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Final-Study Guide(Islam) - Flashcards

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Class:RSTD 212 - Religions of the West
Subject:Religious Studies
University:Christopher Newport University
Term:Fall 2009
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Mosque "Masjid" in Arabic -"Place of Prostration" - Mosque is not exactly necessary, aspect to further faith Simple design (Inside) -empty inside -no pictures > distracting from worship Ornate outside -Minaret outside
Minaret Tower next to the Mosque - where a muezzin goes to call Muslims to prayer
Muezzin A muezzin (Turkish mezzin from Arabic: mu-ain) is a chosen person at the mosque who leads the call to prayer -Friday service and the five daily prayers (salat) from one of the mosque's minarets -in most modern mosques, electronic amplification aids the muezzins
Imam "prayer leader" -can only be male Leader of the Mosque/ Muslim community
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Mullah Scholars of Islam -Theory and Law -Shi'ites especially
Mufti Interpreter of Sharia (Islamic Law) -Sunni especially
Madrassah Muslim Schools - Curriculum: Qur'an, Theology, and Law
Nabi vs. Rasul Nabi is a general prophet -one to whom Allah has spoken Rasul is much more highly revered -they are supposed to deliver a specific message
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Sunni vs. Shi'ite Split over the decision for new Caliph after Muhammad Sunni:"tradition" "concensus" -Leader chosen by concensus of the Ummah (Muslim Community) Shi'ite: "partisan" -leader related to Muhammad (True Imam) -More authoritatiran
Madhi Heir of Husayn -Will come before the Day of Judgement - Will be joined by Issah (Jesus)
Husayn 680- Led Shi'ite Muslims to modern day Iraq - True Imam, closest heir to Muhammad - To conquer Sunni - Husyan and Shi'ite were slain Contributes to Shi'ite martyrdom
Karbala City in Iraq where Husayn and Shi'ite followers were slain in 680 CE
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Jihad Unofficially the 6th Pillar of Islam - Mandatory "Stuggle" - Greater: inner struggle to avoid shirk - Lesser: external
Shariah "the path leading to the watering hole" - law or teaching
Fiqh Action of interpreting and applying Shariah - highly educated to do; difficult -done through personal/ analytical reasoning
Hadith "report" or "tradition"; contain reports of Muhammad's life to guide Muslims; extend, explain, supplement the Qur'an. Multiple collections, NOT scripture.
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Ablutions ritual cleansing before entering holy places, Mosques
Halal vs. Haram Follow the concept of pollution vs purity. Halal is pure, while haram is polluted. Muslims try to maintain purity, and will only eat halal food (similar to the jewish concept of keeping kosher)
Eid-al-Fitr 3 day period of time that marks the end of fasting for Ramadan
Hijab "veiling", keeps women veiled from larger world. (Qur'an 53:54). Different degrees: cover hair (most common), cover face, and cover body (burka; Saudi Arabia/ Afghanistan). Common in Middle-East pre-Islam; part of culture.
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Sufis Mystics of Islam. Suffi comes from Arabic word "suf" meaning wool, which is what the prophets wore, and the poor; focus more on spirit than physical.
Dhikr "Remembrance". State of altered consciousness focused on Allah acheived through repeated chanting, physical movements, and breathing.
Fana "annhiliation"; aspect of Suffi Islam which strives to remove the ego, resulting in the Suffi to Allah as a moth to a flame (analogy).
Rumi Poet and musician who lived from 1207-1273 CE. He founded a branch of Suffism known as the "Whirling Dervishes"
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"Whirling Dervishes" sect of Suffi Islam founded by Rumi. Their practices involve whirling and dances. They will often spin around a leader in a cicrle to represent the planets and the sun. They beleive the path to Allah is through love and beauty. They are known to recite the 99 beautiful names of Allah as a practice.
5 Pillars 1. Shahadah: declaration of faith 2. Salaht: prayer 3. Zakaht: charity (prayer tax) 4. Sawm: fasting (during Ramadan) 5. Hajj: pilgrimage to mecca ** Notes for more in-depth**
Irhab *** DID NOT FIND IN NOTES *** Unholy War
Fatwa *** DID NOT FIND IN NOTES *** A religious opinion concerning Islamic Law (Shariah) from an Islamic Scholar
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Eid-al-Adha *** DID NOT FIND IN NOTES *** "Festival of Sacrifice" to celebrate Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son for Allah
Caliphs *** DID NOT FIND IN NOTES *** head of the Ummah (Muslim Community)
Wahhabis *** DID NOT FIND IN NOTES *** ultra conservative branch of Islam; very strict, follows tradition and opposes innovation
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 Mosque"Masjid" in Arabic -"Place of Prostration" - Mosque is not exactly necessary, aspect to further faith Simple design (Inside) -empty inside -no pictures > distracting from worship Ornate outside -Minaret outside
 MinaretTower next to the Mosque - where a muezzin goes to call Muslims to prayer
 MuezzinA muezzin (Turkish mezzin from Arabic: mu-ain) is a chosen person at the mosque who leads the call to prayer -Friday service and the five daily prayers (salat) from one of the mosque's minarets -in most modern mosques, electronic amplification aids the muezzins
 Imam"prayer leader" -can only be male Leader of the Mosque/ Muslim community
 MullahScholars of Islam -Theory and Law -Shi'ites especially
 MuftiInterpreter of Sharia (Islamic Law) -Sunni especially
 MadrassahMuslim Schools - Curriculum: Qur'an, Theology, and Law
 Nabi vs. RasulNabi is a general prophet -one to whom Allah has spoken Rasul is much more highly revered -they are supposed to deliver a specific message
 Sunni vs. Shi'iteSplit over the decision for new Caliph after Muhammad Sunni:"tradition" "concensus" -Leader chosen by concensus of the Ummah (Muslim Community) Shi'ite: "partisan" -leader related to Muhammad (True Imam) -More authoritatiran
 MadhiHeir of Husayn -Will come before the Day of Judgement - Will be joined by Issah (Jesus)
 Husayn680- Led Shi'ite Muslims to modern day Iraq - True Imam, closest heir to Muhammad - To conquer Sunni - Husyan and Shi'ite were slain Contributes to Shi'ite martyrdom
 KarbalaCity in Iraq where Husayn and Shi'ite followers were slain in 680 CE
 JihadUnofficially the 6th Pillar of Islam - Mandatory "Stuggle" - Greater: inner struggle to avoid shirk - Lesser: external
 Shariah"the path leading to the watering hole" - law or teaching
 FiqhAction of interpreting and applying Shariah - highly educated to do; difficult -done through personal/ analytical reasoning
 Hadith"report" or "tradition"; contain reports of Muhammad's life to guide Muslims; extend, explain, supplement the Qur'an. Multiple collections, NOT scripture.
 Ablutionsritual cleansing before entering holy places, Mosques
 Halal vs. HaramFollow the concept of pollution vs purity. Halal is pure, while haram is polluted. Muslims try to maintain purity, and will only eat halal food (similar to the jewish concept of keeping kosher)
 Eid-al-Fitr3 day period of time that marks the end of fasting for Ramadan
 Hijab"veiling", keeps women veiled from larger world. (Qur'an 53:54). Different degrees: cover hair (most common), cover face, and cover body (burka; Saudi Arabia/ Afghanistan). Common in Middle-East pre-Islam; part of culture.
 SufisMystics of Islam. Suffi comes from Arabic word "suf" meaning wool, which is what the prophets wore, and the poor; focus more on spirit than physical.
 Dhikr"Remembrance". State of altered consciousness focused on Allah acheived through repeated chanting, physical movements, and breathing.
 Fana"annhiliation"; aspect of Suffi Islam which strives to remove the ego, resulting in the Suffi to Allah as a moth to a flame (analogy).
 RumiPoet and musician who lived from 1207-1273 CE. He founded a branch of Suffism known as the "Whirling Dervishes"
 "Whirling Dervishes"sect of Suffi Islam founded by Rumi. Their practices involve whirling and dances. They will often spin around a leader in a cicrle to represent the planets and the sun. They beleive the path to Allah is through love and beauty. They are known to recite the 99 beautiful names of Allah as a practice.
 5 Pillars1. Shahadah: declaration of faith 2. Salaht: prayer 3. Zakaht: charity (prayer tax) 4. Sawm: fasting (during Ramadan) 5. Hajj: pilgrimage to mecca ** Notes for more in-depth**
 Irhab*** DID NOT FIND IN NOTES *** Unholy War
 Fatwa*** DID NOT FIND IN NOTES *** A religious opinion concerning Islamic Law (Shariah) from an Islamic Scholar
 Eid-al-Adha*** DID NOT FIND IN NOTES *** "Festival of Sacrifice" to celebrate Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son for Allah
 Caliphs*** DID NOT FIND IN NOTES *** head of the Ummah (Muslim Community)
 Wahhabis*** DID NOT FIND IN NOTES *** ultra conservative branch of Islam; very strict, follows tradition and opposes innovation
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