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Soc 1 winter 2012 - Flashcards

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Class:SOC 1 - INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY
Subject:Sociology
University:University of California - Santa Barbara
Term:Spring 2011
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Normal Science Science that is conducted within the understandings, rules and procedures of an existing paradigm.
Megachurches A church having 2,000 or more in average weekend attendance.
Role Theory-the Sick Role A concept describes the social rights and obligations of sick individual.

The Welfare State Concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens.
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Meritocracy A society that bases status and mobility on individual attributes, ability and achievements
Culture of Poverty Argument that poor people adopt certain practices that differ from those of middle-class "mainstream" society in order to adopt and survive in different economic circumstances
Racism The belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits
Gender Roles Refer to the set of social and behavioral norms that are considered to be socially appropriate for individuals of a specific sex in the context of a specific culture, which differ widely between cultures and over time.
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Official Poverty Line
Poverty determined when a person does not have enough money to buy essentials such as food
Paradox of State Power Authority that resorts to physical coercion and looses its legitimacy
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research obtained that could be translated to numerical information

Information that can not be translated on a numerical information
Agricultural Revolution Introduction of new farming technology that increases food output in farm production. 
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Credentialism The overemphasis on credentials for signing social status of qualification
Macro- vs. Micro- Sociology Seeks to understand local interaction such as through in-depth interviews

Seeks a larger and more broad interpretation of sociological data collected? 
Reliability The likelihood of getting constant results using the same method
Deductive vs. Inductive Approach
Theory-->observations

Observations--> Theory
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Homophily The tendency of individuals to associate and bond with similar others. 
Conspicuous Consumption Spending on goods and services acquired mainly for the purpose of displaying income or wealth.
"we mistake $ for status" 
Feminism Seeks to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life 
Social Darwinism "survival of the fittest"

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Social Regulation Number or rules guiding daily life and what you can expect from the world on a day-to-day basis
Social Integration How well you integrate into a social group or community 

Social Capital Any relationship between people that can facilitate the actions of others. 
Getting more connections
Interpretive Sociology (Verstehen)
Study how social actors understand their actions and social world through experience of what they're studying
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Mechanic vs. Organic Solidarity Social cohesion based on sameness vs.social cohesion based on different on different and interdependence of the parts
Punitive vs. Rehabilitative Justice Focused on making violator suffer and defining boundaries of acceptable (mechanical solidarity) vs. where there's specific circumstances that attempts to find ways for rehab (organic)
Material vs. Non-Material Culture Includes physical things such as technology and the environment vs. includes values, beliefs. behaviors & social norms
Cooley & "The Looking Glass Self" Imagining how people would see themselves through others.
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Feudalism
Economic system characterized by the presence of lords, vassals, serfs, fiefs....
Peasants would work the field for the king and when the nobles came over they were forced to move to the city
Variables There is Dependent: outcome (what we want to find)
and Independent: measured factor and usually changed a little to find different results(already predicted) 
Size of Groups Primary (family), Secondary (instrumental, meant to end), Large (structural, mediated info and status difference), Small (equality, face-to-face, uni-focal, informal)
Durkheim's Theory of Suicide Idea of the world being an organism and lack or social regulation (routine) and integration (lonely) 
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Scientific Discovery Discovery is happening more quick
Cults Religious movements that make novel claims about the supernatural. 
Max Weber's Ideal Types of Authority Charismatic (people skills), Tradition (king) and legal-rational (has specific power/title)
Sorting and Tracking
A system that places students into programs and groups according to their skills interests and talents.

 
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Secularism Movement away from religosity and spirituality as predicted my Comte, move toward science
Medicalization Medicalization is the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions and problems, and thus come under the authority of doctors and other health professionals to study, diagnose, prevent or treat.
Exchange Mobility When people change positions the number of spots stay the same both moving up and down
Gender Segregation Sex segregation is the separation of people according to their sex.
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Socio-Economic Status Socioeconomic status is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family-s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
Social Pressure and Influence in Groups Arsh test showed how easy conformity was...peer pressure to do something
Symbolic Interactionism Micro-level:people act in accordance with shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions (pot smoker or doctor)
Triads A triad in simplest terms is defined as a "group of three".
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Labeling Theory of Deviance How people are labeled and accept the label as being true (that deviant person and everyone else) 
Ethnomethodology Ethnomethodology is an ethnographic approach to sociological inquiry introduced by the American sociologist Harold Garfinkel (1917-2011).
Elite Schools Private schools. Students are theorized to perform better on tests and can gain more connections?
Mass Media & Media Effects The idea that mass media can reach a large audience and shape culture
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Durkheim’s Functionalism vs. Conflict in Culture Functionalism: an important set of values and norms into which we are socialized and important for social cohesiveness vs. Conflict: see our culture as reflecting underlying differences groups and deedded into believing what benefits common groups. 
Grand Theories Origins of society, human nature, and where societies are headed in the future 
Max Weber Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (; 21 April 1864- 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist and political economist who profoundly influenced social theory, social research, and the discipline of sociology itself.
Law of Three Phases Theological, Metaphysical and Scientific
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Causality vs. Association Causality: when we prove that one change in the factor leads to others vs can be altered
Balance Theory Balance Theory is a motivational theory of attitude change, proposed by Fritz Heider , which conceptualizes the consistency motive as a drive toward psychological balance.
Racialization refers to processes of the discursive production of racial identities.
Professional Closure The idea that medical school is hard to get into but also hard to get out, from American Medical Association
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Labeling Theory and Illness Being sick or mentally ill can create a set of expectations and promote certain behaviors. 
Cultural Capital The term cultural capital refers to non-financial social assets; they may be educational or intellectual, which might promote social mobility beyond economic means.
Industrialization The process of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one. 
Adam Smith (capitalism)
Early social philosopher of economic and social relations who believed that:
Individual self- interest helps maintain a cohesive society
Specialization increases productivity and innovation 

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Sacred vs. Profane Sacred includes things that are meant for seperate use and kept separate from the profane, mostly likely will be in a church or religious setting
 
Profane includes things of mundane, everyday things that are religious or symbolic 

Paradigm Shift Framework within which scientists operate. There are particular paradigms for particular branches of scientific research. High and low paradigm fields are in part socially constructed. 

Obedience to Authority The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of notable social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram, which measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience.
Bureaucracy Legal rational organization or administration that governs with reference to rules or roles and emphasizes meritocracy
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Political Participation Refers to different mechanisms for the public to express opinions - and ideally exert influence - regarding political, economic, management or other social decisions.
Rationalization Ever-expanding process of ordering or organizing (Weber)
Embodied (education) Ways of talking, perceiving and interacting
Drift (health) Connection between income and health. If you have poor health, you might be less likely to find gainful employment
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Oppositional Cultures culture kids "lets have fun" the lads....(culture of poverty)?
Stereotype Threat Stereotype threat is the experience of anxiety or concern in a situation where a person has the potential to confirm a negative stereotype about their social group.
Biological Reductionism
Social Construction of Race
-Race is a social construct that changes over time and across different contexts
-Could think about people as: small, medium and large… the reality of the world, one continuous flow, three groups of people some people made up….race is a continuum in everything we have, if we just look at skin tone for example there are overlaps...eminently social in the making 

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Horizontal vs. Vertical The changing of jobs in a horizontal way, being a waitress in one restaurant then moving to another waitress position vs. The changing of jobs in a vertical, more ladder-like way, from being a restaurant waitress to becoming the restaurant manager. 

Strong and Weak Ties Ties are built upon emotional intensity, shared commitments, duration of contact...family, bf/gf, BFFs
Ties that are opposite of strong ties and includes the strength of weak ties because they provide new information, an example includes acquaintances. 
Concerted Cultivation Concerted cultivation is a style of parenting that is marked by a parent's attempts to foster their child's talents by incorporating organized activities in their children's lives.
Nature vs. Nurture The nature versus nurture debate concerns the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature," i.e.
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Conflict Sociology The idea that class conflict as the primary cause of social change
Ethics in Research A researcher can never cause physical, emotional or psychological harm...must have informed consent and voluntary participation
Emile Durkheim
-stresses society as a type of organism where different institutions each have a purpose
 -showed that committing suicide was not only about an individual’s psychological state 
-society as a type of organism where different institutions each have a purpose 
Karl Marx more of economist; idea of alienation (people make products of services they cant obtain themselves; idea that labor goes to capitalists, harder you work more exploited you are
Capitalism will destroy itself-->working class rising up--?communism

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Social Institutions Groups of social positions where that have certain roles interconnected, the university
Auguste Comte "social physics", sociological laws should be as scientific as possible, 
Find the most generalized laws possible to explain the most phenomena possible 
Saw everything social (individuals, institutions, societies) moving through three phases: theological, metaphysical, and scientific (positivist) 

Expansion of Conflict Theory The expansion class conflict to culture and politics such as political groups.
Schools and Socialization (socialization) Very important part of socialization and disadvantages the working class kids. 
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Rousseau on Inequality The idea that private property created social inequality and that it leads to social conflict.
Structural Mobility Mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy. such as the expansion of high-tech jobs in the past 20 years. There are less agricultural jobs and more technological jobs so people move to better themselves
Gender Essentialism Essentialism is the line of thought hat explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones. Per se, it you are born with male parts, essentialists believe, you are essentially and absolutely a man, and you will be sexually attracted to women only, as preordained by nature. (271)
Maintaining Racial Boundaries Oppression, one drop rule (if you had one drop of African American blood made a person African American), ambiguity of racial divisions (Jews in Nazi Germany) and Borderline cases (a person doesn't seem American then common sense says they aren't)
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Measuring Poverty Very hard to measure because it covers a broad amount of people and a condition of deprivation due to economic circumstances
Theories of Poverty Socially constructed and has a lot to do with it
Causes of Poverty Hard to measure the causes of poverty...
Situational View of Poverty - Attitude and behavioral differences exist
-Factors such as deindustrialization (Wilson) 
-Lack of skills to bring to the market
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Selection Theory Connection between low income and poorer health (spuriousness) 

Explained through correlation between SES and Health, the observed association may be explained by other factors such as genetics and biology which can affect both. (405)
Human Capital Obtaining the potential important skills, cultural capital sees them as arbitrarily imposed by those in power help reproduce their privilege
 
The process such as: going to college,taking a night class or learning a trade to help better work abilities or skills (472)
Socialization and the Hidden Curriculum (education) The nonacademic socialization and training that take place in the schooling system. 
For example, the way to integrate students and install values that will help them in the future. 
Pygmalion Effect/Self-Fulfilling Prophecy The process that occurs when behavior is modified to meet preexisting expectations.
Experiments shows that randomly teaching teachers that some kids are higher ability makes a difference and creates differences in performance...
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Creative Class A category of workers in multiple occupations and industrialization united by the fact that creativity is central to their productive work. 
Education More or Less Important?
Georg Simmel on Capitalism? Positive view:used idea of feudalism, but with capitalism, the salary system would allow the idea of more items being produced would help everyone and allow more freedom. ?
Globalization Globalization refers to the increasingly global relationships of culture, people, and economic activity.
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Shifts in Home & Work The Industrialization Revolution created a division between home and work: men would go off to labor and women would stay at home to clean and such... work would be separate from home...evolved into the idea that the two environments intertwine and women don't necessarily stay home but can go to work. Some businesses make luxury in work place as to accommodate workers to mix the two 
The Corporation Is a juristic person- an entity that ha all the legal rights, duties, and responsibilities of a person, although their primary goal is generally pursuit of profit…Only obligation is resource extraction and make profit
Max Weber on Origins of Capitalism Linked the rise of capitalism to technology, ideas, and beliefs, as well as the Protestant Reformation. Used Iron Cage idea that we are in this idea where we do things for the better good for ourselves and we will be motivated and rewarded in the afterlife. We do things for pure goodness 
 People did things because they were inherently valuable, who you are...capitalism made it necessary to become more than mean ends rational 

Bias in Test Design (Education) Tests can be designed to favor a certain group or range of people and benefit them more than othersnot the general, would be obvious to contain knowledge about. 
Example: test question about an authentic artist might be favored towards a wealthier student who actually goes to museums, therefore penalizing the students that don't.
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Objectified Actual objects such as clothing... kids are taught like things, Pygmalion effect 
Status and Qualitative Distinctions in Higher Education The status competition such as where you go, what you studied and who you got to know
Social Determinants Psychosocial

Materialist

Fundamental Causes
Selection and Spuriousness of Studying Poverty There are different levels of poverty and the idea of measuring poverty through a census, per say, can't necessarily be reliable because of spuriousness. The idea that spuriousness means that other factors such as biological, can affect poverty make the idea of causation complex. 
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Varieties of Stratification Systems Estate System
Caste System
Class System: 
Malthus on Inequality Social stratification and inequality is viewed as a good thing because it controls population 
Symbolic Interactionist View on Inequality
Mead- the I, Me & Generalized Other Infants know "I" but no the "me" until social integration

Apply norms and behaviors learned in specific situations to new situations
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Families & Socialization – Class-based Differences Family is the primary socializer and each class has it's own socialization
Elaborated & Restricted Codes of Communication Each class has it's own way of talking?
Symbolic Interactionism *Dramaturgical Approach* The view (Erving Goffman) of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets
For Example, there is a certain "script" a professor follows whereas a student "script" follows. 

Everyone works to try to better themselves through their "acting" and impress an audience. 
The Social Construction of Reality People give meaning or value to ideas or objects through social interactions 
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Estate System political based system characterized by limited social mobility. Laws written in a language that rights and duteds seperate idividuals and distribute power uneqally. Three classes: clergy, nobility and commoners (peasants and city dwellers)... you can buy your way into another system but mostly you were born into that estate and have more power the higher in the system you were. 
Caste System System of stratification based on hereditary notions of religious and theological purity and generally offer no prospective for social mobility. Divisions correspond loosely to: priests, warriors, traders and workers. There are certain things people, such as the untouchables, couldn't do because they weren't part of that division...subdivisions are usually created and instead of individual mobility it's more like group mobility to try to get higher in the pyramid. 

Class System Economically based system of stratification with somewhat loose social mobility based on roles in the production process rather than individual characteristics. There is no obvious lines in society that separate the:upper-class, middle-class and so on. Based oh how much capital of how they present themselves as a worker in society. 
Total Institution
An institution is any structure or mechanism of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of a set of individuals within a given human community.
Keep under control day-to-day duties such as a school or prison of military
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Theories of its Origins
Hard vs. Soft Power in State System Power that is like military-like vs. power such as bribing and ???
Marx's View of Religion Used to keep workers from questioning their oppressed positions in everyday life by promising riches in the afterlife...the "opium of the people"....religion will soon be turned into communism
Weber's View of Religion Idea of the "the elect" and certain people would go to heaven and person fulfills a duty with God through hard work.
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Durkheim's View of Religion
Collective Effervescence
“religious force is nothing other than the collective and anonymous force of the clan” and moments of heightened solidarity

Totemism A system of belief in which humans are said to have a connection or a kinship with a spirit-being, such as an animal or plant. 
Pluralism The presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society. negative to religions because doesn't provide emphasis on certain ideas 
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Religious "Marketplace" in U.S. People are open to different religions and religious figures compete for the people to be apart of that religious practice.
Church-Sect Cycle branching off of multiple churches; usually start out be separating from an existing church because of disagreement over the direction or emphasis of the church.
Microsociological Approaches to Religion
Resistance to Scientific Change/Technological Change
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Impacts of Scientific/Technological Changes of Inequalities
Collective Action
Theories of Collective Action
Social Movements
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Models of Social Movement Emergence
Social Movement Organizations A group developed to recruit new members and coordinate participation in a particular social movement
Social Science as a Community
Social Physics Idea of Auguste Comte where 
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Generalizability The extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied.
Validity The extent in which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure
Ethnocentricism Judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.
Consumerism Social and economic order based on fostering a desire to purchase goods and services in ever greater amounts.
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Ascribed Status The social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily later in life.
Achieved Status Status is a sociological term denoting a social position that a person can acquire on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen.
Social Networks Social structure made up of a set of actors and the dyadic ties between these actors (such as relationships, connections, or interactions).
Eugenics Literally meaning “well born”, the theory of controlling the fertility of populations to influence inheritable traits passed on from generation to generation. 
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Medical Profession A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments.
Proliferation of Labels
Stratification and Healthcare
Why higher SES People have better Health Care People with higher SES have better access to resources, selection, drift and social determinance
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Alienation Theory by Marx, saying we are alienated with our production and captialism, no connection with objects
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 Normal ScienceScience that is conducted within the understandings, rules and procedures of an existing paradigm.
 MegachurchesA church having 2,000 or more in average weekend attendance.
 Role Theory-the Sick RoleA concept describes the social rights and obligations of sick individual.

 The Welfare StateConcept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens.
 MeritocracyA society that bases status and mobility on individual attributes, ability and achievements
 Culture of PovertyArgument that poor people adopt certain practices that differ from those of middle-class "mainstream" society in order to adopt and survive in different economic circumstances
 RacismThe belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits
 Gender RolesRefer to the set of social and behavioral norms that are considered to be socially appropriate for individuals of a specific sex in the context of a specific culture, which differ widely between cultures and over time.
 Official Poverty Line
Poverty determined when a person does not have enough money to buy essentials such as food
 Paradox of State PowerAuthority that resorts to physical coercion and looses its legitimacy
 Quantitative vs. QualitativeResearch obtained that could be translated to numerical information

Information that can not be translated on a numerical information
 Agricultural RevolutionIntroduction of new farming technology that increases food output in farm production. 
 CredentialismThe overemphasis on credentials for signing social status of qualification
 Macro- vs. Micro- SociologySeeks to understand local interaction such as through in-depth interviews

Seeks a larger and more broad interpretation of sociological data collected? 
 ReliabilityThe likelihood of getting constant results using the same method
 Deductive vs. Inductive Approach
Theory-->observations

Observations--> Theory
 HomophilyThe tendency of individuals to associate and bond with similar others. 
 Conspicuous ConsumptionSpending on goods and services acquired mainly for the purpose of displaying income or wealth.
"we mistake $ for status" 
 FeminismSeeks to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life 
 Social Darwinism"survival of the fittest"

 Social RegulationNumber or rules guiding daily life and what you can expect from the world on a day-to-day basis
 Social IntegrationHow well you integrate into a social group or community 

 Social CapitalAny relationship between people that can facilitate the actions of others. 
Getting more connections
 Interpretive Sociology (Verstehen)
Study how social actors understand their actions and social world through experience of what they're studying
 Mechanic vs. Organic SolidaritySocial cohesion based on sameness vs.social cohesion based on different on different and interdependence of the parts
 Punitive vs. Rehabilitative JusticeFocused on making violator suffer and defining boundaries of acceptable (mechanical solidarity) vs. where there's specific circumstances that attempts to find ways for rehab (organic)
 Material vs. Non-Material CultureIncludes physical things such as technology and the environment vs. includes values, beliefs. behaviors & social norms
 Cooley & "The Looking Glass Self"Imagining how people would see themselves through others.
 Feudalism
Economic system characterized by the presence of lords, vassals, serfs, fiefs....
Peasants would work the field for the king and when the nobles came over they were forced to move to the city
 VariablesThere is Dependent: outcome (what we want to find)
and Independent: measured factor and usually changed a little to find different results(already predicted) 
 Size of GroupsPrimary (family), Secondary (instrumental, meant to end), Large (structural, mediated info and status difference), Small (equality, face-to-face, uni-focal, informal)
 Durkheim's Theory of SuicideIdea of the world being an organism and lack or social regulation (routine) and integration (lonely) 
 Scientific DiscoveryDiscovery is happening more quick
 CultsReligious movements that make novel claims about the supernatural. 
 Max Weber's Ideal Types of AuthorityCharismatic (people skills), Tradition (king) and legal-rational (has specific power/title)
 Sorting and Tracking
A system that places students into programs and groups according to their skills interests and talents.

 
 SecularismMovement away from religosity and spirituality as predicted my Comte, move toward science
 MedicalizationMedicalization is the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions and problems, and thus come under the authority of doctors and other health professionals to study, diagnose, prevent or treat.
 Exchange MobilityWhen people change positions the number of spots stay the same both moving up and down
 Gender SegregationSex segregation is the separation of people according to their sex.
 Socio-Economic StatusSocioeconomic status is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family-s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
 Social Pressure and Influence in GroupsArsh test showed how easy conformity was...peer pressure to do something
 Symbolic InteractionismMicro-level:people act in accordance with shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions (pot smoker or doctor)
 TriadsA triad in simplest terms is defined as a "group of three".
 Labeling Theory of DevianceHow people are labeled and accept the label as being true (that deviant person and everyone else) 
 EthnomethodologyEthnomethodology is an ethnographic approach to sociological inquiry introduced by the American sociologist Harold Garfinkel (1917-2011).
 Elite SchoolsPrivate schools. Students are theorized to perform better on tests and can gain more connections?
 Mass Media & Media EffectsThe idea that mass media can reach a large audience and shape culture
 Durkheim’s Functionalism vs. Conflict in CultureFunctionalism: an important set of values and norms into which we are socialized and important for social cohesiveness vs. Conflict: see our culture as reflecting underlying differences groups and deedded into believing what benefits common groups. 
 Grand TheoriesOrigins of society, human nature, and where societies are headed in the future 
 Max WeberMaximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (; 21 April 1864- 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist and political economist who profoundly influenced social theory, social research, and the discipline of sociology itself.
 Law of Three PhasesTheological, Metaphysical and Scientific
 Causality vs. AssociationCausality: when we prove that one change in the factor leads to others vs can be altered
 Balance TheoryBalance Theory is a motivational theory of attitude change, proposed by Fritz Heider , which conceptualizes the consistency motive as a drive toward psychological balance.
 Racializationrefers to processes of the discursive production of racial identities.
 Professional ClosureThe idea that medical school is hard to get into but also hard to get out, from American Medical Association
 Labeling Theory and IllnessBeing sick or mentally ill can create a set of expectations and promote certain behaviors. 
 Cultural CapitalThe term cultural capital refers to non-financial social assets; they may be educational or intellectual, which might promote social mobility beyond economic means.
 IndustrializationThe process of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one. 
 Adam Smith (capitalism)
Early social philosopher of economic and social relations who believed that:
Individual self- interest helps maintain a cohesive society
Specialization increases productivity and innovation 

 Sacred vs. ProfaneSacred includes things that are meant for seperate use and kept separate from the profane, mostly likely will be in a church or religious setting
 
Profane includes things of mundane, everyday things that are religious or symbolic 

 Paradigm ShiftFramework within which scientists operate. There are particular paradigms for particular branches of scientific research. High and low paradigm fields are in part socially constructed. 

 Obedience to AuthorityThe Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of notable social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram, which measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience.
 BureaucracyLegal rational organization or administration that governs with reference to rules or roles and emphasizes meritocracy
 Political ParticipationRefers to different mechanisms for the public to express opinions - and ideally exert influence - regarding political, economic, management or other social decisions.
 RationalizationEver-expanding process of ordering or organizing (Weber)
 Embodied (education)Ways of talking, perceiving and interacting
 Drift (health)Connection between income and health. If you have poor health, you might be less likely to find gainful employment
 Oppositional Culturesculture kids "lets have fun" the lads....(culture of poverty)?
 Stereotype ThreatStereotype threat is the experience of anxiety or concern in a situation where a person has the potential to confirm a negative stereotype about their social group.
 Biological Reductionism
 Social Construction of Race
-Race is a social construct that changes over time and across different contexts
-Could think about people as: small, medium and large… the reality of the world, one continuous flow, three groups of people some people made up….race is a continuum in everything we have, if we just look at skin tone for example there are overlaps...eminently social in the making 

 Horizontal vs. VerticalThe changing of jobs in a horizontal way, being a waitress in one restaurant then moving to another waitress position vs. The changing of jobs in a vertical, more ladder-like way, from being a restaurant waitress to becoming the restaurant manager. 

 Strong and Weak TiesTies are built upon emotional intensity, shared commitments, duration of contact...family, bf/gf, BFFs
Ties that are opposite of strong ties and includes the strength of weak ties because they provide new information, an example includes acquaintances. 
 Concerted CultivationConcerted cultivation is a style of parenting that is marked by a parent's attempts to foster their child's talents by incorporating organized activities in their children's lives.
 Nature vs. NurtureThe nature versus nurture debate concerns the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature," i.e.
 Conflict SociologyThe idea that class conflict as the primary cause of social change
 Ethics in ResearchA researcher can never cause physical, emotional or psychological harm...must have informed consent and voluntary participation
 Emile Durkheim
-stresses society as a type of organism where different institutions each have a purpose
 -showed that committing suicide was not only about an individual’s psychological state 
-society as a type of organism where different institutions each have a purpose 
 Karl Marxmore of economist; idea of alienation (people make products of services they cant obtain themselves; idea that labor goes to capitalists, harder you work more exploited you are
Capitalism will destroy itself-->working class rising up--?communism

 Social InstitutionsGroups of social positions where that have certain roles interconnected, the university
 Auguste Comte"social physics", sociological laws should be as scientific as possible, 
Find the most generalized laws possible to explain the most phenomena possible 
Saw everything social (individuals, institutions, societies) moving through three phases: theological, metaphysical, and scientific (positivist) 

 Expansion of Conflict TheoryThe expansion class conflict to culture and politics such as political groups.
 Schools and Socialization (socialization)Very important part of socialization and disadvantages the working class kids. 
 Rousseau on InequalityThe idea that private property created social inequality and that it leads to social conflict.
 Structural MobilityMobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy. such as the expansion of high-tech jobs in the past 20 years. There are less agricultural jobs and more technological jobs so people move to better themselves
 Gender EssentialismEssentialism is the line of thought hat explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones. Per se, it you are born with male parts, essentialists believe, you are essentially and absolutely a man, and you will be sexually attracted to women only, as preordained by nature. (271)
 Maintaining Racial BoundariesOppression, one drop rule (if you had one drop of African American blood made a person African American), ambiguity of racial divisions (Jews in Nazi Germany) and Borderline cases (a person doesn't seem American then common sense says they aren't)
 Measuring PovertyVery hard to measure because it covers a broad amount of people and a condition of deprivation due to economic circumstances
 Theories of PovertySocially constructed and has a lot to do with it
 Causes of PovertyHard to measure the causes of poverty...
 Situational View of Poverty- Attitude and behavioral differences exist
-Factors such as deindustrialization (Wilson) 
-Lack of skills to bring to the market
 Selection TheoryConnection between low income and poorer health (spuriousness) 

Explained through correlation between SES and Health, the observed association may be explained by other factors such as genetics and biology which can affect both. (405)
 Human CapitalObtaining the potential important skills, cultural capital sees them as arbitrarily imposed by those in power help reproduce their privilege
 
The process such as: going to college,taking a night class or learning a trade to help better work abilities or skills (472)
 Socialization and the Hidden Curriculum (education)The nonacademic socialization and training that take place in the schooling system. 
For example, the way to integrate students and install values that will help them in the future. 
 Pygmalion Effect/Self-Fulfilling ProphecyThe process that occurs when behavior is modified to meet preexisting expectations.
Experiments shows that randomly teaching teachers that some kids are higher ability makes a difference and creates differences in performance...
 Creative ClassA category of workers in multiple occupations and industrialization united by the fact that creativity is central to their productive work. 
 Education More or Less Important?
 Georg Simmel on Capitalism?Positive view:used idea of feudalism, but with capitalism, the salary system would allow the idea of more items being produced would help everyone and allow more freedom. ?
 GlobalizationGlobalization refers to the increasingly global relationships of culture, people, and economic activity.
 Shifts in Home & WorkThe Industrialization Revolution created a division between home and work: men would go off to labor and women would stay at home to clean and such... work would be separate from home...evolved into the idea that the two environments intertwine and women don't necessarily stay home but can go to work. Some businesses make luxury in work place as to accommodate workers to mix the two 
 The CorporationIs a juristic person- an entity that ha all the legal rights, duties, and responsibilities of a person, although their primary goal is generally pursuit of profit…Only obligation is resource extraction and make profit
 Max Weber on Origins of CapitalismLinked the rise of capitalism to technology, ideas, and beliefs, as well as the Protestant Reformation. Used Iron Cage idea that we are in this idea where we do things for the better good for ourselves and we will be motivated and rewarded in the afterlife. We do things for pure goodness 
 People did things because they were inherently valuable, who you are...capitalism made it necessary to become more than mean ends rational 

 Bias in Test Design (Education)Tests can be designed to favor a certain group or range of people and benefit them more than othersnot the general, would be obvious to contain knowledge about. 
Example: test question about an authentic artist might be favored towards a wealthier student who actually goes to museums, therefore penalizing the students that don't.
 ObjectifiedActual objects such as clothing... kids are taught like things, Pygmalion effect 
 Status and Qualitative Distinctions in Higher EducationThe status competition such as where you go, what you studied and who you got to know
 Social DeterminantsPsychosocial

Materialist

Fundamental Causes
 Selection and Spuriousness of Studying PovertyThere are different levels of poverty and the idea of measuring poverty through a census, per say, can't necessarily be reliable because of spuriousness. The idea that spuriousness means that other factors such as biological, can affect poverty make the idea of causation complex. 
 Varieties of Stratification SystemsEstate System
Caste System
Class System: 
 Malthus on InequalitySocial stratification and inequality is viewed as a good thing because it controls population 
 Symbolic Interactionist View on Inequality
 Mead- the I, Me & Generalized OtherInfants know "I" but no the "me" until social integration

Apply norms and behaviors learned in specific situations to new situations
 Families & Socialization – Class-based DifferencesFamily is the primary socializer and each class has it's own socialization
 Elaborated & Restricted Codes of CommunicationEach class has it's own way of talking?
 Symbolic Interactionism *Dramaturgical Approach*The view (Erving Goffman) of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets
For Example, there is a certain "script" a professor follows whereas a student "script" follows. 

Everyone works to try to better themselves through their "acting" and impress an audience. 
 The Social Construction of RealityPeople give meaning or value to ideas or objects through social interactions 
 Estate Systempolitical based system characterized by limited social mobility. Laws written in a language that rights and duteds seperate idividuals and distribute power uneqally. Three classes: clergy, nobility and commoners (peasants and city dwellers)... you can buy your way into another system but mostly you were born into that estate and have more power the higher in the system you were. 
 Caste SystemSystem of stratification based on hereditary notions of religious and theological purity and generally offer no prospective for social mobility. Divisions correspond loosely to: priests, warriors, traders and workers. There are certain things people, such as the untouchables, couldn't do because they weren't part of that division...subdivisions are usually created and instead of individual mobility it's more like group mobility to try to get higher in the pyramid. 

 Class SystemEconomically based system of stratification with somewhat loose social mobility based on roles in the production process rather than individual characteristics. There is no obvious lines in society that separate the:upper-class, middle-class and so on. Based oh how much capital of how they present themselves as a worker in society. 
 Total Institution
An institution is any structure or mechanism of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of a set of individuals within a given human community.
Keep under control day-to-day duties such as a school or prison of military
 Theories of its Origins
 Hard vs. Soft Power in State SystemPower that is like military-like vs. power such as bribing and ???
 Marx's View of ReligionUsed to keep workers from questioning their oppressed positions in everyday life by promising riches in the afterlife...the "opium of the people"....religion will soon be turned into communism
 Weber's View of ReligionIdea of the "the elect" and certain people would go to heaven and person fulfills a duty with God through hard work.
 Durkheim's View of Religion 
 Collective Effervescence
“religious force is nothing other than the collective and anonymous force of the clan” and moments of heightened solidarity

 TotemismA system of belief in which humans are said to have a connection or a kinship with a spirit-being, such as an animal or plant. 
 PluralismThe presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society. negative to religions because doesn't provide emphasis on certain ideas 
 Religious "Marketplace" in U.S.People are open to different religions and religious figures compete for the people to be apart of that religious practice.
 Church-Sect Cyclebranching off of multiple churches; usually start out be separating from an existing church because of disagreement over the direction or emphasis of the church.
 Microsociological Approaches to Religion
 Resistance to Scientific Change/Technological Change
 Impacts of Scientific/Technological Changes of Inequalities
 Collective Action
 Theories of Collective Action 
 Social Movements 
 Models of Social Movement Emergence 
 Social Movement OrganizationsA group developed to recruit new members and coordinate participation in a particular social movement
 Social Science as a Community 
 Social PhysicsIdea of Auguste Comte where 
 GeneralizabilityThe extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied.
 ValidityThe extent in which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure
 EthnocentricismJudging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.
 ConsumerismSocial and economic order based on fostering a desire to purchase goods and services in ever greater amounts.
 Ascribed StatusThe social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily later in life.
 Achieved StatusStatus is a sociological term denoting a social position that a person can acquire on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen.
 Social NetworksSocial structure made up of a set of actors and the dyadic ties between these actors (such as relationships, connections, or interactions).
 EugenicsLiterally meaning “well born”, the theory of controlling the fertility of populations to influence inheritable traits passed on from generation to generation. 
 Medical ProfessionA physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments.
 Proliferation of Labels 
 Stratification and Healthcare 
 Why higher SES People have better Health CarePeople with higher SES have better access to resources, selection, drift and social determinance
 AlienationTheory by Marx, saying we are alienated with our production and captialism, no connection with objects
   
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