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MidTerm Exam - Flashcards

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Class:SOC 1010 - Introduction to Sociology
Subject:Sociology
University:Southern Utah University
Term:Fall Semester 2012
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Sociology
  • Study of human society
Sociological Imagination
  • The ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual's life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces.
Social Institution
  • A complex group of interdependent positions that perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time
  • Defined in a narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups or people within it.
Verstehen
  • German word for UNDERSTANDING
  • Concept forms the object of inquiry for interpretive sociology-- to study how social actors understand their actions and the social world through experience.
Generated by Koofers.com
Anomie
  • Sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonable expect life to be predictable
  • Too little social regulations
  • Normlessness
Positivist Sociology
  • A strain within society that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable relationships
  • Akin to a social physics
Double Conciousness
  • W.E.B. DuBois
  • Describe the two behavioral scripts, one for moving through the world and the other incorporating the external opinions of prejudiced onlookers, which are constantly maintained by African Americans.
Functionalism
  • The theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important (or necessary) function to keep society running.
Generated by Koofers.com
Conflict Theory
  • The idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic animating force of social change and society in general.
Symbolic Interactionism
  • A micro-level theory in which a shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions
Postmoderism
  • A condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative within pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting from disjointed affiliations
Social Construction
  • An entity that exists because people behave as if it exists and whose existence is perpetuated as people and social institutions act in accordance with the widely agreed upon formal rules or informal norms of behaviors associated with that entity.
Generated by Koofers.com
Midrange Theory
  • A theory that attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function
Microsociology
  • Seeks to understand local interactional contexts
  • Methods of choice are ethnographic, generally including participant observation and in-depth interviews.
Research Methods
  • Approaches that social scientists use for investigating the answers to questions
Quantitative Methods
  • Methods that seek to obtain information about the social world that is already in or can be converted to NUMERIC form
Generated by Koofers.com
Qualitative Methods
  • Methods that attempt to collect info about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form.
Deductive Approach
  • A research approach that starts with a theory, forms a hypotheses, makes empirical observations and then analyzes the data to confirm, reject of modify the original theory
Inductive Approach
  • Starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory
Correlation or Association
  • Simultaneous variation in 2 variables
Generated by Koofers.com
Causality
  • Notion that change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another
Reverse Causality
  • Situation where the researcher believes that A results in a change in B, but B is causing A
Dependent Variable
  • Outcome that the researcher is trying to explain
Independent Variable
  • Measured factor that the researcher believes has a causal impact on the dependent variable
Generated by Koofers.com
Hypothesis
  • Proposed relationship between 2 variables
Operationalization
  • Process of aligning a precise method for measuring a term being examined for use in a particular study
Validity
  • Extent to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure
Reliability
  • Likelihood of obtaining consistent results using the same measure
Generated by Koofers.com
Generalizability
  • Extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied
Reflexivity
  • Analyzing and critically considering our own role in, and affect on, our research
Population
  • Entire group of individual persons, objects, or items fro which samples may be drawn
Sample
  • The subset of the population from which you are actually collecting data
Generated by Koofers.com
Feminist Methodology
  • Set of systems or methods that treat women's experiences as legitimate empirical and theoretical resources, that promote social science FOR women, and that take into account the researcher as much as the overt subject matter.
Participant Observation
  • Qualitative research method that seeks to observe social actions in practice
Survey
  • Ordered series of questions intended to elicit info from respondents
Historical Methods
  • Research that collects data from written reports, newspaper articles, journals, transcripts etc that date to a prior time period under study.
Generated by Koofers.com
Comparative Research
  • 2 or more entities, which are similar in dimension but differ on one in question, are compared to learn about the dimension that differs between them
Experimental Methods
  • Seek to alter the social landscape in a very specific way for a given sample of individuals and then track results that change yields.
  • Comparisons to control groups
Content Analysis
  • Systematic analysis of the content rather than the structure of a communication, such as a written work, speech or film
Public Sociology
  • Practice of sociological research, teaching and service that seeks to engage a nonacademic audience for a normative, productive end.
Generated by Koofers.com
Self
  • The individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person
I One's sense of agency, action or power
Me The self as perceived as an object by the "i"
As the self as one imagines others perceived one
Other someone or something outside of oneself
Generated by Koofers.com
Generalized Other Internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings-- regardless of whether we've encountered those people or places before
Resocialization Process by which one's sense of social values, beliefs, and norms are re-engineered, often desperately through an intense social process that may take place in a total institution
Total Institution
  • Institution that controls all the basics of day-to-day life
  • No barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life
  • All activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority
Status Recognizable social position that an individual occupies

Generated by Koofers.com
Role Duties and behaviors expected of someone who holds a particular status
Role Strain Incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status
Role Conflict Tension caused by competing demands between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses
Status Set All the statuses one holds simultaneously
Generated by Koofers.com
Ascribed Status
  • A status into which one born
  • Involuntary status
Achieved Status
  • Status which one enters
  • Voluntary Status
Master Status
  • One status within a set that stands our or overrides all others
Gender Roles
  • Sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as male or female
Generated by Koofers.com
Symbolic Interactionism
  • Micro-level theory which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions
Dramaturgical Theory
  • Erving Goffman
  • View of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on a metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes and sets
Face
  • The esteem in which an individual is held by others
Ethnomethodology
  • "the methods of the people"
  • Focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding to others, and produce a mutually shared social order
Generated by Koofers.com
Dyad
  • Group of 2
Triad
  • Group of 3 or more
Mediator
  • Member of the triad who attempts to resolve conflict between the 2 other actors in the group
Tertius gaudens
  • The new third member of a triad who benefits from conflict between the other two members of the group
Generated by Koofers.com
Divide et impera The role of a member of a triad who intentionally drives a wedge between the other two actors in the group
Small Group
  • Group characterized by face-to-face interaction, a unifocal perspective, lack of formal arrangements, and a certain level of equaity
Party
  • Similar to Small Group, but Multifocal
Large Group
  • Presence of a formal structure that mediates interaction and status differentiation
Generated by Koofers.com
Primary Groups
  • Social groups, like family/friends, composed of intimate face-to-face relationships that strongly influence the attitudes and ideals of those involved
Secondary Groups
  • Groups marked by impersonal, instrumental relationships (those existing as a means to an end)
In-Group
  • AKA Powerful Group
  • Most often the majority
Out-Group
  • Stigmatized or less powerful group
  • Minority
Generated by Koofers.com
Reference Group
  • Group that helps us understand or make sense of our position in society relative to other groups
Social Netword
  • A set of relations-- essentially a set of dyads-- held together by ties between individuals
Tie
  • Set of stories that explains our relationship to other members of our network
Narrative
  •  Sum of stories contained in a set of ties
Generated by Koofers.com
Embeddedness
  • Degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network
Strength Of Weak Ties
  • Notion that often relatively  weak ties turn out to be quite valuable because they yield new info
Structural Hole
  • Gap between network clusters, or even two individuals, if those individuals have complementary resources
Social Capital
  • Info, knowledge of people, and connections that help individuals enter, gain power in, or leverage social networks
Generated by Koofers.com
Organization
  • Social network that is defined by a common purpose and has a boundary between its membership and the rest of the social world
Organizational Culture
  • Shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group
  • AKA corporate Culture
Organizational Structure
  • Ways in which power and authority are distributed within an organization
Ismorphism
  • Constraining process that forces one organization to resemble others that face the same set of environmental conditions
Generated by Koofers.com
Social Deviance
  • Any transgression of socially established norms
Crime
  • Violations of laws enacted by society
Social Cohesion
  • Social Bonds
  • How well people relate to each other and get along on a day-to-day basis
Mechanical or Segmental Solidarity
  • Social cohesion based on sameness
Generated by Koofers.com
Organic Solidarity
  • Social cohesion based on difference and interdependence of the parts
Social Control
  • Those mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals
Formal Sanctions
  • Mechanisms of social control by which rules or laws prohibit deviant criminal behavior
Informal Social Sanctions
  • The usually unexpressed but widely known rules of group membership, the unspoken rules of social life
Generated by Koofers.com
Social Integration
  • How well you are integrated into your social group or community
Social Regulation
  • The number of rules guiding your daily life
  • What you can reasonably expect from the world on a day-to-day basis
Egoistic Suicide
  • Suicide that occurs when one is not well integrated into a social group
Altruistic Suicide
  • Suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration
Generated by Koofers.com
Anomie
  • Sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonable expect life to be predictable
  • Too little social regulation
Anomic Suicide
  • Suicide that occurs as a resulf of too little social regulation
Fatalistic Suicide
  • Suicide that occurs as a result of too much social regulation
Strain Theory
  • Merton's theory that deviance occurs when a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals
Generated by Koofers.com
Conformist
  • Individual who accepts both the goals and strategies to achieve them that are considered socially acceptable
Ritualist
  • Individual who rejects socially defined goals in order to live within his or her own means
Innovator
  • Social deviant who accepts socially acceptable goals but rejects socially acceptable means to achieve them
Retreatist
  • One who rejects both socially acceptable means and goals by completely retreating from, or not participating in, society
Generated by Koofers.com
Rebel
  • Individual who rejects socially acceptable goals and means but wants to alter or destroy the social institution from which he or she is alienated
Symbolic Interactionism
  • Shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions
Labeling Theory
  • Belief that individuals subconsciously notice how others see or label them, and their reactions to those labels, over time, form the basis of their self-identity
Primary Deviance
  • First act of rule-breaking that may cause the label of "deviant"
  • influence how people think about and act toward you
Generated by Koofers.com
Secondary Deviance
  • Subsequent acts of rule-breaking that occur after primary deviance
  • Results in your new deviant label and people's expectations of you
Stigma
  • Negative social label that not only changes your behavior toward a person but also alters that person's own self-concept and social identity
Broken Windows Theory of Deviance
  • Explains how social context and social cues impact whether individuals act deviantly
  • Whether local, informal social norms allow deviant acts
Street Crime
  • Crime committed in public and often associated with violence, gangs, and poverty
Generated by Koofers.com
White-Collar Crime
  • Offense committed by a professional against a cooperation, agency, or other institution
Corporate Crime
  • Particular type of white-collar crime committed by the officers (CEO's and other executives) of a corporation
Deterrence Theory
  • Crime results from a rational calculation of its costs and benefits
Recidivism
  • Individual who has been involved with the criminal justice system reverts back to criminal behavior
Generated by Koofers.com
Total Institution
  • Institution where one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of day-to-day life
  • No barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life
  • All activity occurs in the same place and under that same single authority
Panopticon
  • Circular building composed of an inner ring and an outer ring designed to serve a a prison in which the detainees can always be seen by the observer, housed in the inner ring, is hidden from those being observed.
Politics
  • Power relations among people or other social actors
Authority
  • Justifiable right to exercise power
Generated by Koofers.com
Charismatic Authority
  • Authority that rests in the superhuman appeal of an individual as a leader
Traditional Authority
  • Based on appeals to past tradition
Legal-Rational Authority
  • Based on legal, impersonal rules
  • The rules rule
Routinization
  • The clear, rule-governed procedures used repeatedly for decision making
Generated by Koofers.com
Rationalization
  • An ever-expanding process of ordering or organizing
Bureaucracy
  • legal-rational organization or mode of administration that governs with reference to rules and roles and which emphasizes meritocracy
Specialization
  • Process of making work consist of specific, delimited tasks
Taylorism
  • Methods of labor management to streamline the processes of mass production in which each worker repeatedly performs one specific task
Generated by Koofers.com
Meritocracy
  • Society that bases status and mobility on individual attributes, ability and achievement
Milgram Experiment
  • See how far ordinary people would go to obey a scientific authority figure
  • Shock experiment
Power
  • The ability to carry out one's own will despite resistance
Domination
  • Probability that a command with specific content will be obeyed by a given group of people
Generated by Koofers.com
State
  • "A human community that claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory"
Coercion
  • Use of force to get other to do what you want
Paradox of Authority
  • Although the state's authority derives from the implicit threat of physical force, resorting to coercion strips the state of all legitimate authority
International State System
  • System where each state is recognized as territorial sovereign by fellow states
Generated by Koofers.com
Welfare State
  • The state is responsible for the well-being of its citizens
Citizenship Rights
  • Rights guaranteed to each law-abiding citizen in a nation-state.
Civil Rights
  • Rights guaranteed to a citizen's personal freedoms from interference
  • Speech, Religion, Travel Freely, Bare Arms, Etc...
Political Rights
  • Rights guaranteed to a citizen's ability to participate in politics, including the right to vote and hold an elected office
Generated by Koofers.com
Social Rights
  • The rights guaranteeing a citizen's protection by the state
Soft Power
  • Power attained through the use of cultural attractiveness rather than the threat of coercive action
Democracy
  • System of gov wherein power theoretically lies with the people
  • Citizens are allowed to vote in elections, speak freely and participate as legal equals in social life
Dictatorship
  • Form of gov that restricts the right to political participation to small group or even to a single individual
Generated by Koofers.com
Game Theory
  • Study of strategic decisions under conditions of uncertainty and interdependence
Collective Action Problem
  • Difficulty in organizing large groups because of the tendency of some individuals to freeload or slack off
Political Party
  • Organization that seeks to gain power in a gov, generally by backing candidates for office who subscribe to the organization's political ideals
Interest Group
  • Organization that seeks to gain power in gov and influence policy without direct elation or appointment to office
Generated by Koofers.com
Political Participation
  • Activity that has the intent or effect of influencing gov action
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Sociology
  • Study of human society
 Sociological Imagination
  • The ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual's life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces.
 Social Institution
  • A complex group of interdependent positions that perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time
  • Defined in a narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups or people within it.
 Verstehen
  • German word for UNDERSTANDING
  • Concept forms the object of inquiry for interpretive sociology-- to study how social actors understand their actions and the social world through experience.
 Anomie
  • Sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonable expect life to be predictable
  • Too little social regulations
  • Normlessness
 Positivist Sociology
  • A strain within society that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable relationships
  • Akin to a social physics
 Double Conciousness
  • W.E.B. DuBois
  • Describe the two behavioral scripts, one for moving through the world and the other incorporating the external opinions of prejudiced onlookers, which are constantly maintained by African Americans.
 Functionalism
  • The theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important (or necessary) function to keep society running.
 Conflict Theory
  • The idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic animating force of social change and society in general.
 Symbolic Interactionism
  • A micro-level theory in which a shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions
 Postmoderism
  • A condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative within pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting from disjointed affiliations
 Social Construction
  • An entity that exists because people behave as if it exists and whose existence is perpetuated as people and social institutions act in accordance with the widely agreed upon formal rules or informal norms of behaviors associated with that entity.
 Midrange Theory
  • A theory that attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function
 Microsociology
  • Seeks to understand local interactional contexts
  • Methods of choice are ethnographic, generally including participant observation and in-depth interviews.
 Research Methods
  • Approaches that social scientists use for investigating the answers to questions
 Quantitative Methods
  • Methods that seek to obtain information about the social world that is already in or can be converted to NUMERIC form
 Qualitative Methods
  • Methods that attempt to collect info about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form.
 Deductive Approach
  • A research approach that starts with a theory, forms a hypotheses, makes empirical observations and then analyzes the data to confirm, reject of modify the original theory
 Inductive Approach
  • Starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory
 Correlation or Association
  • Simultaneous variation in 2 variables
 Causality
  • Notion that change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another
 Reverse Causality
  • Situation where the researcher believes that A results in a change in B, but B is causing A
 Dependent Variable
  • Outcome that the researcher is trying to explain
 Independent Variable
  • Measured factor that the researcher believes has a causal impact on the dependent variable
 Hypothesis
  • Proposed relationship between 2 variables
 Operationalization
  • Process of aligning a precise method for measuring a term being examined for use in a particular study
 Validity
  • Extent to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure
 Reliability
  • Likelihood of obtaining consistent results using the same measure
 Generalizability
  • Extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied
 Reflexivity
  • Analyzing and critically considering our own role in, and affect on, our research
 Population
  • Entire group of individual persons, objects, or items fro which samples may be drawn
 Sample
  • The subset of the population from which you are actually collecting data
 Feminist Methodology
  • Set of systems or methods that treat women's experiences as legitimate empirical and theoretical resources, that promote social science FOR women, and that take into account the researcher as much as the overt subject matter.
 Participant Observation
  • Qualitative research method that seeks to observe social actions in practice
 Survey
  • Ordered series of questions intended to elicit info from respondents
 Historical Methods
  • Research that collects data from written reports, newspaper articles, journals, transcripts etc that date to a prior time period under study.
 Comparative Research
  • 2 or more entities, which are similar in dimension but differ on one in question, are compared to learn about the dimension that differs between them
 Experimental Methods
  • Seek to alter the social landscape in a very specific way for a given sample of individuals and then track results that change yields.
  • Comparisons to control groups
 Content Analysis
  • Systematic analysis of the content rather than the structure of a communication, such as a written work, speech or film
 Public Sociology
  • Practice of sociological research, teaching and service that seeks to engage a nonacademic audience for a normative, productive end.
 Self
  • The individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person
 IOne's sense of agency, action or power
 MeThe self as perceived as an object by the "i"
As the self as one imagines others perceived one
 Othersomeone or something outside of oneself
 Generalized OtherInternalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings-- regardless of whether we've encountered those people or places before
 ResocializationProcess by which one's sense of social values, beliefs, and norms are re-engineered, often desperately through an intense social process that may take place in a total institution
 Total Institution
  • Institution that controls all the basics of day-to-day life
  • No barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life
  • All activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority
 StatusRecognizable social position that an individual occupies

 RoleDuties and behaviors expected of someone who holds a particular status
 Role StrainIncompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status
 Role ConflictTension caused by competing demands between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses
 Status SetAll the statuses one holds simultaneously
 Ascribed Status
  • A status into which one born
  • Involuntary status
 Achieved Status
  • Status which one enters
  • Voluntary Status
 Master Status
  • One status within a set that stands our or overrides all others
 Gender Roles
  • Sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as male or female
 Symbolic Interactionism
  • Micro-level theory which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions
 Dramaturgical Theory
  • Erving Goffman
  • View of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on a metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes and sets
 Face
  • The esteem in which an individual is held by others
 Ethnomethodology
  • "the methods of the people"
  • Focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding to others, and produce a mutually shared social order
 Dyad
  • Group of 2
 Triad
  • Group of 3 or more
 Mediator
  • Member of the triad who attempts to resolve conflict between the 2 other actors in the group
 Tertius gaudens
  • The new third member of a triad who benefits from conflict between the other two members of the group
 Divide et imperaThe role of a member of a triad who intentionally drives a wedge between the other two actors in the group
 Small Group
  • Group characterized by face-to-face interaction, a unifocal perspective, lack of formal arrangements, and a certain level of equaity
 Party
  • Similar to Small Group, but Multifocal
 Large Group
  • Presence of a formal structure that mediates interaction and status differentiation
 Primary Groups
  • Social groups, like family/friends, composed of intimate face-to-face relationships that strongly influence the attitudes and ideals of those involved
 Secondary Groups
  • Groups marked by impersonal, instrumental relationships (those existing as a means to an end)
 In-Group
  • AKA Powerful Group
  • Most often the majority
 Out-Group
  • Stigmatized or less powerful group
  • Minority
 Reference Group
  • Group that helps us understand or make sense of our position in society relative to other groups
 Social Netword
  • A set of relations-- essentially a set of dyads-- held together by ties between individuals
 Tie
  • Set of stories that explains our relationship to other members of our network
 Narrative
  •  Sum of stories contained in a set of ties
 Embeddedness
  • Degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network
 Strength Of Weak Ties
  • Notion that often relatively  weak ties turn out to be quite valuable because they yield new info
 Structural Hole
  • Gap between network clusters, or even two individuals, if those individuals have complementary resources
 Social Capital
  • Info, knowledge of people, and connections that help individuals enter, gain power in, or leverage social networks
 Organization
  • Social network that is defined by a common purpose and has a boundary between its membership and the rest of the social world
 Organizational Culture
  • Shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group
  • AKA corporate Culture
 Organizational Structure
  • Ways in which power and authority are distributed within an organization
 Ismorphism
  • Constraining process that forces one organization to resemble others that face the same set of environmental conditions
 Social Deviance
  • Any transgression of socially established norms
 Crime
  • Violations of laws enacted by society
 Social Cohesion
  • Social Bonds
  • How well people relate to each other and get along on a day-to-day basis
 Mechanical or Segmental Solidarity
  • Social cohesion based on sameness
 Organic Solidarity
  • Social cohesion based on difference and interdependence of the parts
 Social Control
  • Those mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals
 Formal Sanctions
  • Mechanisms of social control by which rules or laws prohibit deviant criminal behavior
 Informal Social Sanctions
  • The usually unexpressed but widely known rules of group membership, the unspoken rules of social life
 Social Integration
  • How well you are integrated into your social group or community
 Social Regulation
  • The number of rules guiding your daily life
  • What you can reasonably expect from the world on a day-to-day basis
 Egoistic Suicide
  • Suicide that occurs when one is not well integrated into a social group
 Altruistic Suicide
  • Suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration
 Anomie
  • Sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonable expect life to be predictable
  • Too little social regulation
 Anomic Suicide
  • Suicide that occurs as a resulf of too little social regulation
 Fatalistic Suicide
  • Suicide that occurs as a result of too much social regulation
 Strain Theory
  • Merton's theory that deviance occurs when a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals
 Conformist
  • Individual who accepts both the goals and strategies to achieve them that are considered socially acceptable
 Ritualist
  • Individual who rejects socially defined goals in order to live within his or her own means
 Innovator
  • Social deviant who accepts socially acceptable goals but rejects socially acceptable means to achieve them
 Retreatist
  • One who rejects both socially acceptable means and goals by completely retreating from, or not participating in, society
 Rebel
  • Individual who rejects socially acceptable goals and means but wants to alter or destroy the social institution from which he or she is alienated
 Symbolic Interactionism
  • Shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions
 Labeling Theory
  • Belief that individuals subconsciously notice how others see or label them, and their reactions to those labels, over time, form the basis of their self-identity
 Primary Deviance
  • First act of rule-breaking that may cause the label of "deviant"
  • influence how people think about and act toward you
 Secondary Deviance
  • Subsequent acts of rule-breaking that occur after primary deviance
  • Results in your new deviant label and people's expectations of you
 Stigma
  • Negative social label that not only changes your behavior toward a person but also alters that person's own self-concept and social identity
 Broken Windows Theory of Deviance
  • Explains how social context and social cues impact whether individuals act deviantly
  • Whether local, informal social norms allow deviant acts
 Street Crime
  • Crime committed in public and often associated with violence, gangs, and poverty
 White-Collar Crime
  • Offense committed by a professional against a cooperation, agency, or other institution
 Corporate Crime
  • Particular type of white-collar crime committed by the officers (CEO's and other executives) of a corporation
 Deterrence Theory
  • Crime results from a rational calculation of its costs and benefits
 Recidivism
  • Individual who has been involved with the criminal justice system reverts back to criminal behavior
 Total Institution
  • Institution where one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of day-to-day life
  • No barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life
  • All activity occurs in the same place and under that same single authority
 Panopticon
  • Circular building composed of an inner ring and an outer ring designed to serve a a prison in which the detainees can always be seen by the observer, housed in the inner ring, is hidden from those being observed.
 Politics
  • Power relations among people or other social actors
 Authority
  • Justifiable right to exercise power
 Charismatic Authority
  • Authority that rests in the superhuman appeal of an individual as a leader
 Traditional Authority
  • Based on appeals to past tradition
 Legal-Rational Authority
  • Based on legal, impersonal rules
  • The rules rule
 Routinization
  • The clear, rule-governed procedures used repeatedly for decision making
 Rationalization
  • An ever-expanding process of ordering or organizing
 Bureaucracy
  • legal-rational organization or mode of administration that governs with reference to rules and roles and which emphasizes meritocracy
 Specialization
  • Process of making work consist of specific, delimited tasks
 Taylorism
  • Methods of labor management to streamline the processes of mass production in which each worker repeatedly performs one specific task
 Meritocracy
  • Society that bases status and mobility on individual attributes, ability and achievement
 Milgram Experiment
  • See how far ordinary people would go to obey a scientific authority figure
  • Shock experiment
 Power
  • The ability to carry out one's own will despite resistance
 Domination
  • Probability that a command with specific content will be obeyed by a given group of people
 State
  • "A human community that claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory"
 Coercion
  • Use of force to get other to do what you want
 Paradox of Authority
  • Although the state's authority derives from the implicit threat of physical force, resorting to coercion strips the state of all legitimate authority
 International State System
  • System where each state is recognized as territorial sovereign by fellow states
 Welfare State
  • The state is responsible for the well-being of its citizens
 Citizenship Rights
  • Rights guaranteed to each law-abiding citizen in a nation-state.
 Civil Rights
  • Rights guaranteed to a citizen's personal freedoms from interference
  • Speech, Religion, Travel Freely, Bare Arms, Etc...
 Political Rights
  • Rights guaranteed to a citizen's ability to participate in politics, including the right to vote and hold an elected office
 Social Rights
  • The rights guaranteeing a citizen's protection by the state
 Soft Power
  • Power attained through the use of cultural attractiveness rather than the threat of coercive action
 Democracy
  • System of gov wherein power theoretically lies with the people
  • Citizens are allowed to vote in elections, speak freely and participate as legal equals in social life
 Dictatorship
  • Form of gov that restricts the right to political participation to small group or even to a single individual
 Game Theory
  • Study of strategic decisions under conditions of uncertainty and interdependence
 Collective Action Problem
  • Difficulty in organizing large groups because of the tendency of some individuals to freeload or slack off
 Political Party
  • Organization that seeks to gain power in a gov, generally by backing candidates for office who subscribe to the organization's political ideals
 Interest Group
  • Organization that seeks to gain power in gov and influence policy without direct elation or appointment to office
 Political Participation
  • Activity that has the intent or effect of influencing gov action
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