instrumental nor expressive, neither assertive nor emotional.undifferentiated individual
 David's body did not respond to testosterone during prenatal develop.; he has female genitalia and undescended testes.androgen insensitivity syndrome
intersexual
pseudohermaphrodite
  Definition
 Sam was born with a very small penis that looked like a clitoris, an incomplete scrotum, and a short closed vaginal cavity. At puberty his voice depended, his testicles descended, and his "clitoris" became a penis.androgen insensitivity syndrome
DHT-deficient individual
intersexual
pseudohermaphrodite
 wayne is both instrumental and expressive, assertive and emotional.androgynous individual
 phillip believes he is a woman trapped in a male body and wishes to have sex reassignment surgery.gender dysphoric
gender identity disorder
transsexual
 Carol has an enlarged clitoris and labia because of too much masculinizing hormone during her fetal development.adrenogenital syndrome
intersexual
pseudohermaprodite
 Mike believes that men should be assertive, aggressive, success-oriented, and unemotional, and play a role in housekeeping and child-care responsibilities. stereotyped individual
 Harold is tall, with long arms; he has a small penis, shrunken testicles, low sexual desire, and an extra x chromosome. Klinefelter's syndrome
 Barbara is genetically a woman, but has both male and female reproductive systems as a result of the failure of her primitive gonads to differentiate during the embryonic stage.hermaphrodite
intersexual
 A child's knowledge that his or her sex does not change is called ___ in cognitive-developmental theory. gender consistancy
 According to Cancian, gender roles for men and woman did not start to differ until the ___.1800's (when the US and other countries became industrialized)
 According to ___ theory, an individual's gender role results from society's expectations of male and female behavior.sociocultural
 According to Freud, children acquire the gender identity of the same-sex parent through the process of ___. identification
 The process of internalizing society's beliefs is called ____. socialization
 Oversimplified, rigid beliefs that all members of a particular sex have distinct behavioral and emotional characteristics are called ___.stereotypes
 On Bem's Sex-Role Inventory, a person who scores low on both dimensions is called ___.undifferentiated
 If an individual scores high on both the femininity dimension and the masculine dimension of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, he or she would be called ___. androgynous
 Money and Ehrhardt stated, "Nature's rule is, it would appear, that to masculinize, something must be added." That something is ____.testosterone
 ___ Cross dress for sexual arousal and gratification, where as ____ cross-dress because they truly believe they are members of the opposite sex. transvestites; transsexuals
 In social learning explanations of gender identity development, when children watch their mothers and fathers and copy them, it is called ___.imitation
 The ___ view of gender-role development holds that biological influences establish predetermined limits to the effects of cultural influences. biological determinism
 According to Bem, masculine is to instrumental as feminine is to ____.expressive
 According to Kagan, boys and girls behaviors do not differ at the age of ___.2
 Some languages classify all nouns as either masculine or feminine. This is an example of ___. gender schema
 The presence of ___ shortly before and after birth changes the brain to male anatomy.testosterone
 Among early North American indian tribes, a ___ was a highly respected man who cross-dressed and assumed the behaviors of a woman.two sprit
 According to freud, children acquire their gender identity in the ___ stage of psychosexual development. phallic
 CHAPTER 9Definition
 Sexual orientation is defined as ___ constantly made after adolescence in the presence of clear alternatives.distinct preferences
 Recent surveys indicate that ___% of the adult male pop. and ___ % of the female pop. have a homosexual orientation.2.5- 3 %
1-2 %
 A true bisexual would have a rating of ____ on Kinsey's 7-point rating scale.2,3, or 4
 The ___ of the vas majority of homosexuals and bisexuals are just as strong and consistent with their anatomical sex as among heterosexuals.gender identities
 Conformity or non conformity with gender ___ does not always predict one's sexual orientation. roles
 Psychoanalytic explanations state that heterosexuality is the "normal" outcome that homosexuality results from problems in resolving the ___ complex. oedipus
 ___ regards homosexuality and heterosexuality as learned behaviorssocial learning theory
 In the ___ society in Melanesia, all boys engage in same sex sexual behaviors for many years, yet a large majority grow up to be heterosexual.Sambian
 Studies with twins indicate a ___ factor, while anatomical studies have found differences in the __ of heterosexuals and homosexuals. genetic
brains
 Many researchers believe that differences in ___ before or shortly after we are born predispose us to a particular sexual orientation. hormones
 nearly all agree that biological and social/cultural influences ___ to produce sexual orientation. interact
 Anthropologists find that most societies are ___ tolerant of homosexuality than prevailing attitudes in the US more
 The ___ and ___ accepted homosexuality, as did early christians. ancient Greeks
Romans
 It was not until Saint ___ that homosexuality came to be viewed as unnatural or "against the laws of nature"Thomas Aquinas
 The process of ___, or identifying oneself as homosexual, involves several often painful stages. coming out
 The first stage is ___. admitting to oneself that one has a homosexual orientation
 Gaining acceptance is difficult in a society filled with ___, socially reinforced negative attitudes towards homosexuality. sexual predjuice
 TRUE/FALSEDefinition
 In some cultures, same-sex sexual behavior is considered normal for boys during adolescence. true
 Homosexuals usually act and/or dress differently from heterosexuals.false
 bisexuals are people who are afraid to admit to themselves their real homosexualityfalse
 most homosexuals are unhappy with their sexual orientation and would like to become heterosexual.false
 a homosexual orientation indicates a gender identity problem.false
 A male homosexual can be made heterosexual by administering large doses of testosterone.false
 people who have had same-sex sexual experiences are by definition homosexual in orientation.false
 women who have had same sex sexual relations are more likely to be bisexual than homosexual. true
 Freud believed that all people were capable of becoming either heterosexual or homosexual, depending on their early childhood experiences.true
 Researchers have found a higher rate of concordance for homosexuality btwn identical twins than btwn nonidentical twins.true
 A bisexual is anyone who has had sex with both men and women.false
 Recent studies support kinsey's findings that 10% of american men are homosexual.false
 Many homosexuals and bisexuals have gender dysphoria.false
 most lesbians have not had pleasurable sexual relations with menfalse
 extremely effeminate (sissy) boys always develop a homosexual orientation. false
 if one identical twin is homosexual, the other twin always is too. false
 studies have found that areas of the hypothalamus (in the brain) are different in male heterosexuals and homosexuals. true
 Most homosexuals adopt a single role (masculine or feminine) in their relationshipsfalse
 children raised by openly homosexual parents are more likely to develop a homosexual orientation than children raised by heterosexual parents. false
 Same sex sexual experiences before age 15 are a good predictor of adult sexual orientation.false
 MATCHINGDefinition
 Henry has had a few same sex sexual experiences, but has had sex with only women since he turned 15 ten years ago.probably heterosexual
 Joyce has been married and enjoyed sexual relations with her husband, but now prefers relations with women. probably homosexual
 Frank has had sex with both men and womennot enough info.
 Michael believes he is a woman and has had sex with only men.probably transsexual
 Carl sometimes enjoys sex with women but prefers sexual relations with menprobably homosexual
 Tom is 12 years old and his few sexual experiences have been exclusively with boys his age.not enough info.
 Alice enjoys sex with men most of the time, but she often enjoys sex with women as well probably bisexual
 Diane has had sex with only men, but occasionally has homosexual fantasies. probably heterosexual
 Matthew occasionally goes to bathhouses and lets other men give him oral-genital sex.not enough info.
 Mary's gender identity is not consistent with her anatomical sex.probably transsexual
 Steve is 19 years old and his only sexual experiences have been with women, but all his sexual fantasies are about men. probably homosexual
 FILL IN THE BLANKDefinition
 In this book, sexual orientation is defined as distinct preferences consistently made after ___ in the presence of clear alternatives.adolescence
 Researchers believe that hormones may affect sexual orientation during which time of life? __before or shortly after birth
 According to the chapter, biological factors probably __ individuals to a particular sexual orientation.predispose
 The four stages of the coming out process.1. admitting a homosexual orientation to oneself
2. getting to know other homosexuals
3. telling family and friends of one's sexual orientation
4. complete openness about one's homosexuality.
 Name four nonliving homosexuals who made significant contributions to humankind.Socrates, Leonardo da Vinci, Michaelangelo, Gertrude Stein, Walt Whitman
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