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Class:SOC 101 - INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY
Subject:Sociology
University:University of Kentucky
Term:Spring 2010
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Government A formal organization that has the authority to make and enforce laws
Politics A social process through which individuals and groups acquire and exercise power and authority
Power The ability of a person or group to affect the behavior of others despite resistance and opposition
Authority The legitimate use of power
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Traditional Authority Authority based on customs that justify the position of the ruler
Charismatic Authority Authority based on exceptional individual abilities and characteristics that inspire devotion, trust, and obedience
Rational-Legal Authority Authority based on the belief that laws and appointed or elected political leaders are legitimate.
Democracy A politcal system in which, ideally, citizens have control over the state and its actions
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Totalitarianism A political system in which the government controls every aspect of people's lives
Authoritarianism A political system in which the state controls the lives of citizens but generally permits some degree of individual freedom
Monarchy A political system in which power is allocated solely on the basis of heredity and passes from generation to generation
Political Party An organization that tries to influence and control government by recruiting, nominating, and electing its member to public office
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Special Interest Group A voluntary and organized association of people that attempts to influence public policy and policymakers on a particular issue
Lobbyist A representative of a special-interest group who tries to influence political decisions on the group's behalf
Political Action Committee A special-interest group set up to raise money to elect a candidate to public office
Pluralism A political system in which power is distributed among a variety of competing groups in society
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Power Elite A small group of influential people who make a nation's major political decision
Economy A social institution that determines how a society produce, distributes, and consumes goods and services
Work Physical or mental activity that accomplishes or produces something, either goods or services
Capitalism An economic system in which wealth is in private hands and is invested and reinvested to produce profits
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Monopoly Domination of a particular marker or industry by one person or company
Oligopoly A market dominated by a few large producers or suppliers
Socialism An economic and political system based on the principle of the public ownership of the production of goods and services
Communism A political and economic system in which all members of a society are equal
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Globalization The growth and spread of investment, trade, production, communication, and new technology around the world
Corporation A social entity that has legal rights, privileges, and liabilities apart from those of its members
Conglomerate A giant corporation that owns a collection of companies in different industries
Interlocking Directorate A situation in which the same people serve on the boards of directors of several companies or corporation
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Transnational Corporation A corporation that owns a collection of different companies in various industries in a number of countries
De-industrialization A process of social and economic change due to the reduction of industrial activity, especially manufacturing
Offshoring Sending work or jobs to another country to cut a company's costs at home
Downsizing a euphemism for firing large numbers of employees at once
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Contingent Workers People who don't expect their jobs to last or who say that their jobs are temporary
Underemployed People who have part-time jobs but want full-time work or whose jobs are below their experience and educational level
Family an intimate group consists of two or more people who: (1) live together in a committed relationship, (2) care for one another and any children, and (3) share close emotional ties and functions
Incest Taboo Cultural norms and laws that forbid sexual intercourse between close blood relatives, such as brother and sisters, father and daughter, or uncle and niece
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Marriage A socially approved mating relationship that people expect to be stable and enduring
Endogamy The practice of selecting mates from within one's group (sometimes called homogamy)
Exogamy The practice of selecting mates from outsides one's group (sometimes called heterogamy)
Nuclear Family A form of family consisting of married parents and their biological or adopted children
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Extended Family A family consisting of parents and children as well as other kin, such as uncles and aunts, nieces and nephews, cousins and grandparents
Patrilocal Residence Pattern Newly married couples live with the husband's family
Matrilocal Residence Pattern Newly married couple live with the wife's family
Neolocal Residence Pattern Each newly married couple sets up its own residence
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Boomerang Generation Young adults who move back into their parents' home after living independently for a while or who never leave it in the first place
Matriarchal Family System The oldest females (usually grandmothers or mothers) control cultural, political, and economic resources and, consequently, have power over males
Patriarchal Family System The oldest men (usually grandfather, fathers, and uncles) control cultural, political, and economic resources and, consequently, have power over females
Egalitarian Family System Both partners share power and authority fairly equally
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Marriage Market A process in which prospective spouses compare the assets and liabilities of eligible partners and choose the best available mate
Monogamy One person is married exclusively to another person
Serial Monogamy Individuals marry several people, but one at a time
Polygamy A marriage in which a man or woman has two or more spouses
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Divorce The legal dissolution of a marriage
No-Fault Divorce State laws that do not require either partner to establish guilt or wrongdoing on the part of the other to get a divorce
Step Family A household in which two adults are biological or adoptive parents, with a child from a prior relationship, who marry or cohabit
Cohabitation An arrangement in which two unrelated people are not married but live together and have a sexual relationship
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Dual-Earner Couples Both partners are employed outside the home (also called dual income, two-earner, or dual-worker couples)
Fictive Kin Non-relatives who are accepted as part of an African American family
Gerontologists Scientists who study the biological, psychological, and social aspects of aging
Life Expectancy The average length of time people of the same age will live
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Sandwich Generation People in a middle generation who care for their own children as well as their aging parents
Activity Theory Proposes that many older people remain engaged in numerous roles, and activities, including work
Exchange Theory Contends that people seek through their interactions with others to maximize their rewards and to minimize their costs
Continuity Theory Posits that older adults can substitute satisfying new roles for those they've lost
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Education A social institution that transmit attitudes, knowledge, beliefs, values, norms, and skills to its members through formal, systematic training
Schooling Formal training and instruction provided in a classroom setting
Intelligence Quotient An index of an individual's performance on a standardized test relative to the performance level of others of the same age
Hidden Curriculum School practices that transmit nonacademic knowledge, values, attitudes, norms, and beliefs which legitimize economic inequality and fill unequal work roles
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Credentialism An emphasis on certificates or degrees to show that people have certain skills, educational attainment levels, or job qualifications
Literacy The ability to read and write in at least one laguage
Tracking Assigning students to specific educational programs and classes on the basis of test scores, previous grades, or perceived ability
Vouchers Publicly funded payments that parents can apply towards tuition or fees at a public or private school of their choice
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Charter Schools Self-governing public schools that have signed an agreement with their state government to improve students' education
Magnet School A public school that is typically small and offers students a distinctive program and specialized curriculum in a particular area, such as business, science, the arts, or technology
Home Schooling Teaching children in the home as an alternative to enrolling them in a public or private elementary, middle, or high school
Religion A social institution that involves shared beliefs, values, and practices based on the supernatural and unites believers into a community
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Sacred Anything that people see as mysterious, awe-inspiring, extraordinary and powerful, holy, and not part of the natural world
Profane Anything that is not related to religion
Secular The term sociologists use (instead of profane) to characterize worldly rather than spiritual things
Religiosity The ways people demonstrate their religious beliefs
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Cult A religious group that is devoted to beliefs and practices that are outside of those accepted in mainstream society
New Religious Movement Term used instead of cult by most sociologists
Charismatic Leader A religious leader whom followers see as having exceptional or superhuman powers and qualities
Sect A religious group that has broken away from an established group
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Denomination A sub group within a religion that shares its name and traditions and is generally on good terms with the main group
Church A large established religious group that has strong ties to mainstream society
Secularization A process of removing institutions such as education and government from the dominance or influence of religion
Fundamentalism The belief in the literal meaning of a sacred text
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Civil Religion Practices in which citizenship takes on religious (sometimes called secular religion)
Protestant Ethics A belief that hard work, diligence, self-denial, frugality, and economic success will lead to salvation in the afterlife
False Consciousness An acceptance of a system that prevents people from protesting oppression
Ritual A formal and repeated behavior in which the members of a group regularly engage (sometimes called a rite)
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Demography The scientific study of human populations
Population A collection of people who share a geographic territory
Fertility Then number of babies born during a specified period in a particular society
Crude Birth Rate The number of live births per 1,000 people in a population in a given year
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Mortality The number of deaths during a specified period in a population
Crude Death Rate The number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year
Infant Mortality Rate The number of deaths of infants (under 1 year of age) per 1,000 live births in a population
Migration The movement of people into or out of a specific geographic area
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Sex Ratio The proportion of men to women in a population
Population Pyramid A visual representation of the makeup of a population in terms of the age and sex of its members at a given point in time
Malthusian Theory The idea that population is growing faster than the food supply needed to sustain it
Demographic Transition Theory The idea that population growth is kept in check and stabilizes as countries experience economic and technological development
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Zero Population Growth A stable population level that occurs when each woman has no more than two children
City A geographic area where a large number of people live relatively permanently and secure their livelihood primarily through non agricultural activities
Urbanization Population movement from rural to urban areas
Megacities Metropolitan areas with at least 10 million inhabitants
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Suburbanization Population movement from cities to the areas surrounding them
Edge Cities Business centers that are within or close to suburban residential areas
Exurbs Areas of new development beyond the suburbs that are more rural but on the fringe of urbanized areas
Urban Sprawl The rapid, unplanned, and uncontrolled spread of development into regions adjacent to cities
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Gentrification The process in which middle class and affluent people buy and renovate houses and stores in downtown urban neighborhoods
Urban Ecology The study of the relationships between people and urban environment
New Urban Sociology Urban changes are largely the result of decisions made by powerful capitalists and other groups in the dominant social class
Ecosystem A system in which all forms of life live in relation to one another and a shared physical enviornment
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Greenhouse Effect The heating of the earth's atmosphere due to the presence of certain atmospheric gases
Climate Change A change of overall temperatures and weather conditions over time
Global Warming The increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere
Sustainable Development Economic activities that meet the needs of the present without threatening the environmental legacy of future generations
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Collective Behavior The spontaneous and unstructured behavior of a large number of people
Rumor Unfounded information that is spread quickly
Gossip Rumors, often negative, about other people's personal lives
Urban Legends A type of rumor consisting of stories that supposedly happened
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Panic A collective flight, typically irrational, from a real or perceived danger
Mass Hysteria An intense, fearful, and anxious reaction to a real or imagined threat by large number of people
Fashion A standard of appearance that enjoys widespread but temporary acceptance within a society
Fad A form of collective behavior that spreads rapidly and enthusiastically but lasts only a short time
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Craze A fad that becomes an all-consuming passion for many people for a short period of time
Disaster An unexpected event that causes widespread damage, destruction, distress, and loss
Public A collection of people, not necessarily in direct contact with each other, who are interested in a particular issue
Public Opinion widespread attitudes on a particular issue
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Propaganda The presentation of information to influence people's opinions or actions
Crowd A temporary gathering of people who share a common interest or participate in a particular event
Mob A highly emotional and disorderly crowd that uses force or violence against a specific target
Riot A violent crowd that directs its hostility at a wide and shifting range of targets
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Social Movement A large and organized activity to promote or resists some particular social change
Relative Deprivation A gap between what people have and what they think they should have based on what others in a society have
Technology The application of scientific knowledge for practical pruposes
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 GovernmentA formal organization that has the authority to make and enforce laws
 PoliticsA social process through which individuals and groups acquire and exercise power and authority
 PowerThe ability of a person or group to affect the behavior of others despite resistance and opposition
 AuthorityThe legitimate use of power
 Traditional AuthorityAuthority based on customs that justify the position of the ruler
 Charismatic AuthorityAuthority based on exceptional individual abilities and characteristics that inspire devotion, trust, and obedience
 Rational-Legal AuthorityAuthority based on the belief that laws and appointed or elected political leaders are legitimate.
 DemocracyA politcal system in which, ideally, citizens have control over the state and its actions
 TotalitarianismA political system in which the government controls every aspect of people's lives
 AuthoritarianismA political system in which the state controls the lives of citizens but generally permits some degree of individual freedom
 MonarchyA political system in which power is allocated solely on the basis of heredity and passes from generation to generation
 Political PartyAn organization that tries to influence and control government by recruiting, nominating, and electing its member to public office
 Special Interest GroupA voluntary and organized association of people that attempts to influence public policy and policymakers on a particular issue
 LobbyistA representative of a special-interest group who tries to influence political decisions on the group's behalf
 Political Action CommitteeA special-interest group set up to raise money to elect a candidate to public office
 PluralismA political system in which power is distributed among a variety of competing groups in society
 Power EliteA small group of influential people who make a nation's major political decision
 EconomyA social institution that determines how a society produce, distributes, and consumes goods and services
 WorkPhysical or mental activity that accomplishes or produces something, either goods or services
 CapitalismAn economic system in which wealth is in private hands and is invested and reinvested to produce profits
 MonopolyDomination of a particular marker or industry by one person or company
 OligopolyA market dominated by a few large producers or suppliers
 SocialismAn economic and political system based on the principle of the public ownership of the production of goods and services
 CommunismA political and economic system in which all members of a society are equal
 GlobalizationThe growth and spread of investment, trade, production, communication, and new technology around the world
 CorporationA social entity that has legal rights, privileges, and liabilities apart from those of its members
 ConglomerateA giant corporation that owns a collection of companies in different industries
 Interlocking DirectorateA situation in which the same people serve on the boards of directors of several companies or corporation
 Transnational CorporationA corporation that owns a collection of different companies in various industries in a number of countries
 De-industrializationA process of social and economic change due to the reduction of industrial activity, especially manufacturing
 OffshoringSending work or jobs to another country to cut a company's costs at home
 Downsizinga euphemism for firing large numbers of employees at once
 Contingent WorkersPeople who don't expect their jobs to last or who say that their jobs are temporary
 UnderemployedPeople who have part-time jobs but want full-time work or whose jobs are below their experience and educational level
 Familyan intimate group consists of two or more people who: (1) live together in a committed relationship, (2) care for one another and any children, and (3) share close emotional ties and functions
 Incest TabooCultural norms and laws that forbid sexual intercourse between close blood relatives, such as brother and sisters, father and daughter, or uncle and niece
 MarriageA socially approved mating relationship that people expect to be stable and enduring
 EndogamyThe practice of selecting mates from within one's group (sometimes called homogamy)
 ExogamyThe practice of selecting mates from outsides one's group (sometimes called heterogamy)
 Nuclear FamilyA form of family consisting of married parents and their biological or adopted children
 Extended FamilyA family consisting of parents and children as well as other kin, such as uncles and aunts, nieces and nephews, cousins and grandparents
 Patrilocal Residence PatternNewly married couples live with the husband's family
 Matrilocal Residence PatternNewly married couple live with the wife's family
 Neolocal Residence PatternEach newly married couple sets up its own residence
 Boomerang GenerationYoung adults who move back into their parents' home after living independently for a while or who never leave it in the first place
 Matriarchal Family SystemThe oldest females (usually grandmothers or mothers) control cultural, political, and economic resources and, consequently, have power over males
 Patriarchal Family SystemThe oldest men (usually grandfather, fathers, and uncles) control cultural, political, and economic resources and, consequently, have power over females
 Egalitarian Family SystemBoth partners share power and authority fairly equally
 Marriage MarketA process in which prospective spouses compare the assets and liabilities of eligible partners and choose the best available mate
 MonogamyOne person is married exclusively to another person
 Serial MonogamyIndividuals marry several people, but one at a time
 PolygamyA marriage in which a man or woman has two or more spouses
 DivorceThe legal dissolution of a marriage
 No-Fault DivorceState laws that do not require either partner to establish guilt or wrongdoing on the part of the other to get a divorce
 Step FamilyA household in which two adults are biological or adoptive parents, with a child from a prior relationship, who marry or cohabit
 CohabitationAn arrangement in which two unrelated people are not married but live together and have a sexual relationship
 Dual-Earner CouplesBoth partners are employed outside the home (also called dual income, two-earner, or dual-worker couples)
 Fictive KinNon-relatives who are accepted as part of an African American family
 GerontologistsScientists who study the biological, psychological, and social aspects of aging
 Life ExpectancyThe average length of time people of the same age will live
 Sandwich GenerationPeople in a middle generation who care for their own children as well as their aging parents
 Activity TheoryProposes that many older people remain engaged in numerous roles, and activities, including work
 Exchange TheoryContends that people seek through their interactions with others to maximize their rewards and to minimize their costs
 Continuity TheoryPosits that older adults can substitute satisfying new roles for those they've lost
 EducationA social institution that transmit attitudes, knowledge, beliefs, values, norms, and skills to its members through formal, systematic training
 SchoolingFormal training and instruction provided in a classroom setting
 Intelligence QuotientAn index of an individual's performance on a standardized test relative to the performance level of others of the same age
 Hidden CurriculumSchool practices that transmit nonacademic knowledge, values, attitudes, norms, and beliefs which legitimize economic inequality and fill unequal work roles
 CredentialismAn emphasis on certificates or degrees to show that people have certain skills, educational attainment levels, or job qualifications
 LiteracyThe ability to read and write in at least one laguage
 TrackingAssigning students to specific educational programs and classes on the basis of test scores, previous grades, or perceived ability
 VouchersPublicly funded payments that parents can apply towards tuition or fees at a public or private school of their choice
 Charter SchoolsSelf-governing public schools that have signed an agreement with their state government to improve students' education
 Magnet SchoolA public school that is typically small and offers students a distinctive program and specialized curriculum in a particular area, such as business, science, the arts, or technology
 Home SchoolingTeaching children in the home as an alternative to enrolling them in a public or private elementary, middle, or high school
 ReligionA social institution that involves shared beliefs, values, and practices based on the supernatural and unites believers into a community
 SacredAnything that people see as mysterious, awe-inspiring, extraordinary and powerful, holy, and not part of the natural world
 ProfaneAnything that is not related to religion
 SecularThe term sociologists use (instead of profane) to characterize worldly rather than spiritual things
 ReligiosityThe ways people demonstrate their religious beliefs
 CultA religious group that is devoted to beliefs and practices that are outside of those accepted in mainstream society
 New Religious MovementTerm used instead of cult by most sociologists
 Charismatic LeaderA religious leader whom followers see as having exceptional or superhuman powers and qualities
 SectA religious group that has broken away from an established group
 DenominationA sub group within a religion that shares its name and traditions and is generally on good terms with the main group
 ChurchA large established religious group that has strong ties to mainstream society
 SecularizationA process of removing institutions such as education and government from the dominance or influence of religion
 FundamentalismThe belief in the literal meaning of a sacred text
 Civil ReligionPractices in which citizenship takes on religious (sometimes called secular religion)
 Protestant EthicsA belief that hard work, diligence, self-denial, frugality, and economic success will lead to salvation in the afterlife
 False ConsciousnessAn acceptance of a system that prevents people from protesting oppression
 RitualA formal and repeated behavior in which the members of a group regularly engage (sometimes called a rite)
 DemographyThe scientific study of human populations
 PopulationA collection of people who share a geographic territory
 FertilityThen number of babies born during a specified period in a particular society
 Crude Birth RateThe number of live births per 1,000 people in a population in a given year
 MortalityThe number of deaths during a specified period in a population
 Crude Death RateThe number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year
 Infant Mortality RateThe number of deaths of infants (under 1 year of age) per 1,000 live births in a population
 MigrationThe movement of people into or out of a specific geographic area
 Sex RatioThe proportion of men to women in a population
 Population PyramidA visual representation of the makeup of a population in terms of the age and sex of its members at a given point in time
 Malthusian TheoryThe idea that population is growing faster than the food supply needed to sustain it
 Demographic Transition TheoryThe idea that population growth is kept in check and stabilizes as countries experience economic and technological development
 Zero Population GrowthA stable population level that occurs when each woman has no more than two children
 CityA geographic area where a large number of people live relatively permanently and secure their livelihood primarily through non agricultural activities
 UrbanizationPopulation movement from rural to urban areas
 MegacitiesMetropolitan areas with at least 10 million inhabitants
 SuburbanizationPopulation movement from cities to the areas surrounding them
 Edge CitiesBusiness centers that are within or close to suburban residential areas
 ExurbsAreas of new development beyond the suburbs that are more rural but on the fringe of urbanized areas
 Urban SprawlThe rapid, unplanned, and uncontrolled spread of development into regions adjacent to cities
 GentrificationThe process in which middle class and affluent people buy and renovate houses and stores in downtown urban neighborhoods
 Urban EcologyThe study of the relationships between people and urban environment
 New Urban SociologyUrban changes are largely the result of decisions made by powerful capitalists and other groups in the dominant social class
 EcosystemA system in which all forms of life live in relation to one another and a shared physical enviornment
 Greenhouse EffectThe heating of the earth's atmosphere due to the presence of certain atmospheric gases
 Climate ChangeA change of overall temperatures and weather conditions over time
 Global WarmingThe increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere
 Sustainable DevelopmentEconomic activities that meet the needs of the present without threatening the environmental legacy of future generations
 Collective BehaviorThe spontaneous and unstructured behavior of a large number of people
 RumorUnfounded information that is spread quickly
 GossipRumors, often negative, about other people's personal lives
 Urban LegendsA type of rumor consisting of stories that supposedly happened
 PanicA collective flight, typically irrational, from a real or perceived danger
 Mass HysteriaAn intense, fearful, and anxious reaction to a real or imagined threat by large number of people
 FashionA standard of appearance that enjoys widespread but temporary acceptance within a society
 FadA form of collective behavior that spreads rapidly and enthusiastically but lasts only a short time
 CrazeA fad that becomes an all-consuming passion for many people for a short period of time
 DisasterAn unexpected event that causes widespread damage, destruction, distress, and loss
 PublicA collection of people, not necessarily in direct contact with each other, who are interested in a particular issue
 Public Opinionwidespread attitudes on a particular issue
 PropagandaThe presentation of information to influence people's opinions or actions
 CrowdA temporary gathering of people who share a common interest or participate in a particular event
 MobA highly emotional and disorderly crowd that uses force or violence against a specific target
 RiotA violent crowd that directs its hostility at a wide and shifting range of targets
 Social MovementA large and organized activity to promote or resists some particular social change
 Relative DeprivationA gap between what people have and what they think they should have based on what others in a society have
 TechnologyThe application of scientific knowledge for practical pruposes
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