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Test 3 - Flashcards

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Class:PSYCH 306 - HUMAN SEXUAL BEH
Subject:PSYCHOLOGY
University:Clemson University
Term:Fall 2010
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your subjective sense of being a man or woman gender identity
measures the amount of masculinity and femininity within an individual’s gender role Bem Sex-Role Inventory
a person who has high scores on both dimensions of the inventory Androgynous
scored low on both dimensions undifferentiated
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the way you express your gender identity gender role
oversimplified, rigid beliefs that members of a sex have distinct behavioral, psychological, and emotional characteristics gender role stereotypes
a combo of male and female anatomical features, or in which chromosomal sex is inconsistent with anatomical sex intersexual
XX chromosomes girls
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XY chromosomes boys
men with one or more extra X chromosomes Klinefelter’s Syndrome
women with only one X chromosome Turner’s Syndrome
Unless there are high levels of __ during development, nature has programmed the body to develop into a __ testosterone; girl
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___ around the time of birth alter brain anatomy to be either male or female hormone levels
born with both male and female reproductive systems hermaphroditism
born with proper set of gonads for chromosome pattern but external genitalia are ambiguous or opposite sex Pseudohermaphroditism
Adrenogenital syndrome most common cause for Pseudohermaphroditism in females; adrenal glands secrete too much masculinizing hormone during fetal development
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• Adrogen insensitivity syndrome most common cause for Pseudohermaphroditism in males; testicles secrete normal amounts of testosterone, but body tissues do not respond to it; clitoris, short vagina, and labia develop
DHT deficiency syndrome testosterone not converted into dihydrotestosterone, which is necessary for proper formation of external genitals; form of Pseudohermaphroditism; Very small penis, incomplete scrotum, undecended testicles, and short vaginal cavity
constructive element of social relationships based on perceived differences between sex gender
biological influences are believed to set predetermined limits to the effects of cultural influences Biological determinism
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intense distress with anatomy; gender identity does not match biological sex Gender dysphoria
adult whose gender identity does not match his or her biological sex transsexual
Criteria for gender identity disorder: • Behaviors that indicate identification with the opposite gender • Behaviors that indicated discomfort with one’s own anatomy and gender roles
theory that emphasizes unconscious identification with parent of the same sex Freudian theory o Children acquire the gender identity of the same-sex parent through identification o Oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage o Children acquire gender identity in the phillis stage
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theory that emphasizes the role of reinforcement and imitation social learning theory
a process by which children may learn gender identity and gender roles by watching others in their sex imitation
theory with concept of male or female learned by observing others (males with dads, females with moms) Cognitive-developmental theory
major developments of Cognitive-developmental theory o Girl and boy act the same before age 2 o Child’s idea of gender is concrete based on physical cues by age 3 o Do not have understanding of gender constancy until age 6 or 7
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knowledge that one’s gender is constant and will not change Gender constancy
norms about the behaviors and attitudes of men and women gender roles
theory that says psychological differences between men/women are inherent due to reproductive pressures faced over years evolutionary theory
theory that emphasizes role of environment or social context in influencing the way gender roles develop over the life span Sociocultural theory
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theory that includes belief the way to change gender roles is not to retrain but to restructure the social environment sociocultural theory
theory that says individual’s gender role results from society’s expectations of male and female behavior Sociostructural theory
theory of androgyny a person can be both masculine and feminine; healthiest of all gender roles
Socialization internalizing society’s beliefs
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Gender schema children organize the world according to gender; a set of ideas about gender roles that children create from their interactions with their environment
___ treat children in more gender-stereotypic way fathers
Children raised in single-parent households are more likely to become __ androgynous
causes of developmental gender difference (evolutionary theory) adaptive value; function of childhood is to develop competencies that will aid them in reproduction and survival as adults
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causes of developmental gender difference (sociocultural theory) social structure that leads to psychological sex differences
Rise of ___ helped create the male gender role of being independent and unemotional industrialization
Young children view gender in __ terms but as they grow old they view gender as a __ construct dualistic; unidimensional
Sexual orientation distinct preference for sexual partners of a particular sex in the presence of clear alternatives
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Homosexual – sexual orientation primarily to members of same sex
Bisexual – sexual orientation toward both men and women
Women are more likely to be __ than __ bisexual; homosexual
__ of adult male population and __ of adult female population have a homosexual orientation 2.5%, 3.0%
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___ of majority of homosexuals and bisexuals are just as strong and consistent with their anatomical sex as heterosexuals gender identity
Conformity or nonconformity with gender roles does not always predict one’s ___ sexual orientation
Biological, psychological, and social/cultural influence interact to produce ___ sexual orientation
___ probably predispose an individual to a particular sexual orientation biological factors
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___ believed that people were capable of becoming heterosexual/homosexual, depending on childhood Freud
social learning theory learned behaviors; Homosexuals would be expected to have had good or rewarding experiences with same-sex individuals and bad experiences with members of opposite sex
If person’s first experiences are with individual of the same sex, there is a greater chance of that person’s orientation to be __ homosexual
In Sambian society, all boys engage in same sex behaviors for years yet the majority are __ heterosexual
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biological explanations: genetic factor higher level of coordinance between identical twins
biological explanations: Anatomical factors differences between the brains (areas of the hypothalamus) between male heterosexuals and homosexuals
biological explanations: Hormones (and the prenatal environment) before or shortly after we are born predispose us to a particular sexual orientation
Most societies are ___ of homosexuality than the United States more tolerant
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four stages of coming out • Admitting - Admitting to oneself that one has a homosexual or bisexual orientation • Meeting - Get to know other homosexuals (ends sense of isolation) • Telling - Tells family and friends of his or her sexual orientation • Openness - Complete openness about one’s homosexuality or bisexuality
sexual prejudice socially reinforced negative attitudes toward individuals, communities, and homosexual behaviors
Early Infancy (ages 0-1) • Begin to touch all parts of body to explore and seek pleasure • Male fetuses have erections while in the uterus • May stimulate self sexually
Early Childhood (Ages 2-6) • Peak in curiosity about their bodies • Will play games to allow for sexual exploration o Limited to viewing and touching genitals • Way parents respond is very important o Reaction is a reflection of their own sexuality
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Initial School-Age Years (Ages 7-11) • Children develop sense of modesty • Freud referred to these years as the tatency stage of psychosexual development • Boys allowed more freedom to explore their sexuality than girls • Curiosity about sex does not fade; many children ask parents about sex
Puberty (Ages 7-15) • Puberty is the time of life when we first show sexual attraction and become capable of reproduction • First show sexual attraction around age 10 • Changing hormone levels
two parts to puberty o Adrenarche and Gonadarche
Secondary sex characteristics o Changes create psychological changes in the way children think about themselves and others
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puberty changes in girls Development of breast buds (age 11.2), Pubic hair and underarm hair, Sweat glands and sebaceous glands develop; body odor and acne, Menarche – first menstrual period
menarche first menstrual period
the average age of the menarche is ___ declining
cause: development of breast buds increase in estrogen
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cause: pubic hair and underarm hair testosterone increase
cause: sweat glands and sebaceous glands developing testosterone increase
cause: menarche increase in FSH and LH
boys are __ years behind girls in development 2
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changes in boys o Growth of testicles and scrotum (age 11-12) o Growth of penis, prostate gland, and seminal vesicles o Gynecomastia o Pubic hairs o Underam and facial hair do not appear until 2 years later o Development of sebaceous and sweat glands o Deepening of voice (age 12 to 13)
capable of ejaculation ____ after penis begins to grow one year
nocturnal emission (puberty) wet dream; first experience many boys have with ejaculation
Gynecomastia – many boys develop temporarily enlarged breasts during puberty
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cause: gynecomastia increase in estrogen
cause: pubic hairs increase in testosterone
cause: deepening of voice increase in testosterone
precocious puberty when sexual development begins before the age of 8 in females and 9 in males • Girls as young as 6 or 7 have given birth
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delayed puberty when characteristics begin late
Adolescence (ages 13-17) • The time of life between puberty and adulthood
most important issue during adolescence self-identity
masturbation during adolescense o First experience with orgasm for many people o Accompanied by sexual fantasies o Safe and healthy sexual outlet for teenagers
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necking any other physical contact other than below the waist
petting noncoital sexual contact below the waist
__ of American high school students have engaged in sexual intercourse half
Most girls __ experience pain during first sexual intercourse do not
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Multiple reasons for engaging in sex during adolescence – sexual pleasure, desire for intimacy and increase in social status
Men tend to engage in casual sex to __ test their virility
First intercourse of adolescence usually within ___ romantic relationship
Peer pressure – group’s expectations of how you are supposed to behave
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Need for ___ is important part of finding self-identity for adolescent girls emotional intimacy
many adolescent girls mistake ____ for emotional intimacy sexual intimacy
Emerging adulthood extended period of being a single adult that occurs between adolescence and adulthood
Sexual activity is different than younger and older age groups in the __ stage emerging adulthood; (hooking up, serial monogamy)
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__ was the norm for most adults aged 25 and older Long lasting monogamy
Idealistic goal during young adulthood lasting relationship
Men value promiscuity in short term relationships, but men in most cultures value __when choosing a long-term mate chasity
Women prefer men who can offer them __ security
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People with sexual partners are ___ to masturbate more likely
most people are ___ marriage postponing
80% of societies allow men to have ___ multiple wives
group that has more sex than any other age group married couples in young adulthood
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cohabitation living together before marriage; just as likely to get divorced
Affairs: Men = ___; women = ___ or a combination sexual; emotional
___ doesn’t influence whether or not someone participates in extramarital affairs social background
Women are most concerned about __ by their mates emotional infidelity
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Two things contribute to outside sex – opportunity and alienation
Ageism – negative attitude about older people having sexual relations
frequency of sex for middle aged adults o Sexual activity is highest for mid 20s to mid 30s o Married people have sex more often than singles
menopause last menstruation
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Climacteric – changes that occur in the few years that precede and the first year that follows menopause
3 symptoms of menopause hot flashes, decrease in amount of vaginal lubrication, and osteoporosis
Hot flash – sudden sensation of warmth or intense heat that spreads over upper body, face, and head; uncommon in some cultures
causes: hot flash Due to increasing levels of pituitary hormones (FSH and LH)
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cause: decrease in the amount of vaginal lubrication decrease in estrogen
Osteoporosis – condition in which bones become more brittle with age
effect of menopause on sex drive not usually any effect
men ___ experience a sudden lose of hormones during middle age do not
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male menopause midlife crisis
Production of sperm __ stop by the early 50s does not
men show gradual decline in __ resulting in physical changes such as __ testosterone; decline in muscle mass and strength, less firm erections, less forceful ejaculations, and longer refractory periods
Andropause – decrease in testosterone below normal range for young adult men
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Best predictor of whether or not couples will enjoy sex in old age is their activity ___ when they were younger
___ of people over 60 still have sexual relations regularly half
Sexual activity in elderly limited by (3 things) living arrangements, availability of partners, physical condition
Many women may be interested in sex, but there’s no ___ opportunity
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___ begins in infancy, and children receive it from peers, media, and own behaviors sexual learning
common attitude about masturbation negative
__ of men and __ of women had masturbated 90%; 60%
masturbation is a reflexion of a ___ sexually active lifestyle
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More people ___ masturbate than people who ___ with sexual partners; who do not have a sexual partner
Reason for masturbation in relationship Variety – it is a sexual experience that is different than sex with their partner
Nocturnal orgasms occur during __ stage of sleep REM stage
during nocturnal orgasms, Men have ___ and women experience __ erections; vaginal lubrication
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noctural orgasms are/are not associated with sexual dreams are not
___ usually don't indicate sexual unhappiness or personality or psychological problems sexual fantasies
who has sexual fantasies more: men or women? men
Women’s sexual fantasies tend to be __; men’s fantasies are __ more romantic and emotional; more explicit and visual imagery
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Replacement fantasy – one imagines oneself having sex with someone other than one’s sexual partner; not a bad thing; most common
missionary position face-to-face position in which woman lies on her back and man lies on top with his legs between hers; most common
___ is preferred manner of sexual intercourse in all known cultures face to face
___is preferred in cultures where a woman’s sexual satisfaction is considered to be as important as the man’s woman on top
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positions are important to creation variation in sex life so it doesn't become __ ritualized
Fellatio – oral stimulation of the penis
Cunnilingus – oral stimulation of the vulva
___ is no less hygienic than kissing oral-genital sex
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At least ___ of young adults have attempted anal sex 20-26%
Couples should not engage in anal and vaginal intercourse without washing in between because of ___ rectal bacteria
two most preferred sexual behaviors vaginal intercourse, oral sex
Whites are more likely to engage in ___ masturbation and oral-genital
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Latinos are most likely to engage in __ anal
___ are the least popular among the blacks Masturbation and oral-genital
two characteristics of a Sexually healthy person Feels positively about his or her sexuality and Feels free to choose whether or not he or she wishes to try a variety of sexual behaviors
a ___ can be sexually healthy and choose not to have intercourse sexually healthy person
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Sodomy laws – banned oral and anal between consenting adults
Romantic love – idealization of another
romantic love merged in medieval times through ___ courtly love
love begins to be associated with marriage in the __ 16th or 17th century
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Sociobiology – new field of science that claims romantic love is universal and says that sexual desire and romance have always been linked together
characteristics of friendship • Enjoyment of each other’s company most of the time • Acceptance of one another as is • A mutual trust that each will act in his or her friend’s best interest • A respect for each other • Mutual assistance of one another during times of need • Confiding in one another • An understanding of each other’s behavior • Spontaneity
lovers have a higher rating in ___ than best friends do enjoyment
characteristics unique to spouses and lovers • Fascination – a preoccupation with the other person, even when one should be doing other things • Exclusiveness – not having the same relationship with another person • Sexual desire – a desire for physical intimacy • Giving the utmost when the other is in need
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Unreciprocated love – loving another person who is not in love with you
Romantic love includes certain physiological responses such as ___ heavy breathing, a pounding heart, and increased blood pressure, sweaty palms, and a dry mouth when we are close to or thinking about the loved one
Companionate love – the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply entwined
Love – ___; In love – ___ companionate love; passionate love
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Passionate love – a state of intense longing for union with another; a state of profound physiological arousal
Realistic love – a good overall relationship leads to a healthy and good sexual relationship
Attachment - drab, mundane form of companionship where one’s partner gives few positive rewards, other than predictability, for remaining in the relationship
Women find sex __ unless in a loving relationship unenjoyable
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Conditional love – feelings of love depend on the loved one satisfying needs and fulfilling desires
Unconditional love – feelings do not depend on loved one meeting certain expectations and desires
Self-Acceptance in love If you can’t love yourself, you’ll find it impossible to imagine that someone else would love you
At least ___ of all couples will eventually experience sexual problems half
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Men are ___ directed during sex; Women are __ directed during sex goal; partner
two main couple's problems Difference in frequency and type of sex wanted by each person
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (Masters and Johnson) – focuses on sexual behaviors and how we feel about them
Psychosexual therapy – therapy that attempts to provide insight in the historical cause of the client’s problem
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PLISSIT model Permission; Limited information; Specific suggestions; Intensive therapy
Couples therapy – focuses on overall relationship and communication skills between two people
Most therapists believe that the __ position has the most erotic potential for both people during intercourse woman on top
two things therapists first look at when diagnosing sexual problems medical history and sexual history
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masturbation is regarded as positive/negative to therapists positive
Sensate Focus Instructed to use nondemand mutual pleasuring techniques when touching each other
sensate focus purpose Purpose is to reduce anxiety and teach nonverbal communication skills
therapists prescribe ___ to help with the specific problem specific exercises
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sexual disorder The various ways in which an individual is unable to participate in a sexual relationship as he or she would wish
most common and most difficult to treat sexual disorder in men and women Hypoactive sexual desire
Hypoactive sexual desire Lack of interest in sex when there is persistent or recurrent absence of sexual fantasies and sexual desire; Initiates an average of two or fewer sexual experiences a month
Hypoactive sexual desire is treated by: • Treated by couples therapy, sensate focus, and psychosexual or psychotherapy
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Sexual aversion Most extreme form of hypoactive sexual desire; Anticipation of any kind of sexual interaction causes great anxiety
Erectile disorder – man’s inability to get or maintain an erection; Problem must be persistent or recurrent and causes distress or interpersonal difficulty; problems for at least 25% of encounters
most psychologically damaging male problem erectile disorder
two types of causes of erectile disorder organic or psychological
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Treatment for psychological erectile problem – couples therapy, sensate focus, tease technique, resume woman-on-top position of intercourse
most common cause of erectile disorder due to psychological factors performance anxiety
Performance anxiety – fear of failure
Spectatoring – observing and evaluating their own responses rather than experiencing sexual pleasures; caused by fear of failure
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Many men with psychologically caused erectile problems get ___ during sensate focus exercises full erections
Premature ejaculation – a recurrent and persistent absence of reasonable voluntary control of ejaculation
most common sexual problem in men Premature ejaculation
premature ejaculation treated by: Treated by: sensate focus, squeeze technique or stop-start technique, resume woman-on-top position of intercourse
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Male Orgasmic Disorder Refers to difficulty reaching orgasm and ejaculating into a woman’s vagina; usually psychological cause
male orgasmic disorder treated by Treated by: self-exploration and masturbation, bridge maneuver
bridge maneuver female partner stimulates man to close to orgasm then inserts his penis into her vagina; used to treat male orgasmic disorder
Dyspareunia – painful intercourse; usually caused by physical problem
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Dyspareunia treated by ; treated by treatment of specific organic cause (usually has organic cause)
Phimosis – foreskin of penis being too tight
Benign coital cephalalgia severe headaches just before, during, or slightly after orgasm; mainly occur in men
Benign coital cephalalgia treated by Treated by: relaxation techniques or medication for high blood pressure
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Lack of sexual desire or subjective arousal is usually due to __ in women relationship problems
Female hypoactive sexual desire – the persistent or recurrent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies/thoughts, and/or desire for or receptivity to sexual activity, which causes personal distress
Sexual aversion disorder – the persistent or recurrent phobic aversion to and avoidance of sexual contact with a sexual partner, which causes personal distress
Female hypoactive sexual desire is/is not caused by low testosterone levels is not
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female hypoactive sexual desire is treated by Treated by couples therapy, sensate focus, and psychosexual or psychotherapy ; No medical model for treating women
Sexual arousal disorder the persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain sufficient sexual excitement, causing personal distress, which may be expressed as a lack of subjective excitement or genital or other somatic responses
Most women do not separate ___ from sexual arousal sexual desire
Therapy for sexual arousal disorder must focus on __ psychological factors and partner and relationship problems
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Women’s physiological arousal is ___ correlated with subjective arousal poorly
female orgasmic disorder The persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm following sufficient sexual stimulation and arousal, which causes personal distress
female's most common reason to go to therapy female orgasmic disorder
most females with female orgasmic disorder enjoy/do not enjoy sex enjoy
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female orgasmic disorder is treated by: Treated by: couples therapy, self-exploration and masturbation, sensate focus, resume woman-on-top position of intercourse
causes of female orgasmic disorder (5) Causes: • Poor technique • Sexual repression during upbringing • General relationship problems • Stimulation of the clitoris is needed to reach orgasm; not done directly through intercourse • Performance anxiety
Dyspareunia – recurrent or persistent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse
Vaginismus – recurrent or persistent pain experienced during attempted sexual intercourse, Caused by involuntary contractions of the muscles that surround the outer third of the vagina
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Vaginismus is treated by • Treated by: sensate focus, use of dilators
Hypersexual individual – distinguished by the compulsiveness with which he ors he engages in sex
Hypersexuality is/is not similar to alcoholism is not
hypersexuality is treated by Treated by treatment of the internal discomfort (antidepressants or stabilizing drugs) or psychosexual or psychotherapy
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Communication the exchange of information
Intercourse means communication
People feel uncomfortable talking about sex, even with their ___ sexual partners
__ and ___ contribute to this difficulty to talk to partners about sex • Stereotypic gender roles and power differences in a relationship
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One of the first things you must do is agree on a comfortable ___ to use when talking about sex vocabulary
When talking about sexual differences, be sure to emphasize the __rather than the __ things that your partner does positives; negatives
Take responsibility for your own pleasure by expressing __ and __ in a clear manner feelings and desires
you must become a good ___ by communicating nonverbally listener
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One of the best predictors of long-term success in a relationship is the manner in which couples handle __ sexual problems
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 your subjective sense of being a man or womangender identity
 measures the amount of masculinity and femininity within an individual’s gender roleBem Sex-Role Inventory
 a person who has high scores on both dimensions of the inventoryAndrogynous
 scored low on both dimensionsundifferentiated
 the way you express your gender identity gender role
 oversimplified, rigid beliefs that members of a sex have distinct behavioral, psychological, and emotional characteristics gender role stereotypes
 a combo of male and female anatomical features, or in which chromosomal sex is inconsistent with anatomical sexintersexual
 XX chromosomesgirls
 XY chromosomesboys
 men with one or more extra X chromosomesKlinefelter’s Syndrome
 women with only one X chromosomeTurner’s Syndrome
 Unless there are high levels of __ during development, nature has programmed the body to develop into a __testosterone; girl
 ___ around the time of birth alter brain anatomy to be either male or femalehormone levels
 born with both male and female reproductive systemshermaphroditism
 born with proper set of gonads for chromosome pattern but external genitalia are ambiguous or opposite sexPseudohermaphroditism
 Adrenogenital syndrome most common cause for Pseudohermaphroditism in females; adrenal glands secrete too much masculinizing hormone during fetal development
 • Adrogen insensitivity syndrome most common cause for Pseudohermaphroditism in males; testicles secrete normal amounts of testosterone, but body tissues do not respond to it; clitoris, short vagina, and labia develop
 DHT deficiency syndrome testosterone not converted into dihydrotestosterone, which is necessary for proper formation of external genitals; form of Pseudohermaphroditism; Very small penis, incomplete scrotum, undecended testicles, and short vaginal cavity
 constructive element of social relationships based on perceived differences between sexgender
 biological influences are believed to set predetermined limits to the effects of cultural influencesBiological determinism
 intense distress with anatomy; gender identity does not match biological sexGender dysphoria
 adult whose gender identity does not match his or her biological sextranssexual
 Criteria for gender identity disorder:• Behaviors that indicate identification with the opposite gender
• Behaviors that indicated discomfort with one’s own anatomy and gender roles
 theory that emphasizes unconscious identification with parent of the same sexFreudian theory

o Children acquire the gender identity of the same-sex parent through identification
o Oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage
o Children acquire gender identity in the phillis stage
 theory that emphasizes the role of reinforcement and imitationsocial learning theory
 a process by which children may learn gender identity and gender roles by watching others in their seximitation
 theory with concept of male or female learned by observing others (males with dads, females with moms)Cognitive-developmental theory
 major developments of Cognitive-developmental theoryo Girl and boy act the same before age 2
o Child’s idea of gender is concrete based on physical cues by age 3
o Do not have understanding of gender constancy until age 6 or 7
 knowledge that one’s gender is constant and will not changeGender constancy
 norms about the behaviors and attitudes of men and womengender roles
 theory that says psychological differences between men/women are inherent due to reproductive pressures faced over years evolutionary theory
 theory that emphasizes role of environment or social context in influencing the way gender roles develop over the life spanSociocultural theory
 theory that includes belief the way to change gender roles is not to retrain but to restructure the social environmentsociocultural theory
 theory that says individual’s gender role results from society’s expectations of male and female behaviorSociostructural theory
 theory of androgynya person can be both masculine and feminine; healthiest of all gender roles
 Socializationinternalizing society’s beliefs
 Gender schema children organize the world according to gender; a set of ideas about gender roles that children create from their interactions with their environment
 ___ treat children in more gender-stereotypic wayfathers
 Children raised in single-parent households are more likely to become __ androgynous
 causes of developmental gender difference (evolutionary theory)adaptive value; function of childhood is to develop competencies that will aid them in reproduction and survival as adults
 causes of developmental gender difference (sociocultural theory)social structure that leads to psychological sex differences
 Rise of ___ helped create the male gender role of being independent and unemotionalindustrialization
 Young children view gender in __ terms but as they grow old they view gender as a __ constructdualistic; unidimensional
 Sexual orientationdistinct preference for sexual partners of a particular sex in the presence of clear alternatives
 Homosexual – sexual orientation primarily to members of same sex
 Bisexual – sexual orientation toward both men and women
 Women are more likely to be __ than __bisexual; homosexual
 __ of adult male population and __ of adult female population have a homosexual orientation 2.5%, 3.0%
 ___ of majority of homosexuals and bisexuals are just as strong and consistent with their anatomical sex as heterosexualsgender identity
 Conformity or nonconformity with gender roles does not always predict one’s ___sexual orientation
 Biological, psychological, and social/cultural influence interact to produce ___sexual orientation
 ___ probably predispose an individual to a particular sexual orientationbiological factors
 ___ believed that people were capable of becoming heterosexual/homosexual, depending on childhoodFreud
 social learning theorylearned behaviors; Homosexuals would be expected to have had good or rewarding experiences with same-sex individuals and bad experiences with members of opposite sex
 If person’s first experiences are with individual of the same sex, there is a greater chance of that person’s orientation to be __ homosexual
 In Sambian society, all boys engage in same sex behaviors for years yet the majority are __heterosexual
 biological explanations: genetic factorhigher level of coordinance between identical twins
 biological explanations: Anatomical factors differences between the brains (areas of the hypothalamus) between male heterosexuals and homosexuals
 biological explanations: Hormones (and the prenatal environment)before or shortly after we are born predispose us to a particular sexual orientation
 Most societies are ___ of homosexuality than the United Statesmore tolerant
 four stages of coming out• Admitting - Admitting to oneself that one has a homosexual or bisexual orientation
• Meeting - Get to know other homosexuals (ends sense of isolation)
• Telling - Tells family and friends of his or her sexual orientation
• Openness - Complete openness about one’s homosexuality or bisexuality
 sexual prejudicesocially reinforced negative attitudes toward individuals, communities, and homosexual behaviors
 Early Infancy (ages 0-1)• Begin to touch all parts of body to explore and seek pleasure
• Male fetuses have erections while in the uterus
• May stimulate self sexually
 Early Childhood (Ages 2-6)• Peak in curiosity about their bodies
• Will play games to allow for sexual exploration
o Limited to viewing and touching genitals
• Way parents respond is very important
o Reaction is a reflection of their own sexuality
 Initial School-Age Years (Ages 7-11)• Children develop sense of modesty
• Freud referred to these years as the tatency stage of psychosexual development
• Boys allowed more freedom to explore their sexuality than girls
• Curiosity about sex does not fade; many children ask parents about sex
 Puberty (Ages 7-15)• Puberty is the time of life when we first show sexual attraction and become capable of reproduction
• First show sexual attraction around age 10
• Changing hormone levels
 two parts to pubertyo Adrenarche and Gonadarche

 Secondary sex characteristicso Changes create psychological changes in the way children think about themselves and others
 puberty changes in girlsDevelopment of breast buds (age 11.2), Pubic hair and underarm hair, Sweat glands and sebaceous glands develop; body odor and acne, Menarche – first menstrual period
 menarchefirst menstrual period
 the average age of the menarche is ___declining
 cause: development of breast budsincrease in estrogen
 cause: pubic hair and underarm hairtestosterone increase
 cause: sweat glands and sebaceous glands developingtestosterone increase
 cause: menarcheincrease in FSH and LH
 boys are __ years behind girls in development2
 changes in boyso Growth of testicles and scrotum (age 11-12)
o Growth of penis, prostate gland, and seminal vesicles
o Gynecomastia
o Pubic hairs
o Underam and facial hair do not appear until 2 years later
o Development of sebaceous and sweat glands
o Deepening of voice (age 12 to 13)
 capable of ejaculation ____ after penis begins to growone year
 nocturnal emission (puberty)wet dream; first experience many boys have with ejaculation
 Gynecomastia – many boys develop temporarily enlarged breasts during puberty
 cause: gynecomastiaincrease in estrogen
 cause: pubic hairsincrease in testosterone
 cause: deepening of voiceincrease in testosterone
 precocious pubertywhen sexual development begins before the age of 8 in females and 9 in males
• Girls as young as 6 or 7 have given birth
 delayed pubertywhen characteristics begin late
 Adolescence (ages 13-17) • The time of life between puberty and adulthood
 most important issue during adolescenceself-identity
 masturbation during adolescenseo First experience with orgasm for many people
o Accompanied by sexual fantasies
o Safe and healthy sexual outlet for teenagers
 neckingany other physical contact other than below the waist
 pettingnoncoital sexual contact below the waist
 __ of American high school students have engaged in sexual intercoursehalf
 Most girls __ experience pain during first sexual intercoursedo not
 Multiple reasons for engaging in sex during adolescence – sexual pleasure, desire for intimacy and increase in social status
 Men tend to engage in casual sex to __test their virility
 First intercourse of adolescence usually within ___romantic relationship
 Peer pressure– group’s expectations of how you are supposed to behave
 Need for ___ is important part of finding self-identity for adolescent girlsemotional intimacy
 many adolescent girls mistake ____ for emotional intimacysexual intimacy
 Emerging adulthoodextended period of being a single adult that occurs between adolescence and adulthood
 Sexual activity is different than younger and older age groups in the __ stageemerging adulthood; (hooking up, serial monogamy)
 __ was the norm for most adults aged 25 and olderLong lasting monogamy
 Idealistic goal during young adulthoodlasting relationship
 Men value promiscuity in short term relationships, but men in most cultures value __when choosing a long-term matechasity
 Women prefer men who can offer them __security
 People with sexual partners are ___ to masturbatemore likely
 most people are ___ marriagepostponing
 80% of societies allow men to have ___multiple wives
 group that has more sex than any other age groupmarried couples in young adulthood
 cohabitationliving together before marriage; just as likely to get divorced
 Affairs: Men = ___; women = ___ or a combination sexual; emotional
 ___ doesn’t influence whether or not someone participates in extramarital affairssocial background
 Women are most concerned about __ by their matesemotional infidelity
 Two things contribute to outside sex – opportunity and alienation
 Ageism– negative attitude about older people having sexual relations
 frequency of sex for middle aged adultso Sexual activity is highest for mid 20s to mid 30s
o Married people have sex more often than singles
 menopauselast menstruation
  Climacteric – changes that occur in the few years that precede and the first year that follows menopause
 3 symptoms of menopausehot flashes, decrease in amount of vaginal lubrication, and osteoporosis
 Hot flash – sudden sensation of warmth or intense heat that spreads over upper body, face, and head; uncommon in some cultures
 causes: hot flashDue to increasing levels of pituitary hormones (FSH and LH)
 cause: decrease in the amount of vaginal lubricationdecrease in estrogen
 Osteoporosis – condition in which bones become more brittle with age
 effect of menopause on sex drivenot usually any effect
 men ___ experience a sudden lose of hormones during middle agedo not
 male menopausemidlife crisis
 Production of sperm __ stop by the early 50sdoes not
 men show gradual decline in __ resulting in physical changes such as __testosterone; decline in muscle mass and strength, less firm erections, less forceful ejaculations, and longer refractory periods
 Andropause – decrease in testosterone below normal range for young adult men
 Best predictor of whether or not couples will enjoy sex in old age is their activity ___when they were younger
 ___ of people over 60 still have sexual relations regularlyhalf
 Sexual activity in elderly limited by (3 things)living arrangements, availability of partners, physical condition
 Many women may be interested in sex, but there’s no ___opportunity
 ___ begins in infancy, and children receive it from peers, media, and own behaviorssexual learning
 common attitude about masturbationnegative
 __ of men and __ of women had masturbated 90%; 60%
 masturbation is a reflexion of a ___sexually active lifestyle
 More people ___ masturbate than people who ___with sexual partners; who do not have a sexual partner
 Reason for masturbation in relationship Variety – it is a sexual experience that is different than sex with their partner
 Nocturnal orgasms occur during __ stage of sleepREM stage
 during nocturnal orgasms, Men have ___ and women experience __erections; vaginal lubrication
 noctural orgasms are/are not associated with sexual dreams are not
 ___ usually don't indicate sexual unhappiness or personality or psychological problemssexual fantasies
 who has sexual fantasies more: men or women?men
 Women’s sexual fantasies tend to be __; men’s fantasies are __more romantic and emotional; more explicit and visual imagery
 Replacement fantasy– one imagines oneself having sex with someone other than one’s sexual partner; not a bad thing; most common
 missionary positionface-to-face position in which woman lies on her back and man lies on top with his legs between hers; most common
 ___ is preferred manner of sexual intercourse in all known culturesface to face
 ___is preferred in cultures where a woman’s sexual satisfaction is considered to be as important as the man’swoman on top
 positions are important to creation variation in sex life so it doesn't become __ritualized
 Fellatio – oral stimulation of the penis
 Cunnilingus – oral stimulation of the vulva
 ___ is no less hygienic than kissingoral-genital sex
 At least ___ of young adults have attempted anal sex20-26%
 Couples should not engage in anal and vaginal intercourse without washing in between because of ___rectal bacteria
 two most preferred sexual behaviorsvaginal intercourse, oral sex
 Whites are more likely to engage in ___masturbation and oral-genital
 Latinos are most likely to engage in __anal
 ___ are the least popular among the blacksMasturbation and oral-genital
 two characteristics of a Sexually healthy personFeels positively about his or her sexuality and Feels free to choose whether or not he or she wishes to try a variety of sexual behaviors
 a ___ can be sexually healthy and choose not to have intercourse sexually healthy person
 Sodomy laws – banned oral and anal between consenting adults
 Romantic love – idealization of another
 romantic love merged in medieval times through ___ courtly love
 love begins to be associated with marriage in the __
16th or 17th century
 Sociobiology – new field of science that claims romantic love is universal and says that sexual desire and romance have always been linked together
 characteristics of friendship• Enjoyment of each other’s company most of the time
• Acceptance of one another as is
• A mutual trust that each will act in his or her friend’s best interest
• A respect for each other
• Mutual assistance of one another during times of need
• Confiding in one another
• An understanding of each other’s behavior
• Spontaneity
 lovers have a higher rating in ___ than best friends doenjoyment
 characteristics unique to spouses and lovers• Fascination – a preoccupation with the other person, even when one should be doing other things
• Exclusiveness – not having the same relationship with another person
• Sexual desire – a desire for physical intimacy
• Giving the utmost when the other is in need
 Unreciprocated love – loving another person who is not in love with you
 Romantic love includes certain physiological responses such as ___heavy breathing, a pounding heart, and increased blood pressure, sweaty palms, and a dry mouth when we are close to or thinking about the loved one
 Companionate love – the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply entwined
 Love – ___; In love – ___ companionate love; passionate love
 Passionate love – a state of intense longing for union with another; a state of profound physiological arousal
 Realistic love – a good overall relationship leads to a healthy and good sexual relationship
 Attachment - drab, mundane form of companionship where one’s partner gives few positive rewards, other than predictability, for remaining in the relationship
 Women find sex __ unless in a loving relationshipunenjoyable
 Conditional love – feelings of love depend on the loved one satisfying needs and fulfilling desires
 Unconditional love – feelings do not depend on loved one meeting certain expectations and desires
 Self-Acceptance in love If you can’t love yourself, you’ll find it impossible to imagine that someone else would love you
 At least ___ of all couples will eventually experience sexual problemshalf
 Men are ___ directed during sex; Women are __ directed during sex goal; partner
 two main couple's problemsDifference in frequency and type of sex wanted by each person
 Cognitive-behavioral therapy (Masters and Johnson) – focuses on sexual behaviors and how we feel about them
 Psychosexual therapy – therapy that attempts to provide insight in the historical cause of the client’s problem
 PLISSIT modelPermission; Limited information; Specific suggestions; Intensive therapy
 Couples therapy – focuses on overall relationship and communication skills between two people
 Most therapists believe that the __ position has the most erotic potential for both people during intercoursewoman on top
 two things therapists first look at when diagnosing sexual problemsmedical history and sexual history
 masturbation is regarded as positive/negative to therapistspositive
 Sensate FocusInstructed to use nondemand mutual pleasuring techniques when touching each other
 sensate focus purposePurpose is to reduce anxiety and teach nonverbal communication skills
 therapists prescribe ___ to help with the specific problemspecific exercises
 sexual disorderThe various ways in which an individual is unable to participate in a sexual relationship as he or she would wish
 most common and most difficult to treat sexual disorder in men and womenHypoactive sexual desire
 Hypoactive sexual desireLack of interest in sex when there is persistent or recurrent absence of sexual fantasies and sexual desire; Initiates an average of two or fewer sexual experiences a month
 Hypoactive sexual desire is treated by: • Treated by couples therapy, sensate focus, and psychosexual or psychotherapy
 Sexual aversion Most extreme form of hypoactive sexual desire; Anticipation of any kind of sexual interaction causes great anxiety
 Erectile disorder – man’s inability to get or maintain an erection; Problem must be persistent or recurrent and causes distress or interpersonal difficulty; problems for at least 25% of encounters
 most psychologically damaging male problemerectile disorder
 two types of causes of erectile disorderorganic or psychological
 Treatment for psychological erectile problem – couples therapy, sensate focus, tease technique, resume woman-on-top position of intercourse
 most common cause of erectile disorder due to psychological factorsperformance anxiety
  Performance anxiety – fear of failure
 Spectatoring – observing and evaluating their own responses rather than experiencing sexual pleasures; caused by fear of failure
 Many men with psychologically caused erectile problems get ___ during sensate focus exercisesfull erections
 Premature ejaculation – a recurrent and persistent absence of reasonable voluntary control of ejaculation
 most common sexual problem in menPremature ejaculation
 premature ejaculation treated by:Treated by: sensate focus, squeeze technique or stop-start technique, resume woman-on-top position of intercourse
 Male Orgasmic Disorder
Refers to difficulty reaching orgasm and ejaculating into a woman’s vagina; usually psychological cause
 male orgasmic disorder treated byTreated by: self-exploration and masturbation, bridge maneuver
 bridge maneuver female partner stimulates man to close to orgasm then inserts his penis into her vagina; used to treat male orgasmic disorder
 Dyspareunia – painful intercourse; usually caused by physical problem
 Dyspareunia treated by; treated by treatment of specific organic cause (usually has organic cause)
 Phimosis – foreskin of penis being too tight
 Benign coital cephalalgia severe headaches just before, during, or slightly after orgasm; mainly occur in men
 Benign coital cephalalgia treated by Treated by: relaxation techniques or medication for high blood pressure
 Lack of sexual desire or subjective arousal is usually due to __ in womenrelationship problems
 Female hypoactive sexual desire – the persistent or recurrent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies/thoughts, and/or desire for or receptivity to sexual activity, which causes personal distress
 Sexual aversion disorder – the persistent or recurrent phobic aversion to and avoidance of sexual contact with a sexual partner, which causes personal distress
  Female hypoactive sexual desire is/is not caused by low testosterone levelsis not
 female hypoactive sexual desire is treated byTreated by couples therapy, sensate focus, and psychosexual or psychotherapy ; No medical model for treating women
 Sexual arousal disorderthe persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain sufficient sexual excitement, causing personal distress, which may be expressed as a lack of subjective excitement or genital or other somatic responses
 Most women do not separate ___ from sexual arousalsexual desire
 Therapy for sexual arousal disorder must focus on __psychological factors and partner and relationship problems
 Women’s physiological arousal is ___ correlated with subjective arousalpoorly
 female orgasmic disorderThe persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm following sufficient sexual stimulation and arousal, which causes personal distress
 female's most common reason to go to therapyfemale orgasmic disorder
 most females with female orgasmic disorder enjoy/do not enjoy sexenjoy
 female orgasmic disorder is treated by:Treated by: couples therapy, self-exploration and masturbation, sensate focus, resume woman-on-top position of intercourse
 causes of female orgasmic disorder (5)Causes:
• Poor technique
• Sexual repression during upbringing
• General relationship problems
• Stimulation of the clitoris is needed to reach orgasm; not done directly through intercourse
• Performance anxiety
 Dyspareunia – recurrent or persistent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse
 Vaginismus – recurrent or persistent pain experienced during attempted sexual intercourse, Caused by involuntary contractions of the muscles that surround the outer third of the vagina
 Vaginismus is treated by• Treated by: sensate focus, use of dilators
 Hypersexual individual – distinguished by the compulsiveness with which he ors he engages in sex
 Hypersexuality is/is not similar to alcoholismis not
 hypersexuality is treated byTreated by treatment of the internal discomfort (antidepressants or stabilizing drugs) or psychosexual or psychotherapy
 Communicationthe exchange of information
 Intercourse means communication
 People feel uncomfortable talking about sex, even with their ___sexual partners
 __ and ___ contribute to this difficulty to talk to partners about sex• Stereotypic gender roles and power differences in a relationship
 One of the first things you must do is agree on a comfortable ___ to use when talking about sexvocabulary
 When talking about sexual differences, be sure to emphasize the __rather than the __ things that your partner doespositives; negatives
 Take responsibility for your own pleasure by expressing __ and __ in a clear mannerfeelings and desires
 you must become a good ___ by communicating nonverballylistener
 One of the best predictors of long-term success in a relationship is the manner in which couples handle __sexual problems
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