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Midterm 1 Review - Flashcards

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Class:SOC 152A - SOC HUMAN SEXUALITY
Subject:Sociology
University:University of California - Santa Barbara
Term:Spring 2010
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vulva entire external genital area in a woman
mons -aka mons veneris -pad of fatty tissue covered by skin + pubic hair -lies around the pubic hair area -helps vaporize odors
labia majora -aka outer lips -two folds of skin that extend down from the mons on either side of the vulva -erotically sensitive
labia minora -aka inner lips -two thin folds of hairless skin that lie btwn the labia majora -erotically sensitive -during arousal, labia minora swell + darken -> this is called vasocongestion
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vasocongestion swelling and darkening of labia minora
vestibule contains the clitoris, urethral opening, and vaginal opening
clitoris -erectile organ in females whose external portion is located at the junction of the labia minora, just in front of the vestibule -external portion: glans + shaft
glans -external portion of clitoris -sensitive knob of tissue with a size of a pearl that maybe covered by clitoral hood -erectile
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shaft -external portion of clitoris -runs upward from the glans, under the clitoral hood -erectile
crura -two extensions of the clitoris that gives the entire clitoris a wishbone structure -enwrap the urethra (where urine is discharged from the bladder)
vestibular bulbs -erectile structures that surround the vestibule and underlie the labia minora -inner portion of clitoris -during sexual arousal, helps lengthen + stiffen vagina
vaginal opening -also called introitus -covered by the hymen
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hymen -also known as the "cherry" -maybe ruptured by the first coitus or for other reasons -this can lead to problems of a woman's virginity such as in Middle Eastern culture (if no blood, then women is not a virgin -> this is not entirely true)
perineum -erotically sensitive are btwn vaginal opening + anus -area cut in an episiotomy
pelvic floor muscles -stiffens the walls of the vagina during sex, thus increasing sexual sensations for both M + F -Kegel exercises increase the tone of these muscles
sunnah clitoral hood is incised or removed
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clitoridectomy excision of the entire clitoral glans + shaft, along with the hood
infibulation -includes clitoridectomy, but also includes to the removal of the entire labia minora and inner parts of the labia majora -the cut of the 2 labia majora are stitched together to cover the vestibule -small opening left for urine + menstrual blood
female reproductive tract -formed by vagina, cervix, body of uterus, oviducts, 2 ovaries -takes shape of T
vaginal walls -high elastic -contains 3 layers -inhabited by large numbers of "friendly" bacteria
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douching -rinsing of the vagina with a stream of water or other liquid -usually discouraged
physiological changes of vagina during arousal -vaginal wall color changes from pink to purple -vagina wrap more tightly around penis during sexual intercourse, which increases sexual stimulation -self lubrication, which makes coitus + stimulation easier and more pleasurable; also favors sperm survival b/c of almost neutral pH
G-spot -controversial area of increased erotic sensitivity on or under front wall of vagina -stimulating it can cause orgasm
anus -can also be a sex organ by penetration which will contribute to sexual arousal -doesn't provide much lubrication -should use condoms during anal sex
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uterus -the womb; pear-shaped, hollow organ that lies w/i the pelvic cavity -where sperm are transported -where fetus is developed -wall of uterus has 3 layers: endometrium (inner lining), myometrium (muscular wall), and perimetrium (outer covering)
cervix -lowermost, narrow portion of uterus that connects it with the vagina -can be seen with a mirror + flashlight + speculum -includes the os
os opening in the cervix that connects the vagina with the cervical canal
oviducts (fallopian tubes) -two tubes (about 4 inch) that lead from the uterus to the ovaries -usual site of fertilization -lined with cilia which set up a current which sperm has to swim against -each oviduct ends with fimbria
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ovaries (gonads) -located on either side of the uterus -two distinct functions: 1. ovulation - release of ova; 2. production + secretion of sex hormones (thus forming part of body's endocrine system)
menstruation -vaginal discharge of tissue and blood at approx. monthly intervals -length of cycle varies greatly among women -three cycles of menstruation: menstrual phase, preovulatory phase, postovulatory phase
menstrual phase phase during which menstrual flow occurs
preovulatory phase portion of cycle from end of menstruation to ovulation
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postovulatory phase portion of cycle from ovulation to beginning of menstruation
menstrual problems -menstrual cramps -lower back pain, nausea, headaches -dysmenorrhea (severe menstrual cramps)
breast cancer -about 180,000 women diagnosed /w breast cancer in US per year -it is not the leading killer of women in cancer/diseases -factors that may increase risk of breast cancer: genes, age, alcohol, obesity, exercise, medical history -early detection is important: breast self-exam, mammography -most women /w breast cancer return to active sex life
mammography -breast cancer screening technique -if suspicious lump seen on mammogram, further mammography is done -next would be biopsy to determine if lump is cancerous (usually 1 in 5 lumps are cancerous) -next is treatment which may include mastectomy (removal of entire breast) or reconstructive surgery (but not perfect as it may leave scars, numbness, etc)
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penis -erectile, erotically sensitive organ in males -functions: sexual pleasure, delivery of semen, urination
scrotum -loose bag of skin that hangs behind the penis and contains two testicles -stimulation of it can be sexually arousing
testicle -produces sperm and secrete sex hormones -equivalent to female organs: gonads -epididymis attached to each testicle where sperm mature and are stored before entering the vas deferens
vas deferens -tube that carries mature sperm away from the epididymis
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seminiferous tubules -convoluted microscopic tubes within the testicles -site where spermatogenesis (production of sperm) occurs -average man produce 100 million sperm per day
prostate glands -secretion of prostate glands is cloudly, alkaline fluid -at ejaculation, this fluid is pumped into the urethra by contraction of muslce fibers w/i the gland
seminal vesicle -glans that ADD their secretion to semen -IS NOT a storage for semen
bulbourethral glands - aka Cowper's Glands -secretes clear, alkaline, mucous fluid - called "pre-cum" -it neutralizes the acidic environment w/i man's urethra and woman's vagina -do not contain sperm
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emission prior to ejaculation, various components of semen are expelled from their reservoirs into the urethra
ejaculation caused by contractions, semen is expelled forcefully
orgasm refers to all events at sexual climax
sex hormones -androgens: has testosterone which responsible for male puberty, expression typical male gendered traits -estrogens: help maintain bone density and maturation and concentration of sperm -progestins: combine androgens and estrogens
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fantasy of men compared to women -M engage more often than women -M more likely to fantasize about stimulating partner's genitals, having sex /w more than one partner, having sex /w virgin, watching partner undress -W more likely to fantasize about marriage -M more adventurous in their fantasies -M more visual in their fantasies and often take dominant role
the sexual response cycle -four processes: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
excitement phase -W: swelling and darkening of labia minora, vaginal lubrication, erection of clitoris and nipples, swelling of breasts, increase in heart rate and blood pressure -M: erection of penis, testicles elevate, scrotum becomes thicker and more wrinkled, nipples become erect
plateau phase -state of high arousal that maybe maintained for some time -W: vaginal canal narrow to grip penis tighter, breasts swell further, nipples become swollen, heart rate and blood pressure increase further, myotonia (muscle tension) -M: secretion of pre-cum, erection becomes stronger, heart rate and respiration rate increase, muscle tension increase
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orgasm phase -experience of intense pleasure and release at sexual climax and maybe altered consciousness or loss of control -groaning and shouting involved -orgasm releases oxytocin -for men 2 events occur: emission and ejaculation
resolution phase -signs of arousal reverse themselves -for men, refractory period after orgasm which further sexual stimulation doesn't lead to renewed erection or a second orgasm
negative attitudes toward masturbation -was considered disgusting, sinful, and unhealthy in past -religious ideals against it -people masturbate b/c they are so sexually unattractive or socially inept to have sex with a partner -many feel guilty about masturbating
differences in masturbation -women use more diverse techniques of masturbation than men -gay people masturbate more than heterosexuals -M master more often than W
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gender noncomformity -a pre-gay boy may be less interested in sports whereas a pre-lesbian girl may be more interested in sports -during preadolescent years, gender norms become much stricter -degress which pre-gay children experience social problems depends on attitudes of parents, school they attend, etc
puberty -occurs earlier in girls -changes of G: pubic hair appears, labia majora/minora become more prominent, vagina deepens, vag. wall thickens, breasts develop, menarche occurs (onset of menstruation) -changes in B: enlargement of testes + scrotum, penis grows in length + girth, pubic hair appears, facial/body hair, voice deepens, first ejaculations + nocturnal emission
causes of puberty -primary trigger for initiation is achievement of critical body weight -primary amenorrhea: girls who don't menstruate at all b/c have very little body fat -secondary amenorrhea: menstruation ceases b/c lose too much body fat after puberty (ex. eating disorders, famines) -gonadal steroids: drive most puberty-associated changes
precocious -puberty that begins too early (age 8 in girls; age 9 in boys) -the earlier children enter puberty, the earlier they are likely to become sexually active -also earlier puberty, more likely to alcohol/substance abuse, disruptive behavior, suicidality, etc
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partialism attraction to body parts, such as feet
reasons for cross-dressing -practical reasons: nonsexual reasons, women cross-dress to pass as men and maybe obtain male employment of privileges of masculinity -drag: entertainment purposes, "drag queens" (gay men) -transgendered: vital expression of their gender identity; erotic arousal not primary motivation -transvestic fetishism: sexually arousing to wear other sex's clothing; many heterosexual and married
sadomasochism (S/M) -infliction of physical/psychological torture as means of sexual pleasure (ex. bondage, dominance, forced submission) -BDSM - collection of bondage, dominance, sadomasochism -"bottoms" more common than "tops" -consent is important in sexual interaction such as BDSM play -BDSM invovlve negative feelings such as fear, pain, anger but also power, trust, and dependency btwn tops + bottoms
paraphilia -unusual form of sexual arousal or behavior that is considered to be a psychological problem -prevalence unclear b/c ppl unwilling to admit them -begins at early age and becomes more pronounced over time -theories of paraphilia: biological, learning processes, sexual escape route, cycle of abuse, hypersexuality
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frotteur man who has physical contact with others, usually women, in public places w/o their consent and often w/o their knowledge
pedophile -person who sexual feelings are directly mainly toward prepubescent children -not all pedophiles are child molesters -pedophiles generally aware of their sexual attraction to children at early adolescence -studys show they are deficient in social skills, lack empathy, lack self-esteem, are lonely, distressed, emotionally disturbed, disordered though process, low intellectual function
child molester -an adult who has sexual contact /w a prepubescent child -not all child molesters are pedophiles
sex offenders -Megan's law: registration of sex offenders and public access to information of sex offenders -sex offenders are less likely to repeat their offense than people convicted of other crimes
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treatment for paraphilia 1 -psychological therapy (ex. man who sexually attracted to young boys will be told to masturbate to their pictures then give something unattractive + repulsive such as smell of ammonia); also techniques to make man realize the harm of his behavior -behavioral therapy: remove blockages to NORMAL sexual expressions such as strengthening man's social skills, self-esteem, intimacy, etc. -thought-stopping techniques for sex offenders -small group therapy
treatments of paraphilia 2 -drugs interact with neurotransmitters or hormones -drugs don't cure paraphilia; they decrease desire and arousal together -castration (removal of testicles) is last resort as it removes a man's main source of androgens
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 vulvaentire external genital area in a woman
 mons-aka mons veneris
-pad of fatty tissue covered by skin + pubic hair
-lies around the pubic hair area
-helps vaporize odors
 labia majora-aka outer lips
-two folds of skin that extend down from the mons on either side of the vulva
-erotically sensitive
 labia minora-aka inner lips
-two thin folds of hairless skin that lie btwn the labia majora
-erotically sensitive
-during arousal, labia minora swell + darken -> this is called vasocongestion
 vasocongestionswelling and darkening of labia minora
 vestibulecontains the clitoris, urethral opening, and vaginal opening
 clitoris-erectile organ in females whose external portion is located at the junction of the labia minora, just in front of the vestibule
-external portion: glans + shaft
 glans-external portion of clitoris
-sensitive knob of tissue with a size of a pearl that maybe covered by clitoral hood
-erectile
 shaft-external portion of clitoris
-runs upward from the glans, under the clitoral hood
-erectile
 crura-two extensions of the clitoris that gives the entire clitoris a wishbone structure
-enwrap the urethra (where urine is discharged from the bladder)
 vestibular bulbs-erectile structures that surround the vestibule and underlie the labia minora
-inner portion of clitoris
-during sexual arousal, helps lengthen + stiffen vagina
 vaginal opening-also called introitus
-covered by the hymen
 hymen-also known as the "cherry"
-maybe ruptured by the first coitus or for other reasons
-this can lead to problems of a woman's virginity such as in Middle Eastern culture (if no blood, then women is not a virgin -> this is not entirely true)
 perineum-erotically sensitive are btwn vaginal opening + anus
-area cut in an episiotomy
 pelvic floor muscles-stiffens the walls of the vagina during sex, thus increasing sexual sensations for both M + F
-Kegel exercises increase the tone of these muscles
 sunnahclitoral hood is incised or removed
 clitoridectomyexcision of the entire clitoral glans + shaft, along with the hood
 infibulation-includes clitoridectomy, but also includes to the removal of the entire labia minora and inner parts of the labia majora
-the cut of the 2 labia majora are stitched together to cover the vestibule
-small opening left for urine + menstrual blood
 female reproductive tract-formed by vagina, cervix, body of uterus, oviducts, 2 ovaries
-takes shape of T
 vaginal walls-high elastic
-contains 3 layers
-inhabited by large numbers of "friendly" bacteria
 douching-rinsing of the vagina with a stream of water or other liquid
-usually discouraged
 physiological changes of vagina during arousal-vaginal wall color changes from pink to purple
-vagina wrap more tightly around penis during sexual intercourse, which increases sexual stimulation
-self lubrication, which makes coitus + stimulation easier and more pleasurable; also favors sperm survival b/c of almost neutral pH
 G-spot-controversial area of increased erotic sensitivity on or under front wall of vagina
-stimulating it can cause orgasm
 anus-can also be a sex organ by penetration which will contribute to sexual arousal
-doesn't provide much lubrication
-should use condoms during anal sex
 uterus-the womb; pear-shaped, hollow organ that lies w/i the pelvic cavity
-where sperm are transported
-where fetus is developed
-wall of uterus has 3 layers: endometrium (inner lining), myometrium (muscular wall), and perimetrium (outer covering)
 cervix-lowermost, narrow portion of uterus that connects it with the vagina
-can be seen with a mirror + flashlight + speculum
-includes the os
 osopening in the cervix that connects the vagina with the cervical canal
 oviducts (fallopian tubes)-two tubes (about 4 inch) that lead from the uterus to the ovaries
-usual site of fertilization
-lined with cilia which set up a current which sperm has to swim against
-each oviduct ends with fimbria
 ovaries (gonads)-located on either side of the uterus
-two distinct functions: 1. ovulation - release of ova; 2. production + secretion of sex hormones (thus forming part of body's endocrine system)
 menstruation-vaginal discharge of tissue and blood at approx. monthly intervals
-length of cycle varies greatly among women
-three cycles of menstruation: menstrual phase, preovulatory phase, postovulatory phase
 menstrual phasephase during which menstrual flow occurs
 preovulatory phaseportion of cycle from end of menstruation to ovulation
 postovulatory phaseportion of cycle from ovulation to beginning of menstruation
 menstrual problems-menstrual cramps
-lower back pain, nausea, headaches
-dysmenorrhea (severe menstrual cramps)
 breast cancer-about 180,000 women diagnosed /w breast cancer in US per year
-it is not the leading killer of women in cancer/diseases
-factors that may increase risk of breast cancer: genes, age, alcohol, obesity, exercise, medical history
-early detection is important: breast self-exam, mammography
-most women /w breast cancer return to active sex life
 mammography-breast cancer screening technique
-if suspicious lump seen on mammogram, further mammography is done
-next would be biopsy to determine if lump is cancerous (usually 1 in 5 lumps are cancerous)
-next is treatment which may include mastectomy (removal of entire breast) or reconstructive surgery (but not perfect as it may leave scars, numbness, etc)
 penis-erectile, erotically sensitive organ in males
-functions: sexual pleasure, delivery of semen, urination
  scrotum-loose bag of skin that hangs behind the penis and contains two testicles
-stimulation of it can be sexually arousing
 testicle-produces sperm and secrete sex hormones
-equivalent to female organs: gonads
-epididymis attached to each testicle where sperm mature and are stored before entering the vas deferens
 vas deferens-tube that carries mature sperm away from the epididymis
 seminiferous tubules-convoluted microscopic tubes within the testicles
-site where spermatogenesis (production of sperm) occurs
-average man produce 100 million sperm per day
 prostate glands-secretion of prostate glands is cloudly, alkaline fluid
-at ejaculation, this fluid is pumped into the urethra by contraction of muslce fibers w/i the gland
 seminal vesicle-glans that ADD their secretion to semen
-IS NOT a storage for semen
 bulbourethral glands- aka Cowper's Glands
-secretes clear, alkaline, mucous fluid - called "pre-cum"
-it neutralizes the acidic environment w/i man's urethra and woman's vagina
-do not contain sperm
 emissionprior to ejaculation, various components of semen are expelled from their reservoirs into the urethra
 ejaculationcaused by contractions, semen is expelled forcefully
 orgasmrefers to all events at sexual climax
 sex hormones-androgens: has testosterone which responsible for male puberty, expression typical male gendered traits
-estrogens: help maintain bone density and maturation and concentration of sperm
-progestins: combine androgens and estrogens
 fantasy of men compared to women-M engage more often than women
-M more likely to fantasize about stimulating partner's genitals, having sex /w more than one partner, having sex /w virgin, watching partner undress
-W more likely to fantasize about marriage
-M more adventurous in their fantasies
-M more visual in their fantasies and often take dominant role
 the sexual response cycle-four processes: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
 excitement phase-W: swelling and darkening of labia minora, vaginal lubrication, erection of clitoris and nipples, swelling of breasts, increase in heart rate and blood pressure
-M: erection of penis, testicles elevate, scrotum becomes thicker and more wrinkled, nipples become erect
 plateau phase-state of high arousal that maybe maintained for some time
-W: vaginal canal narrow to grip penis tighter, breasts swell further, nipples become swollen, heart rate and blood pressure increase further, myotonia (muscle tension)
-M: secretion of pre-cum, erection becomes stronger, heart rate and respiration rate increase, muscle tension increase
 orgasm phase-experience of intense pleasure and release at sexual climax and maybe altered consciousness or loss of control
-groaning and shouting involved
-orgasm releases oxytocin
-for men 2 events occur: emission and ejaculation
 resolution phase-signs of arousal reverse themselves
-for men, refractory period after orgasm which further sexual stimulation doesn't lead to renewed erection or a second orgasm
 negative attitudes toward masturbation-was considered disgusting, sinful, and unhealthy in past
-religious ideals against it
-people masturbate b/c they are so sexually unattractive or socially inept to have sex with a partner
-many feel guilty about masturbating
 differences in masturbation-women use more diverse techniques of masturbation than men
-gay people masturbate more than heterosexuals
-M master more often than W
 gender noncomformity-a pre-gay boy may be less interested in sports whereas a pre-lesbian girl may be more interested in sports
-during preadolescent years, gender norms become much stricter
-degress which pre-gay children experience social problems depends on attitudes of parents, school they attend, etc
 puberty-occurs earlier in girls
-changes of G: pubic hair appears, labia majora/minora become more prominent, vagina deepens, vag. wall thickens, breasts develop, menarche occurs (onset of menstruation)
-changes in B: enlargement of testes + scrotum, penis grows in length + girth, pubic hair appears, facial/body hair, voice deepens, first ejaculations + nocturnal emission
 causes of puberty-primary trigger for initiation is achievement of critical body weight
-primary amenorrhea: girls who don't menstruate at all b/c have very little body fat
-secondary amenorrhea: menstruation ceases b/c lose too much body fat after puberty (ex. eating disorders, famines)
-gonadal steroids: drive most puberty-associated changes
 precocious-puberty that begins too early (age 8 in girls; age 9 in boys)
-the earlier children enter puberty, the earlier they are likely to become sexually active
-also earlier puberty, more likely to alcohol/substance abuse, disruptive behavior, suicidality, etc
 partialismattraction to body parts, such as feet
 reasons for cross-dressing-practical reasons: nonsexual reasons, women cross-dress to pass as men and maybe obtain male employment of privileges of masculinity
-drag: entertainment purposes, "drag queens" (gay men)
-transgendered: vital expression of their gender identity; erotic arousal not primary motivation
-transvestic fetishism: sexually arousing to wear other sex's clothing; many heterosexual and married
 sadomasochism (S/M)-infliction of physical/psychological torture as means of sexual pleasure (ex. bondage, dominance, forced submission)
-BDSM - collection of bondage, dominance, sadomasochism
-"bottoms" more common than "tops"
-consent is important in sexual interaction such as BDSM play
-BDSM invovlve negative feelings such as fear, pain, anger but also power, trust, and dependency btwn tops + bottoms
 paraphilia-unusual form of sexual arousal or behavior that is considered to be a psychological problem
-prevalence unclear b/c ppl unwilling to admit them
-begins at early age and becomes more pronounced over time
-theories of paraphilia: biological, learning processes, sexual escape route, cycle of abuse, hypersexuality
 frotteurman who has physical contact with others, usually women, in public places w/o their consent and often w/o their knowledge
 pedophile-person who sexual feelings are directly mainly toward prepubescent children
-not all pedophiles are child molesters
-pedophiles generally aware of their sexual attraction to children at early adolescence
-studys show they are deficient in social skills, lack empathy, lack self-esteem, are lonely, distressed, emotionally disturbed, disordered though process, low intellectual function
 child molester-an adult who has sexual contact /w a prepubescent child
-not all child molesters are pedophiles
 sex offenders-Megan's law: registration of sex offenders and public access to information of sex offenders
-sex offenders are less likely to repeat their offense than people convicted of other crimes
 treatment for paraphilia 1-psychological therapy (ex. man who sexually attracted to young boys will be told to masturbate to their pictures then give something unattractive + repulsive such as smell of ammonia); also techniques to make man realize the harm of his behavior
-behavioral therapy: remove blockages to NORMAL sexual expressions such as strengthening man's social skills, self-esteem, intimacy, etc.
-thought-stopping techniques for sex offenders
-small group therapy
 treatments of paraphilia 2-drugs interact with neurotransmitters or hormones
-drugs don't cure paraphilia; they decrease desire and arousal together
-castration (removal of testicles) is last resort as it removes a man's main source of androgens
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