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Test 2- Carbohydrates, Lipids, & Proteins - Flashcards

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Class:SMHM 2460 - Introduction to Nutrition Science
Subject:Merchandising & Hospitality Mg
University:University of North Texas
Term:Spring 2011
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What are Carbohydrates? a macronutrient. compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The preferred source of fuel for the brain, made up of sugars.
Carbohydrate Food Sources? mainly from plants- fruits, vegetables, grains
Monosaccharides? sugar molecules composed of 6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, and 6 oxygen atoms. Most abundant form is glucose but others are fructose (from fruits and vegetables) and galactose(not naturally occuring in foods).
Disaccharides? compounds composed of two sugar molecules Maltose, Sucrose, and Lactose
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Maltose? Glucose+glucose; malt sugar
Lactose? Glucose+galactose; milk sugar; found in dairy products
Sucrose? the sweetest of all dissacharides; glucose+fructose; found in fruits, vegetables, packaged snacks, sugarcane, brown sugar, syrup, etc.
Polysacharrides starch (tubers, legumes, and grains), fiber (from plants (gives them structure) grains, vegetables, and legumes), and glycogen (animal/human storage form of glucose)
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Insolube Fiber cannot dissolve in water, not viscous, not easily fermented by bacteria in the colon, promotes regular bowel movements; sources include grains, brown rice, rye, wheat, and vegetables.
Soluble Fiber dissolves in water, fermentable by bacteria in the colon, viscours, lowers cholesterol levels; sources include citrus fruits, berries, oat products, and beans.
Function of Carbohydrates to provide energy for cells and the brain, especially during intense exercise
Ketosis When the body is in short supply of carbohydrates, the body begins to break down stores of fat, releasing ketones which can cause the blood acidity to rise and damage organs.
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gluconeogenesis The generation of glucose from the breakdown of proteins into amino acids when insufficient carbohydrates are present
Digestion & Absorption of Carbohydrates Chewing & Salivary Amylase in the mouth; Stomach (no digestion, neutralizes salivary amylase); Small Intestine- pancreatic Amylase secreted which breaks down carbs and most digestion occurs here. monosaccarhides are absorbed and enter the bloodstream; Monosaccharides travel through the liver and are converted to glucose (excess is stored as glycogen); Large Intestine- some breakdown by bacteria; The remaining fiber is excreted
Diabetes The inability for the body to regulate blood glucose levels: Type 1- body cannot produce enough insulin, and Type 2- body grows a progessive resistance towards insulin.
Insulin pancreatic hormone made by beta cells that causes cells to open and take in glucose from the bloodstream to lower levels.
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Glucagon The pancreatic hormone created by alpha cells, to spur the breakdown of glycogen into glucose to raise blood glucose levels.
Glycemic Index & Foods with high G.I. a rating system of the potential for a certain food to increase one's levels of glucose and insulin in the body. Foods with high G.I. include white bread, instant mashed potatoes, jelly beans, and rice krispies.
AMDR for Carbohydrates Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range is 45-65% of total energy intake.
Fiber Intake 14g per 1000 calories per day OR at least 25g/day for women and 38g/day for men.
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Nutritive Sweeteners provide calories. Include sucrose, fructose, honey, syrup, brown sugar, etc.
Non-nutritive Sweetners do not provide calories. includes saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, acesulfame-k) also known as alternative sweeteners.
Disorders Related to Carbohydrate Metabolism Diabetes, lactose intolerance, and hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia? When blood glucose levels are lower than normal
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LIPIDS a broad group of substances including triglycerides, sterols, and phospholipids that are insoluble in water.
Triglycerides molecule composed of 3 fatty acids (chains of carbon atoms attached to hydrogen atoms) a 3-carbon glycerol backbone; these consist of 95% of the fats we eat, and are classified by chain length
Fatty Acid Chain Length Short- >6 carbons; Medium 6>12; Long 14 or more carbons; Chain length determines saturation, function, digestion, and absorption.
Saturated Fat triglycerides containing no double carbon-to-carbon bonds, indicating that the maximum number of hydrogen atoms are attached. EX: butter, whole milk, cream, beef, coconut oil, palm kernel oil.
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Monounsaturated Fatty acid a fatty acid that contains one carbon-to-carbon double bond, containing less hydrogen, causing a kink in the chain which forces them to not lie flat and makes fats typically liquid at room temperature EX: canola oil, olive oil, and cashews
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid A fatty acid with more than one carbon-to-carbon double bond therefore containing even less hydrogen. EX: canola oil, corn oil, safflower oil, and cottonseed oil
Trans Fatty Acids a fatty acid that has been hydrogenized and has hydrogen atoms attached diagonally opposite sides of a double carbon-to-carbon bond, making the acid lay like saturated fat. EX: processed packaged foods, deep fried foods, spreadable margarine, bakery goods, crackers, tortillas, and pancakes.
Hydrogenation the process of adding hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fats making them cheaper, more sustainable against rancidity, and solid at room temperature.
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Essential Fatty Acids fatty acids that our body cannot produce so we must consume them Alpha Linolenic (Omega 3) sources are fish products, fish oil, flaxseed oil, soy oil, and leafy greens. Linolenic (Omega-6) sources are nut oils like peanut oil, soy oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, and vegetables
Phospholipid two fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone attached to a compound containing phosphate. These create the lipid bilayers of a cell membrane, aid in the transportation of fats, and are soluble in water.
Sterols the most common form is cholesterol, they have ring structures. and plant sterols are not absorbed well.
Lipoprotein a spherical compound in which fat clusters in the center and phosophlipids and proteins join to form the outside of the sphere. Other lipoproteins include HDL (high density lipoprotein= good cholesterol) and LDL (low density lipoprotein= bad cholesterol)
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Chylomicron a type of lipoprotein produced in mucosal cells of the intestine that transport dietary fat out of the intestine.
Function of Fats to provide energy during rest or low intensity exercise, or fasting. cushions the organs during a fall. aids in the transport of fat soluble vitamins A D E and K
Digestion & Absorption of Fats Lingual Lipase breaks down some triglycerides in the mouth. In the stomach fat is mixed and broken into droplets, gastric lipase breaks down some triglycerides. Gall bladder releases bile into the small intestine which emulsifies fat and pancreatic enzymes break down fatty acids from their glycerol backbones. Micelles transport free fatty acids to mucosal cells where triglycerides are reformed and packaged into lipoproteins before being released into the blood stream.
AMDR for fat & saturated fat intake? AMDR 20-35% total energy intake. saturated fat 7% or less
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 What are Carbohydrates?a macronutrient. compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The preferred source of fuel for the brain, made up of sugars.
 Carbohydrate Food Sources?mainly from plants- fruits, vegetables, grains
 Monosaccharides?sugar molecules composed of 6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, and 6 oxygen atoms. Most abundant form is glucose but others are fructose (from fruits and vegetables) and galactose(not naturally occuring in foods).
 Disaccharides?compounds composed of two sugar molecules
Maltose, Sucrose, and Lactose
 Maltose?Glucose+glucose;
malt sugar
 Lactose?Glucose+galactose;
milk sugar; found in dairy products
 Sucrose?the sweetest of all dissacharides; glucose+fructose; found in fruits, vegetables, packaged snacks, sugarcane, brown sugar, syrup, etc.
 Polysacharridesstarch (tubers, legumes, and grains), fiber (from plants (gives them structure) grains, vegetables, and legumes), and glycogen (animal/human storage form of glucose)
 Insolube Fibercannot dissolve in water, not viscous, not easily fermented by bacteria in the colon, promotes regular bowel movements; sources include grains, brown rice, rye, wheat, and vegetables.
 Soluble Fiberdissolves in water, fermentable by bacteria in the colon, viscours, lowers cholesterol levels; sources include citrus fruits, berries, oat products, and beans.
 Function of Carbohydratesto provide energy for cells and the brain, especially during intense exercise
 KetosisWhen the body is in short supply of carbohydrates, the body begins to break down stores of fat, releasing ketones which can cause the blood acidity to rise and damage organs.
 gluconeogenesisThe generation of glucose from the breakdown of proteins into amino acids when insufficient carbohydrates are present
 Digestion & Absorption of CarbohydratesChewing & Salivary Amylase in the mouth;
Stomach (no digestion, neutralizes salivary amylase);
Small Intestine- pancreatic Amylase secreted which breaks down carbs and most digestion occurs here. monosaccarhides are absorbed and enter the bloodstream;
Monosaccharides travel through the liver and are converted to glucose (excess is stored as glycogen);
Large Intestine- some breakdown by bacteria; The remaining fiber is excreted
 DiabetesThe inability for the body to regulate blood glucose levels: Type 1- body cannot produce enough insulin, and Type 2- body grows a progessive resistance towards insulin.
 Insulinpancreatic hormone made by beta cells that causes cells to open and take in glucose from the bloodstream to lower levels.
 GlucagonThe pancreatic hormone created by alpha cells, to spur the breakdown of glycogen into glucose to raise blood glucose levels.
 Glycemic Index & Foods with high G.I.a rating system of the potential for a certain food to increase one's levels of glucose and insulin in the body. Foods with high G.I. include white bread, instant mashed potatoes, jelly beans, and rice krispies.
 AMDR for CarbohydratesAcceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range is 45-65% of total energy intake.
 Fiber Intake14g per 1000 calories per day OR at least 25g/day for women and 38g/day for men.
 Nutritive Sweetenersprovide calories. Include sucrose, fructose, honey, syrup, brown sugar, etc.
 Non-nutritive Sweetnersdo not provide calories. includes saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, acesulfame-k) also known as alternative sweeteners.
 Disorders Related to Carbohydrate MetabolismDiabetes, lactose intolerance, and hypoglycemia
 Hypoglycemia?When blood glucose levels are lower than normal
 LIPIDSa broad group of substances including triglycerides, sterols, and phospholipids that are insoluble in water.
 Triglyceridesmolecule composed of 3 fatty acids (chains of carbon atoms attached to hydrogen atoms) a 3-carbon glycerol backbone; these consist of 95% of the fats we eat, and are classified by chain length
 Fatty Acid Chain LengthShort- >6 carbons;
Medium 6>12;
Long 14 or more carbons;
Chain length determines saturation, function, digestion, and absorption.
 Saturated Fattriglycerides containing no double carbon-to-carbon bonds, indicating that the maximum number of hydrogen atoms are attached. EX: butter, whole milk, cream, beef, coconut oil, palm kernel oil.
 Monounsaturated Fatty acida fatty acid that contains one carbon-to-carbon double bond, containing less hydrogen, causing a kink in the chain which forces them to not lie flat and makes fats typically liquid at room temperature EX: canola oil, olive oil, and cashews
 Polyunsaturated Fatty AcidA fatty acid with more than one carbon-to-carbon double bond therefore containing even less hydrogen. EX: canola oil, corn oil, safflower oil, and cottonseed oil
 Trans Fatty Acidsa fatty acid that has been hydrogenized and has hydrogen atoms attached diagonally opposite sides of a double carbon-to-carbon bond, making the acid lay like saturated fat. EX: processed packaged foods, deep fried foods, spreadable margarine, bakery goods, crackers, tortillas, and pancakes.
 Hydrogenationthe process of adding hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fats making them cheaper, more sustainable against rancidity, and solid at room temperature.
 Essential Fatty Acidsfatty acids that our body cannot produce so we must consume them
Alpha Linolenic (Omega 3) sources are fish products, fish oil, flaxseed oil, soy oil, and leafy greens. Linolenic (Omega-6) sources are nut oils like peanut oil, soy oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, and vegetables
 Phospholipidtwo fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone attached to a compound containing phosphate. These create the lipid bilayers of a cell membrane, aid in the transportation of fats, and are soluble in water.
 Sterolsthe most common form is cholesterol, they have ring structures. and plant sterols are not absorbed well.
 Lipoproteina spherical compound in which fat clusters in the center and phosophlipids and proteins join to form the outside of the sphere. Other lipoproteins include HDL (high density lipoprotein= good cholesterol) and LDL (low density lipoprotein= bad cholesterol)
 Chylomicron a type of lipoprotein produced in mucosal cells of the intestine that transport dietary fat out of the intestine.
 Function of Fatsto provide energy during rest or low intensity exercise, or fasting. cushions the organs during a fall. aids in the transport of fat soluble vitamins A D E and K
 Digestion & Absorption of FatsLingual Lipase breaks down some triglycerides in the mouth. In the stomach fat is mixed and broken into droplets, gastric lipase breaks down some triglycerides. Gall bladder releases bile into the small intestine which emulsifies fat and pancreatic enzymes break down fatty acids from their glycerol backbones. Micelles transport free fatty acids to mucosal cells where triglycerides are reformed and packaged into lipoproteins before being released into the blood stream.
 AMDR for fat & saturated fat intake?AMDR 20-35% total energy intake.
saturated fat 7% or less
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