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Class:SIGN 1020 - American Sign Language II
Subject:American Sign Language
University:Western Michigan University
Term:Spring 2011
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Cheryl Walker-Vann Instructor
Textbook Signing naturally units 7-12
Objectives -To enhance students' basic ASL communication skills (ability to recognize, describe and produce, under appropriate conditions, the targeted vocabulary and grammatical features of ASL) -To further develop knowledge of cultural info. necessary for basic interactions within the deaf community (role shifting, appripriate ways to interrupt, giving feedback, negotiating signing environment, and other behavioral norms) -To increase students' ability to recognize and describe the essential feature of deaf culture, various communication strategies utilized, past/present educations options, and other related topics
Tests written (20 points.) expressive/receptive (10 points each) for a total of 6 sets of all of those; written final (50 points); expressive/receptive final (50 points)
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Bonus Points 0
Attendance because learning asl requires face-to-face interaction, ________ is of critical importance
Make-up if you must miss class, special arrangements for ____ __ can be provided if you have a VALID AND VERIFIABLE EXCUSE. (eg hospital stay, jury duty). Otherwise, the tests/ quizzes missed cannot be made up
Points accumulated the Final grade is determined by the number of _______ ___________
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Classroom workbook designed to give you a way to review and practice what you learn in the __________
Video _______, you can see when and how facial expressions occur and how body, head and eye movements are used for phrasing and agreement. MOST IMPORTANT, you see how language is used to context.
Functional approach through the _______ ______, the language you learn is the language used in everyday conversation.
Approach to conversations ____________ __ _____________ in the following stages: a) read the situation at the beginning of each cued dialog in workbook b) review the conversation and try to follow the intent of the exchange. do not concern yourself with the individual unfamiliar signs c) read the cued dialog in the workbook to see if you understood the exchange d) view the conversation again, looking for how key phrases are expressed e) rehearse the key phrases
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Personal Information to keep the conversation interesting and spontaneous, vary the conversation by adding ________ ______________.
Restrict you are not given english equivalents because they often _____ your understanding and usage of the signs
Local area you instructor may introduce a different sign more commonly used in your _____ _____ than workbook
workbook instruction for videotape are in the ____________
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rewind if you miss a sign or sentence while working on an activity don't ______ to see just that part again, but continue the activity until the end, then replay the whole activity to complete the answers you missed.
8 strategies for learning ASL 1) Follow all conversations whether they are between teach and class, teach and student, or student and student 2) Focus on signers face and not hands; do not lose eye contact 3) Develop active listening behaviors (nodding, and wow type response); this is culture- listeners have an active role in a signed conversation 4)Participate; agree or disagree; more participation, more learning; mistakes help you learn 5) Don't worry about a sign you miss; try to get gist of conversation; if it keeps coming up ask teach (no english translation; want to strengthen communication skills) 6)Leave english out the door; don't worry about memorizing, as repetition and context help you acquire the language. 7)Maintain a sign environment during class break, before class, and where deaf are present 8)try not to miss class; your class strives to form a language community
Active listening behaviors noddingresponding with "huh?" "wow" or "really?"
Cardinal numbers counting numbers
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Ordinal number indicate order in a series
3 steps to give directions to a place in the building 1) give the general location: "upstairs, 4th floor"2) identify starting point on the floor: "As you leave the elevator"3) give the specific directions from the starting point: " turn left, past the drinking fountain, and its the second door on your right"
1st through 9th made with twist of wrist toward the body, with the hand in a more horizontal position than the position for cardinal numbers10th and up
10th and up made with the same form as cardinal numbers, but adding the fingerspelled "th" or "nd" or "rd" at the end
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Giving directions to someone familiar with the building use a common reference point1) establish the CRP: "you know the drinking fountain on the 4th floor"2) give specific directions to the desired location: " pass the drinking fountain, and its the second door on the right."
Spatial Agreement use ______ ___________, eye gaze/ location agreement an non-manual behaviors showing distance, so that your listener can visualize the route or location you describe
90% _____ of all deaf children have hearing parents
5 strategies for cross-cultural communication 1) Pen and paper- used to seek info, conducting business, or having conversations 2) gesturing- used with people seen regularly and in situations where the interaction is predictable. also used to manage limited social contact with people like a waitress, relatives, co-workers, neighbors 3) lipreading and speech- least preferred strategies for most deaf people. about 30% of english spoken can be understood by lipreading, which leaves the deaf person in a untenable position. lipreading leaves considerable room for misunderstanding and because of this, it is held to a minimum 4)Adapting signs to others- used with hearing people with varying degrees. may mean the inclusion of more fingerspelled words, mor mouthing words, gesturing, simple sentences, slower pace, more english-like word order 5) using a 3rd person to interpret- helps make conversations between deaf and hearing flow more smoothly. 3rd person signs what it said and voices what is signed.
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Pen and paper most common strategy
lipreading lease preferred method of communication
30% ___ of spoken english can be understood through lipreading
Varying signs ______ ______ include more fingerspelled words, more mouthing of words, gesturing, simple sentences, slow pace, more english-like word-order. the purpose is to communicate.
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4 strategies for sign students Let deaf know you sign; Let deaf set communication pattern; Avoid talking in the presence of a deaf person without relaying signs, it is considered rude to not keep deaf informed; Avoid watching a conversation unless you plan to introduce yourself
To "tell time" first sign "time" (index finger taps the wrist of the dominant hand), then sign the number indicating the "hour"
1-9 o'clock the number is signed with a slight waving movement
numbers 10, 11, 12 signed without the movement
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non-dominant hand for 1-9 O'Clock, the sign combo "time" plus number is often contracted so that the number indicating the hour begins at the wrist of ___ ________ ____, then moves to the fingerspelling area
Hour and minute combo for ____ ___ ______ _____, sign the number for the hour, then slightly to the right of that, sign number of minutes (for left signer move slightly to the left); no wave movement
Away; hour and minute number 1-9 are singed with the palm facing _____ from the body for both ____ and ______ information; rest of the numbers are singed just like cardinal
what happened in 1817 laurent clerc, deaf teacher from national royal institue for deaf in paris; came to US to help Thomas Gallaudet, and hearing american, start americas 1st school for deaf in hartford, connecticut.
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what happened in 1864 1st deaf university , called gallaudet university, established by a charter signed by president Lincoln
what happened in 1880 speech and lipreading became primary goal and sign was not allowed in the classroom, National association of deaf (NAD) found in cincinnati, ohio. they established a fund used to make a series of film in sign.
1900-1960 "Dark ages"- strong oralism and lack of social understanding. local deaf clubs provided a place where deaf people could congregate to socialize, share latest news, organize around political issues, plan events and outings, and later watch captioned films. Group loyalty and community maintained the culture, and preserved the cherished language.
1901 National Fraternal Society of the Deaf (NFSD) formed to provide burial benefits (original), sickness, life , accident insurance. Later fought against discrimination against deaf drivers getting auto insurance
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1964 National Registry of interpreters for the deaf founded, leading to increased respect for, and greater proficiency with, the profession; TTY invented by deaf man
1965 1st linguistic study of ASL. made by william stokoe at gallaudet and had great on continued research and recognition of ASL
1966 NAD fought for the right of a deaf couple in cali to adopt a foster child, the judge said that the child would not have a normal home environment with deaf parents after an outpouring support from deaf communities all over the U.S., the couple was awarded custody of the child
1967 National theatre for the deaf, spreading awareness and appreciation of ASL throughout the world
Generated by Koofers.com
1976 Section 504 of the rehabilitation act signed- requires that any institution receiving federal funds be accessible to all disabled people. interpreting services began to be provided at many colleges around the country, also hospitals, courtrooms, government agencies and various workplaces
1979 Hearing performer in role of deaf character in movie voices. successfully, deaf staged boycott of movie in several cities, forcing distributer to withdraw film from the market. Since then, deaf performers have become more visible on tv, stage, and film. deaf are more often hired to preform in deaf roles.
1988 The "Deaf president Now" rally at gallaudet drew support not only from members of deaf community, but from many people in all walks of life. what happened was the culmination of a people's struggles to break the chains of paternalism
4 ways to express "cents" 1) number plus fingerspell "cents"; 2) number plus sign "cent"; 3) sign "cent" plus number; 4) incorporate number with sign "cent"
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$1 similar to sign for 1st because of the twist of the wrist. it is different because of the sign "dollar" in front of it. can be made with slightly bigger twist of wrist and with wider arc. May have to rely on text to distinguish the difference in sign
dollars 1-9 signed with the twist of hand (palm out to palm in). mixed dollar starts with twist of wrist, then cent sign, then numbers (1.45)
sign for dollar dominant hand cupped over top of non-dominant hand and pulling away twice
Plain verbs do not convey information themselves; require that the signer specifies the subject and object (ex. sit/ stand/ dance)
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Inflecting verbs unlike plain verbs, allow signer to indicate the subject and object by changing the direction of movement of the sign. can be inflected to indicate the number of subjects and/or objects (ex. give, show, take, ask, tell, pay)
Spatial verbs like inflecting, allow the signer to change the direction of movement of the sign to indicate location. like plain verbs, the subject and object must be specified (ex. put, send, move, bring/take)
Classifiers handshapes (not signs) used to show the following about people or things; appearance (what it looks like), location (where they are), movement (how they are used or what they do
9 different classifiers 1) B or BB-CL flat objects like a book; 2) LL-CL or G-CL (flat rectangle like pic or envelope); 3) C or CC-CL ( cylinder, round like cup); 4) 5 with 2 dots- CL ( roundish not flat; ball or apple); 5) V with 2 dots-CL (legs like animal or chair); 6) 1-CL (slender like pencil or lipstick) 7) LL with 2 dots-CL (round flat like plate, taco, cd); 8) F-CL (small rounds like buttons); 9) 3-CL (Like vehicles or cars)
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Personal pronouns I/me (index finger to self); you (index finger to person talking to); he/she/it, him/her (index finger points to person if present or to space designating that person)
Possessive pronouns my/mine (pat chest with b-hand); your/yours (B-hand faces persons you are taking to); his/her/its (B-hand faces third person if present or to space designating that person)
Age Numbers combination of the sign indicating age and the number itself. palm orientation is out (index to chin, out sign number)
Ranking Siblings usually rank by age on your non-dominant hand. the oldest is represented by the thumb or index finger, depending on the number
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5 kids if you have more than _ ____, signs the ordinal number of the rank (ex 6th) with non-dominant hand and points to it with his other hand
what is the demonstration of a good attitude? offering to take notes for a deaf person if the interpretor doesn't show up
Ask for repetition if you don't understand what a deaf person is saying to you, you should ___ ___ __________
what is the best way to pass through a signed conversation? sign "excuse me" and walk through
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what is the polite way to watch another signed conversation? casually look then look away
what is the appropriate way to introduce yourself to a deaf person? give your name, your class and your teachers name (also why learning sign, deaf name)
what is the most appropriate way to hug? Warm, gentle hug
what is the polite way to interrupt a signed conversation? wait for a pause and quickly ask/comment
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how do you get attention of a third person? ask other signers between you and the third person to get his or her attention for you
Natural movement numbers evolved to move with your hand as a _______ __________, moves the way your had twists
Role shifting ____ ________ occurs when a signer describes a person or character, tells what a person did or said, or shows how a person thinks or feels. this is done by "assuming the role" of that person and adopting his/her manner while recounting what was said or done
Facial expression form or role shifting we have been introduced to is the adoption of the manner and _____ ________ associated with specific attributes, such as shyness, anger, humility, boldness
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"way of telling" the purpose of role shifting is to use where whole conversations are represented, it is not just a style; it is the ___ __ _______ that is preferred in the deaf community
plainly and clearly you should speak _______ and ______ at normal speed and tone
Directly speak _____ to the deaf person, not interpreter, avoid "tell him" or "tell her." you want deaf actively engaged in the conversation
Exactly interpreters do not edit your remarks. they translate _______ what is said. remarks made by any speaker within the presence of the deaf person will be translated
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Confidentially don't speak ______ to interpreter, they are only present to translate- not tot express opinions or become personally involved in your conversations.
group in a _____, speak 1 at a time- interpreters can only sign 1 at a time and are not able to prioritize the importance of various speakers in the room
Rarely its hard for a deaf person to take notes and watch the interpreter. meeting or class notes _____ take the place of face-to-face conversation and so not be substituted for a deaf person's attendance and full participation in discussions and involvements in the decision making process
Facilitate communication consult the deaf person about where everyone-the interpreter, and both deaf and hearing participants- should sit or stand for the most effective placement to _______ ___________; important when deaf person is speaking and to see everyone clearly
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Time lag a deaf person need time to focus on changes from one speaker to another, allow for the ____ ___, often one or two sentences behind, for a deaf person does have a voice through an interpreter and can participate actively
2 norms for describing people 1) point out the person and describe his/her most noticeable or distinguishing characteristics; 2) make sure your listener understands who you're talking about- do not go on until you get conformation that s/he knows who you mean.
Interactive identifying people is an __________ process
response you need conformation of someone because you need to be on the same page as the other person. they have to know who it is you are taking about, you need to make sure that person can give you a ________ with extra features to make sure you are talking about the same person.
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identifying someone present to _______ _________ ________, you begin with raised eyebrows and the sign "see" so they know to look for someone present. eyebrows stay raised for the whole description
order of characteristics for identifying a person gender; height; body type; hair color; hairstyle
right after if there is a feature that distinguishes that person in a situation, you mention them ______ ______ gender. for example, race, jewelry, facial features, glasses, clothes, and if they are sitting, standing, or signing
conformation when your listener nods or gives ___________ descriptions of the person you identified, proceed with comments or questions about that person
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identifying someone who is not present you still have raised eyebrows but sign "know" instead of "see"
to help listener know start with order of characteristics, then go on about occupation where you may have seen them, personal qualities, habits, and the persons relationship to other people the listener knows
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 Cheryl Walker-VannInstructor
 TextbookSigning naturally units 7-12
 Objectives-To enhance students' basic ASL communication skills (ability to recognize, describe and produce, under appropriate conditions, the targeted vocabulary and grammatical features of ASL) -To further develop knowledge of cultural info. necessary for basic interactions within the deaf community (role shifting, appripriate ways to interrupt, giving feedback, negotiating signing environment, and other behavioral norms) -To increase students' ability to recognize and describe the essential feature of deaf culture, various communication strategies utilized, past/present educations options, and other related topics
 Testswritten (20 points.) expressive/receptive (10 points each) for a total of 6 sets of all of those; written final (50 points); expressive/receptive final (50 points)
 Bonus Points0
 Attendancebecause learning asl requires face-to-face interaction, ________ is of critical importance
 Make-upif you must miss class, special arrangements for ____ __ can be provided if you have a VALID AND VERIFIABLE EXCUSE. (eg hospital stay, jury duty). Otherwise, the tests/ quizzes missed cannot be made up
 Points accumulatedthe Final grade is determined by the number of _______ ___________
 Classroomworkbook designed to give you a way to review and practice what you learn in the __________
 Video_______, you can see when and how facial expressions occur and how body, head and eye movements are used for phrasing and agreement. MOST IMPORTANT, you see how language is used to context.
 Functional approachthrough the _______ ______, the language you learn is the language used in everyday conversation.
 Approach to conversations____________ __ _____________ in the following stages: a) read the situation at the beginning of each cued dialog in workbook b) review the conversation and try to follow the intent of the exchange. do not concern yourself with the individual unfamiliar signs c) read the cued dialog in the workbook to see if you understood the exchange d) view the conversation again, looking for how key phrases are expressed e) rehearse the key phrases
 Personal Informationto keep the conversation interesting and spontaneous, vary the conversation by adding ________ ______________.
 Restrictyou are not given english equivalents because they often _____ your understanding and usage of the signs
 Local areayou instructor may introduce a different sign more commonly used in your _____ _____ than workbook
 workbookinstruction for videotape are in the ____________
 rewindif you miss a sign or sentence while working on an activity don't ______ to see just that part again, but continue the activity until the end, then replay the whole activity to complete the answers you missed.
 8 strategies for learning ASL1) Follow all conversations whether they are between teach and class, teach and student, or student and student 2) Focus on signers face and not hands; do not lose eye contact 3) Develop active listening behaviors (nodding, and wow type response); this is culture- listeners have an active role in a signed conversation 4)Participate; agree or disagree; more participation, more learning; mistakes help you learn 5) Don't worry about a sign you miss; try to get gist of conversation; if it keeps coming up ask teach (no english translation; want to strengthen communication skills) 6)Leave english out the door; don't worry about memorizing, as repetition and context help you acquire the language. 7)Maintain a sign environment during class break, before class, and where deaf are present 8)try not to miss class; your class strives to form a language community
 Active listening behaviorsnoddingresponding with "huh?" "wow" or "really?"
 Cardinal numberscounting numbers
 Ordinal numberindicate order in a series
 3 steps to give directions to a place in the building1) give the general location: "upstairs, 4th floor"2) identify starting point on the floor: "As you leave the elevator"3) give the specific directions from the starting point: " turn left, past the drinking fountain, and its the second door on your right"
 1st through 9thmade with twist of wrist toward the body, with the hand in a more horizontal position than the position for cardinal numbers10th and up
 10th and upmade with the same form as cardinal numbers, but adding the fingerspelled "th" or "nd" or "rd" at the end
 Giving directions to someone familiar with the buildinguse a common reference point1) establish the CRP: "you know the drinking fountain on the 4th floor"2) give specific directions to the desired location: " pass the drinking fountain, and its the second door on the right."
 Spatial Agreementuse ______ ___________, eye gaze/ location agreement an non-manual behaviors showing distance, so that your listener can visualize the route or location you describe
 90%_____ of all deaf children have hearing parents
 5 strategies for cross-cultural communication1) Pen and paper- used to seek info, conducting business, or having conversations 2) gesturing- used with people seen regularly and in situations where the interaction is predictable. also used to manage limited social contact with people like a waitress, relatives, co-workers, neighbors 3) lipreading and speech- least preferred strategies for most deaf people. about 30% of english spoken can be understood by lipreading, which leaves the deaf person in a untenable position. lipreading leaves considerable room for misunderstanding and because of this, it is held to a minimum 4)Adapting signs to others- used with hearing people with varying degrees. may mean the inclusion of more fingerspelled words, mor mouthing words, gesturing, simple sentences, slower pace, more english-like word order 5) using a 3rd person to interpret- helps make conversations between deaf and hearing flow more smoothly. 3rd person signs what it said and voices what is signed.
 Pen and papermost common strategy
 lipreadinglease preferred method of communication
 30%___ of spoken english can be understood through lipreading
 Varying signs______ ______ include more fingerspelled words, more mouthing of words, gesturing, simple sentences, slow pace, more english-like word-order. the purpose is to communicate.
 4 strategies for sign studentsLet deaf know you sign; Let deaf set communication pattern; Avoid talking in the presence of a deaf person without relaying signs, it is considered rude to not keep deaf informed; Avoid watching a conversation unless you plan to introduce yourself
 To "tell time"first sign "time" (index finger taps the wrist of the dominant hand), then sign the number indicating the "hour"
 1-9 o'clockthe number is signed with a slight waving movement
 numbers 10, 11, 12signed without the movement
 non-dominant handfor 1-9 O'Clock, the sign combo "time" plus number is often contracted so that the number indicating the hour begins at the wrist of ___ ________ ____, then moves to the fingerspelling area
 Hour and minute combofor ____ ___ ______ _____, sign the number for the hour, then slightly to the right of that, sign number of minutes (for left signer move slightly to the left); no wave movement
 Away; hour and minutenumber 1-9 are singed with the palm facing _____ from the body for both ____ and ______ information; rest of the numbers are singed just like cardinal
 what happened in 1817laurent clerc, deaf teacher from national royal institue for deaf in paris; came to US to help Thomas Gallaudet, and hearing american, start americas 1st school for deaf in hartford, connecticut.
 what happened in 18641st deaf university , called gallaudet university, established by a charter signed by president Lincoln
 what happened in 1880speech and lipreading became primary goal and sign was not allowed in the classroom, National association of deaf (NAD) found in cincinnati, ohio. they established a fund used to make a series of film in sign.
 1900-1960"Dark ages"- strong oralism and lack of social understanding. local deaf clubs provided a place where deaf people could congregate to socialize, share latest news, organize around political issues, plan events and outings, and later watch captioned films. Group loyalty and community maintained the culture, and preserved the cherished language.
 1901National Fraternal Society of the Deaf (NFSD) formed to provide burial benefits (original), sickness, life , accident insurance. Later fought against discrimination against deaf drivers getting auto insurance
 1964National Registry of interpreters for the deaf founded, leading to increased respect for, and greater proficiency with, the profession; TTY invented by deaf man
 19651st linguistic study of ASL. made by william stokoe at gallaudet and had great on continued research and recognition of ASL
 1966NAD fought for the right of a deaf couple in cali to adopt a foster child, the judge said that the child would not have a normal home environment with deaf parents after an outpouring support from deaf communities all over the U.S., the couple was awarded custody of the child
 1967National theatre for the deaf, spreading awareness and appreciation of ASL throughout the world
 1976Section 504 of the rehabilitation act signed- requires that any institution receiving federal funds be accessible to all disabled people. interpreting services began to be provided at many colleges around the country, also hospitals, courtrooms, government agencies and various workplaces
 1979Hearing performer in role of deaf character in movie voices. successfully, deaf staged boycott of movie in several cities, forcing distributer to withdraw film from the market. Since then, deaf performers have become more visible on tv, stage, and film. deaf are more often hired to preform in deaf roles.
 1988The "Deaf president Now" rally at gallaudet drew support not only from members of deaf community, but from many people in all walks of life. what happened was the culmination of a people's struggles to break the chains of paternalism
 4 ways to express "cents"1) number plus fingerspell "cents"; 2) number plus sign "cent"; 3) sign "cent" plus number; 4) incorporate number with sign "cent"
 $1 similar to sign for 1stbecause of the twist of the wrist. it is different because of the sign "dollar" in front of it. can be made with slightly bigger twist of wrist and with wider arc. May have to rely on text to distinguish the difference in sign
 dollars 1-9 signed with the twist of hand (palm out to palm in). mixed dollar starts with twist of wrist, then cent sign, then numbers (1.45)
 sign for dollardominant hand cupped over top of non-dominant hand and pulling away twice
 Plain verbsdo not convey information themselves; require that the signer specifies the subject and object (ex. sit/ stand/ dance)
 Inflecting verbsunlike plain verbs, allow signer to indicate the subject and object by changing the direction of movement of the sign. can be inflected to indicate the number of subjects and/or objects (ex. give, show, take, ask, tell, pay)
 Spatial verbslike inflecting, allow the signer to change the direction of movement of the sign to indicate location. like plain verbs, the subject and object must be specified (ex. put, send, move, bring/take)
 Classifiershandshapes (not signs) used to show the following about people or things; appearance (what it looks like), location (where they are), movement (how they are used or what they do
 9 different classifiers1) B or BB-CL flat objects like a book; 2) LL-CL or G-CL (flat rectangle like pic or envelope); 3) C or CC-CL ( cylinder, round like cup); 4) 5 with 2 dots- CL ( roundish not flat; ball or apple); 5) V with 2 dots-CL (legs like animal or chair); 6) 1-CL (slender like pencil or lipstick) 7) LL with 2 dots-CL (round flat like plate, taco, cd); 8) F-CL (small rounds like buttons); 9) 3-CL (Like vehicles or cars)
 Personal pronounsI/me (index finger to self); you (index finger to person talking to); he/she/it, him/her (index finger points to person if present or to space designating that person)
 Possessive pronounsmy/mine (pat chest with b-hand); your/yours (B-hand faces persons you are taking to); his/her/its (B-hand faces third person if present or to space designating that person)
 Age Numberscombination of the sign indicating age and the number itself. palm orientation is out (index to chin, out sign number)
 Ranking Siblingsusually rank by age on your non-dominant hand. the oldest is represented by the thumb or index finger, depending on the number
 5 kidsif you have more than _ ____, signs the ordinal number of the rank (ex 6th) with non-dominant hand and points to it with his other hand
 what is the demonstration of a good attitude?offering to take notes for a deaf person if the interpretor doesn't show up
 Ask for repetitionif you don't understand what a deaf person is saying to you, you should ___ ___ __________
 what is the best way to pass through a signed conversation?sign "excuse me" and walk through
 what is the polite way to watch another signed conversation?casually look then look away
 what is the appropriate way to introduce yourself to a deaf person?give your name, your class and your teachers name (also why learning sign, deaf name)
 what is the most appropriate way to hug?Warm, gentle hug
 what is the polite way to interrupt a signed conversation?wait for a pause and quickly ask/comment
 how do you get attention of a third person?ask other signers between you and the third person to get his or her attention for you
 Natural movementnumbers evolved to move with your hand as a _______ __________, moves the way your had twists
 Role shifting____ ________ occurs when a signer describes a person or character, tells what a person did or said, or shows how a person thinks or feels. this is done by "assuming the role" of that person and adopting his/her manner while recounting what was said or done
 Facial expressionform or role shifting we have been introduced to is the adoption of the manner and _____ ________ associated with specific attributes, such as shyness, anger, humility, boldness
 "way of telling"the purpose of role shifting is to use where whole conversations are represented, it is not just a style; it is the ___ __ _______ that is preferred in the deaf community
 plainly and clearlyyou should speak _______ and ______ at normal speed and tone
 Directlyspeak _____ to the deaf person, not interpreter, avoid "tell him" or "tell her." you want deaf actively engaged in the conversation
 Exactlyinterpreters do not edit your remarks. they translate _______ what is said. remarks made by any speaker within the presence of the deaf person will be translated
 Confidentiallydon't speak ______ to interpreter, they are only present to translate- not tot express opinions or become personally involved in your conversations.
 groupin a _____, speak 1 at a time- interpreters can only sign 1 at a time and are not able to prioritize the importance of various speakers in the room
 Rarelyits hard for a deaf person to take notes and watch the interpreter. meeting or class notes _____ take the place of face-to-face conversation and so not be substituted for a deaf person's attendance and full participation in discussions and involvements in the decision making process
 Facilitate communicationconsult the deaf person about where everyone-the interpreter, and both deaf and hearing participants- should sit or stand for the most effective placement to _______ ___________; important when deaf person is speaking and to see everyone clearly
 Time laga deaf person need time to focus on changes from one speaker to another, allow for the ____ ___, often one or two sentences behind, for a deaf person does have a voice through an interpreter and can participate actively
 2 norms for describing people1) point out the person and describe his/her most noticeable or distinguishing characteristics; 2) make sure your listener understands who you're talking about- do not go on until you get conformation that s/he knows who you mean.
 Interactiveidentifying people is an __________ process
 responseyou need conformation of someone because you need to be on the same page as the other person. they have to know who it is you are taking about, you need to make sure that person can give you a ________ with extra features to make sure you are talking about the same person.
 identifying someone presentto _______ _________ ________, you begin with raised eyebrows and the sign "see" so they know to look for someone present. eyebrows stay raised for the whole description
 order of characteristics for identifying a persongender; height; body type; hair color; hairstyle
 right afterif there is a feature that distinguishes that person in a situation, you mention them ______ ______ gender. for example, race, jewelry, facial features, glasses, clothes, and if they are sitting, standing, or signing
 conformationwhen your listener nods or gives ___________ descriptions of the person you identified, proceed with comments or questions about that person
 identifying someone who is not presentyou still have raised eyebrows but sign "know" instead of "see"
 to help listener knowstart with order of characteristics, then go on about occupation where you may have seen them, personal qualities, habits, and the persons relationship to other people the listener knows
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