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Class:SOC 110 - Introduction to Sociology
Subject:Sociology & Criminal Justice
University:Saint Louis University
Term:Spring 2010
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Sociological Perspective Stresses the social context in which people live. It examines how these contexts influence people's lives.
Society A group of people who share a culture and a territory
Social Location The corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in society
Social sciences Examine human relationships
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Anthropology The chief concern is to understand a culture
Economics Study the production and distribution of the material goods and services of a society
Political Science Politics and governments, how governments are formed, how they operate and how they are related to other institutions
Psychology focus on process that occurs within the individual.
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Sociology Overlaps all of these, look at societies and peoples on the whole
Generalizations go beyond the individual case and makes statements that apply to a broader group or situation
Common sense The prevailing ideas in a society the things that "everyone knows" are true, can be wrong
The Scientific Method using objective, systematic observations to test theories
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positivism Auguste Comte, applying the scientific method to the social world
Comte Coined the phrase "sociology" as the "study of society" should guide reform
Herbert Spencer Social Darwinism, should not reform, or you'd interfere with survival of the fittest
Marx Conflict Theory,
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class conflict is the engine of human history' the bourgeoisie and the proletariat
social integration Emile Dukheim, the degree to which people are tied to their social group (found a connection to suicide)
Max Weber Protestant work ethic, religion key to social change, sociologists should be value-free
value free Values should not affect his or her research
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objectivity value neutrality
Replication repeating a study in order to compare the new results with the original findings
Verstehen German "To understand" (Weber) "to grasp by insight"
Subjective meanings how people interpret their situation in life, how they view what they are doing and what is happening to them
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Social facts patterns of behavior that characterize a social group
Basic (or pure) Sociology sees the role as the sociologist as analyzing some aspect of society and publishing it
Applied sociology Using sociology to solve societal problems
theory General statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they were, explanation about how two or more facts fit together
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symbolic interactionism symbols, things to which we attach meaning, or the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another (cooley and Mead)
functional analysis society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together
conflict theory the key to human history is class conflict. In each society some small group controls the means of production and exploits those who are not in control
macro level they examine large-scall patterns of society
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micro level what people do when they are in one another's presence, social interaction
non-verbal interaction gestures, silence, use of space etc.
Public sociology Sociology being used for the public good
Globalization breaking down of national boundaries because of advances in communications, trade and travel
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globalization of capitalism capitalism becoming the dominant world economic system
culture The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next
material culture such things as jewelry, art, buildings, weapons, machines and even eating utensils, hairstyles and clothing
nonmaterial culture ways of thinking, its beliefs, values and assumptions about the world
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culture shock disorientation going from one culture to another
ethnocentrism a tendency to use our own group's way of doing things as a yardstick for judging others
Cultural relativism try to understand a culture on its own terms
Gestures movements of the body to communicate with others
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language the primary way in which people communicate with one another, symbols used to convey meaning
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis reverses common sense; it indicates that rather than objects and events forcing themselves onto our conscious it is our language that determines our consciousness and hen
Values people's ideas of what is desirable in life
norms expectations that develop out of a groups values
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sanctions refers to the reaction people receive for following or breaking norms
folkways Norms that are not strictly enforced
mores taken much more seriously, see them as essential to our core values
taboo a norm so strong that even the thought of violation is greeted with revulsion, cannibalism
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subculture a world within the larger world of the dominant culture
Countercultures some of the group's values and norms place it at odds with the dominant culture
pluralistic society a society made up of many different groups
value clusters values that cluster together to form a larger whole ie. "sucess"
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value contradictions values that cannot be expressed without violating another: freedom and equality for instance
ideal culture values, norms and goals that a group considers ideal, worth aiming for
real culture the norms and values that people in a group actually follow
cultural universals values norms or other cultural traits that are found everywhere - does it exist
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Technology tool, skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
Cultural lag material culture changes first with nonmaterial culture lagging behing
cultural diffusion groups in contact with one another and are more willing to adopt "better" technology or material culture
cultural leveling a process in which cultures become similar to one another
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social environment "nurture"
socialization it is through human contact that people learn to be members of the human community
looking glass self Cooley, 1) we imagine how we appear to those around us, 2) we interpret others reaction 3) we develop an self concept
take the role of the other Mead: learn to put ourselves in someone else's shoes
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Significant others as we develop we first take on the roles of individuals who significantly influence our lives, role playing
Generalized other the ability to take on the role of the group as a whole (MEAD)
id pleasure seeking principle
superego the conscience
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ego the moderator between the super-ego and the id
gender socialization through socialization we are nudged into different lanes in life, into contrasting attitudes and behavior based on gender
peer group individuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests
mass media a major guide to the gender map
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agents of socialization individuals and groups that influence our orientation in life- our self-concept, emotions, attitudes and behavior
manifest function intended purpose
latent function the unintended consequences that help the social system
anticipatory socialization learning to play a role before entering into it
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resocialization learning new norms, values, attitudes and behaviors to match new situations in life
total institution a place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and where they come under almost total control of the officials who are in charge
degradation ceremony an attempt to remake the self by stripping away the individual's current identity and stamping a new one in its place
life course stages from birth to death
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Mead Role Taking 1) imitation 2) play 3) team games
Piaget Reasoning stages 1) sensorimotor 2)preoperational 3) concrete operational 4) formal operational
Sensorimotor Stage From Birth to 2, understanding is limited to direct contact
Preoperational stage 2-7 during this stage we develop the ability to use symbols, do not understand common concepts
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The concrete operational stage 7-12 reasoning is more developed but they remain concrete
The formal operational stage 12+, capable of abstract thinking
macrosociology focuses on broad features of society
microsociology the focus is on social interaction, what people do when they come together
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Social structure typical patterns of a group such as its usual relationships between men and women
social class people who have similar incomes and education and who work in roughly comparable in prestige
status the position that someone occupies
status set all the statuses or positions that you occupy
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ascribed status is involuntary, related to inherited statuses, roles in family, life course related
achieved status voluntary, earned or accomplished
Status symbol signs of the status you have obtained
master status cuts across your other statuses, some are ascribed (gender) or achieved (wealth)
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status inconsistency contradiction between their statuses
roles behaviors, obligations and privileges attached to status
group consists of people who interact with one another who feel that the values interests and norms they have in common are important
social institutions the standard or usual ways that a society meets its basic needs
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social integration the movement of minority groups such as ethnic minorities, refugees and underprivileged sections of a society into the mainstream of society.
mechanical solidarity people who perform similar tasks develop a shared consciousness
division of labor as societies grow they develop specialized types of work
organic solidarity A society no longer depends on one another to have similar ideas but rather depend on one another for the specific work that each person contributes for the whole
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Gemeinschaft "intimate community" to describe village life
Gesellschaft "impersonal association" are lives no longer center on intimate ties to family and friends
Dramaturgy using theatrical terms into sociological terms (Goffman)
impression management efforts to manage the impressions that others receive of us
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Front stage where we perform our roles
back stages places where we can retreat and have utter privacy
role performance particular emphasis or interpretation that we give a role
role conflict what is expected of us in one status is incompatible with what is expected of us in another
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role strain the same status contains incompatable roles
sign-vehicles the social setting, our appearance and our matter
face-saving behavior react in a way when the role has been dropped
ethnomethodology is the study of how people use commonsense understandings to make sense of life
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background assumptions your ideas about the way life is and the way things out to work
Thomas theorem definition of the situation, define situations as real, they are real in consequence
social construction of reality our society holds particular views of life that construct the way we see the world
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 Sociological PerspectiveStresses the social context in which people live. It examines how these contexts influence people's lives.
 SocietyA group of people who share a culture and a territory
 Social LocationThe corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in society
 Social sciencesExamine human relationships
 AnthropologyThe chief concern is to understand a culture
 Economics Study the production and distribution of the material goods and services of a society
 Political SciencePolitics and governments, how governments are formed, how they operate and how they are related to other institutions
 Psychologyfocus on process that occurs within the individual.
 SociologyOverlaps all of these, look at societies and peoples on the whole
 Generalizationsgo beyond the individual case and makes statements that apply to a broader group or situation
 Common senseThe prevailing ideas in a society the things that "everyone knows" are true, can be wrong
 The Scientific Methodusing objective, systematic observations to test theories
 positivismAuguste Comte, applying the scientific method to the social world
 ComteCoined the phrase "sociology" as the "study of society" should guide reform
 Herbert SpencerSocial Darwinism, should not reform, or you'd interfere with survival of the fittest
 MarxConflict Theory,
 class conflictis the engine of human history' the bourgeoisie and the proletariat
 social integrationEmile Dukheim, the degree to which people are tied to their social group (found a connection to suicide)
 Max WeberProtestant work ethic, religion key to social change, sociologists should be value-free
 value freeValues should not affect his or her research
 objectivityvalue neutrality
 Replicationrepeating a study in order to compare the new results with the original findings
 VerstehenGerman "To understand" (Weber) "to grasp by insight"
 Subjective meanings how people interpret their situation in life, how they view what they are doing and what is happening to them
 Social facts patterns of behavior that characterize a social group
 Basic (or pure) Sociology sees the role as the sociologist as analyzing some aspect of society and publishing it
 Applied sociology Using sociology to solve societal problems
 theoryGeneral statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they were, explanation about how two or more facts fit together
 symbolic interactionismsymbols, things to which we attach meaning, or the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another (cooley and Mead)
 functional analysissociety is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together
 conflict theorythe key to human history is class conflict. In each society some small group controls the means of production and exploits those who are not in control
 macro levelthey examine large-scall patterns of society
 micro levelwhat people do when they are in one another's presence, social interaction
 non-verbal interactiongestures, silence, use of space etc.
 Public sociology Sociology being used for the public good
 Globalizationbreaking down of national boundaries because of advances in communications, trade and travel
 globalization of capitalismcapitalism becoming the dominant world economic system
 cultureThe language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next
 material culturesuch things as jewelry, art, buildings, weapons, machines and even eating utensils, hairstyles and clothing
 nonmaterial cultureways of thinking, its beliefs, values and assumptions about the world
 culture shockdisorientation going from one culture to another
 ethnocentrisma tendency to use our own group's way of doing things as a yardstick for judging others
 Cultural relativismtry to understand a culture on its own terms
 Gestures movements of the body to communicate with others
 languagethe primary way in which people communicate with one another, symbols used to convey meaning
 Sapir-Whorf hypothesisreverses common sense; it indicates that rather than objects and events forcing themselves onto our conscious it is our language that determines our consciousness and hen
 Valuespeople's ideas of what is desirable in life
 normsexpectations that develop out of a groups values
 sanctionsrefers to the reaction people receive for following or breaking norms
 folkwaysNorms that are not strictly enforced
 morestaken much more seriously, see them as essential to our core values
 tabooa norm so strong that even the thought of violation is greeted with revulsion, cannibalism
 subculturea world within the larger world of the dominant culture
 Counterculturessome of the group's values and norms place it at odds with the dominant culture
 pluralistic society a society made up of many different groups
 value clustersvalues that cluster together to form a larger whole ie. "sucess"
 value contradictions values that cannot be expressed without violating another: freedom and equality for instance
 ideal culturevalues, norms and goals that a group considers ideal, worth aiming for
 real culturethe norms and values that people in a group actually follow
 cultural universalsvalues norms or other cultural traits that are found everywhere - does it exist
 Technologytool, skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
 Cultural lagmaterial culture changes first with nonmaterial culture lagging behing
 cultural diffusion groups in contact with one another and are more willing to adopt "better" technology or material culture
 cultural levelinga process in which cultures become similar to one another
 social environment"nurture"
 socialization it is through human contact that people learn to be members of the human community
 looking glass selfCooley, 1) we imagine how we appear to those around us, 2) we interpret others reaction 3) we develop an self concept
 take the role of the other Mead: learn to put ourselves in someone else's shoes
 Significant othersas we develop we first take on the roles of individuals who significantly influence our lives, role playing
 Generalized otherthe ability to take on the role of the group as a whole (MEAD)
 idpleasure seeking principle
 superegothe conscience
 egothe moderator between the super-ego and the id
 gender socialization through socialization we are nudged into different lanes in life, into contrasting attitudes and behavior based on gender
 peer groupindividuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests
 mass mediaa major guide to the gender map
 agents of socializationindividuals and groups that influence our orientation in life- our self-concept, emotions, attitudes and behavior
 manifest functionintended purpose
 latent functionthe unintended consequences that help the social system
 anticipatory socializationlearning to play a role before entering into it
 resocializationlearning new norms, values, attitudes and behaviors to match new situations in life
 total institutiona place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and where they come under almost total control of the officials who are in charge
 degradation ceremonyan attempt to remake the self by stripping away the individual's current identity and stamping a new one in its place
 life course stages from birth to death
 Mead Role Taking1) imitation 2) play 3) team games
 Piaget Reasoning stages1) sensorimotor 2)preoperational 3) concrete operational 4) formal operational
 Sensorimotor StageFrom Birth to 2, understanding is limited to direct contact
 Preoperational stage2-7 during this stage we develop the ability to use symbols, do not understand common concepts
 The concrete operational stage7-12 reasoning is more developed but they remain concrete
 The formal operational stage12+, capable of abstract thinking
 macrosociologyfocuses on broad features of society
 microsociologythe focus is on social interaction, what people do when they come together
 Social structure typical patterns of a group such as its usual relationships between men and women
 social classpeople who have similar incomes and education and who work in roughly comparable in prestige
 status the position that someone occupies
 status set all the statuses or positions that you occupy
 ascribed statusis involuntary, related to inherited statuses, roles in family, life course related
 achieved status voluntary, earned or accomplished
 Status symbolsigns of the status you have obtained
 master statuscuts across your other statuses, some are ascribed (gender) or achieved (wealth)
 status inconsistency contradiction between their statuses
 roles behaviors, obligations and privileges attached to status
 groupconsists of people who interact with one another who feel that the values interests and norms they have in common are important
 social institutionsthe standard or usual ways that a society meets its basic needs
 social integration the movement of minority groups such as ethnic minorities, refugees and underprivileged sections of a society into the mainstream of society.
 mechanical solidarity people who perform similar tasks develop a shared consciousness
 division of labor as societies grow they develop specialized types of work
 organic solidarity A society no longer depends on one another to have similar ideas but rather depend on one another for the specific work that each person contributes for the whole
 Gemeinschaft "intimate community" to describe village life
 Gesellschaft "impersonal association" are lives no longer center on intimate ties to family and friends
 Dramaturgy using theatrical terms into sociological terms (Goffman)
 impression managementefforts to manage the impressions that others receive of us
 Front stage where we perform our roles
 back stages places where we can retreat and have utter privacy
 role performance particular emphasis or interpretation that we give a role
 role conflictwhat is expected of us in one status is incompatible with what is expected of us in another
 role strainthe same status contains incompatable roles
 sign-vehiclesthe social setting, our appearance and our matter
 face-saving behaviorreact in a way when the role has been dropped
 ethnomethodology is the study of how people use commonsense understandings to make sense of life
 background assumptions your ideas about the way life is and the way things out to work
 Thomas theoremdefinition of the situation, define situations as real, they are real in consequence
 social construction of reality our society holds particular views of life that construct the way we see the world
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