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Vocab Ch 1 2 3 and 11 - Flashcards

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Class:SOC 4023 - Violence and Society
Subject:Sociology
University:University of Texas - San Antonio
Term:Fall 2014
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Aggression hard to define because of different perceptions and contexts. Behavior that is physically and/or psychologically harmful.
Sample a small quantity to show what the whole is like.
UCR program The most widely used source of statistical information about violent crime in the United States
NIBRS National Incident-Based Reporting System Includes detailed information on crime incidents, including the characteristics of the victim, such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, and resident status. FBI’s national database of crime implemented to include more characteristics of the incident than previous reporting systems. NIBRS data are more specific than data in the Uniform Crime Reports, and the system includes many more offenses that local agencies have to report information on. It includes detailed information on crime incidents, including the characteristics of the victim, such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, and resident status. In all, NIBRS categorizes each incident and arrest in one of 22 basic crime categories that span 46 separate offenses. A total of 53 data elements about the victim, property, and offender are collected under NIBRS.
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NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey) Designed by the US Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, to measure crime victimization
Structural Violence Discriminatory social arrangements that can be construed as violent. social inequality. Examples might be minorities access to education, healthcare, an adequate diet, and other necessities for survival and human development.
Incidents an event or occurrence.For crimes of violence, each act is measured as 1 unit regardless of the # of victims. Ex: If an offender robs 3 people leaving a bar, there would be 1 incident but 3 victimizations.
Victimization rates The number of people 12 and older who experience a particular type of victimization
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Subcultures of Violence The idea that members of particular groups or subgroups are prone to violence because of values & beliefs embedded in their cultures.
Instrumental Violence Violence as a means to an end, such as acts committed durning a robbery.
Lifetime prevalence a portion of people that in some point in their life up until the assessment have experienced some condition; Rates that show the proportion of people in a given population who have ever experienced a particular form of victimization
Unity of human aggression All violence is connected by a web of actions and behaviors, ideas, perceptions and justification. While the individual dynamics of specific violent behavior may vary somewhat, acts share a number of essential characteristics that bind them together
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Brutalization hypothesis The argument that capital punishment may actually serve to increase murder rates rather than cause them to decrease.
NIBRS (National Incident-Based Reporting System):  Includes detailed information on crime incidents, including the characteristics of the victim, such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, and resident status. FBI’s national database of crime implemented to include more characteristics of the incident than previous reporting systems. NIBRS data are more specific than data in the Uniform Crime Reports, and the system includes many more offenses that local agencies have to report information on. It includes detailed information on crime incidents, including the characteristics of the victim, such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, and resident status. In all, NIBRS categorizes each incident and arrest in one of 22 basic crime categories that span 46 separate offenses. A total of 53 data elements about the victim, property, and offender are collected under NIBRS.
Population inhabitants of a particular area. Large group from which a sample is selected
Spillover Theory

Justifications for violence in socially approved settings “spill over” into other settings and result in illegitimate forms of violence; The theory that violence overlaps into different parts of someone’s life. For example some suggest that more society legitimates some kinds of violence, such as in war, capital punishment, and justifiable homicide, the more illegitimate violence, such as robbery and murder, there will be.


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Expressive Violence Emotionally-motivated violent behavior; Motivations for violence are emotional, such as jealousy or anger.
Righteous Slaughter humiliation = rage. Retaliation or defense of values; Perpetrators perceive that their violence is in defense of some important value or principle and that the victims are not innocent but, on the contrary, have brought violence upon themselves.
Anomie Feeling of strain. Relabeling of strain. Feeling like you aren’t socially integrated. A state that results when people living in impoverished circumstances have limited access to conventional and legitimate means of success, anomie theory suggest they turn to violence as a means to achieve success.
Cycle of Violence parents are strongest role models, violence is normalized, violence is learned, and future violence is correlated with early exposure to it.; The idea that those who experience and/or witness violence as children are more likely to become violent in adulthood compared with children who do not experience or witness violence.
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Eugenics Movement justified sterilization and discrimination; Attempts to improve the human race through selective breeding practices, forced sterilization programs, and similar kinds of policies. These ideas formed the philosophical justification for many discriminatory laws, beliefs and policies.
Relative Deprivation deprived in comparison to another person; A type of inequality, being poor and living within a relatively affluent community.
Shame The painful feeling arising from awareness of something improper or dishonorable done by oneself or another.
Turning Points changes in a person’s life that affects the course of their life (marriage, job, kids)
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Atavisms Violent criminals as evolutionary throwbacks. The idea that individuals are born to be violent and criminal, and they are identifiable through a number of distinguishing physical characteristics, including the following: a small head with a large facial area; a sloping forehead; large, protruding ears, bushy eyebrows that met over the nose, abnormally large teeth, and tattoos.
Dehumanization perception that victims are less than us or are less human.; It is easier to remove ethical restrictions against violence where we perceive the victims to be less than we are or perhaps even less than human.
Merton’s General Strain Theory 3 sources: removal of positive stimulus, blocked opportunity, insertion of negative stimulus. Macro. Focuses on connection between stress and violence. Lower class only
Agnew’s General Theory of Crime Individual/micro. Tries to find why people are stressed. Looks at everyone.
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Super Predators A type of violent offender popularized by criminologist John Dilulio. Radically impulsive, brutally remorseless youngster, including pre teenage boys, who murder, assault, rape, rob, burglarize, deal deadly drugs, join gun-toting gangs, and create serious communal disorders
Macro-level

big picture, looking at a whole city


Antisocial Personality Disorder often characterized as being very narcissistic, reckless, and emotionally shallow, they are also unable to empathize or feel compassion for others.
Deindividuation Loss of sense of self and individuality when in a group, collective mind takes over the individual. The loss of sense means that individuals are more capable of acting outside of the boundaries of their normal behavior.
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Differential Association Theory: People not only learn the techniques of criminality but also the motives and attitudes.; Sociological variant of social learning theory, asserts that if you associate with individuals and groups who use violence and who have attitudes supporting and justifying violence, then you are more likely to engage in violent behavior yourself.
Institutional Anomie Theory of Crime Links crime to the existing social structure. Suggest that the high rates of crime and violence found in the US society can, in part be explained with reference to the notion of the “American Dream” which suggest that economic success can be achieved by anyone who works hard, plays by the rules, and is willing to engage in competition with other for jobs, income, and status. Our culture pressures people to strive relentlessly for success-primarily monetary success. Relentless pressure for financial success causes some to turn to crime.
Focal concerns posited in 1962 by Walter B. Miller, attempts to explain the behavior of "members of adolescent street corner groups in lower class communities" as concern for six focal concerns: trouble, toughness, smartness, excitement, fate, autonomy.[1] These focal concerns are described as "areas or issues which command widespread and persistent attention and a high degree of emotional involvement."[2] Miller's theory, as it is often referred to, views these criminogenic influences as a learned part of the lower-class subculture values.[3] In essence, the theory suggests that delinquency is in fact part of the learned cultural values rather than an anomic reaction to unattainable goals.
Micro-level small picture, looking at one person
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Code of the Street Honor + guard against insults. Taking respect very seriously.; Code of behavior that involves protecting one’s honor & reputation against acts of disrespect, even with violence if necessary.
Economic Deprivation Poverty
Phrenology studying the skull in relation to character and mental abilities.
Strain Theories Theories that content that blocked or frustrated needs and desires may result in criminality and violence.
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Psychopathy Mental illness or disorder: Antisocial personality disorder. A psychopathic individual is characterized as being very narcissistic, reckless, emotionally shallow, and unable to empathize or feel compassion for others.
Addiction Turns a desire or craving for something into an urgent need. When individuals are addicted to a drug, they must continue taking it in order to prevent their bodies form going into withdraw.
Psychoactive Effects of Drugs

Studies attempting to find a link between various drugs and violence have been inconsistent. In addition, all of these studies are correlational and not experimental, which means that no causal relationship has been established.


Handgun Homicides risk of death increases if a gun is present.
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Schedule I Drugs

Drugs that have no accepted medical utility and a high potential for abuse.


Schedule II Drugs Substances having high abuse risk but also some accepted medical purpose.
Illicit Drug Use can be illegal drugs or using legal drugs incorrectly.
Disinhibiting lowers inhibitions and thought process.; The effect of loosening self-restraint on behavior of substance, such as alcohol.
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Emotional Desensitization getting used to seeing violence on media so that it affects us less.
Taylor Paradigm Measures aggression by the extent to which subjects give electric shocks to planted confederates (individuals pretending to be subjects themselves but who are really part of the experiment) for some incorrect answer on a given test or task.
Arousal Component
Self-Protection Argument owning guns as a means of protection
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Collateral Consequences The hidden costs or sanctions faced by those released from prison. These include being excluded from voting, jobs, housing, and other public benefits
PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) Individuals who experience an extreme and distressing event can develop a set of symptoms that include recurrent dreams and nightmares, flashbacks, avoidance behaviors, psychological numbing, outbursts of anger, difficulty concentrating, a heightened startle response, and various other problems that can dramatically affect their ability to function and maintain relationships and jobs.
Tertiary Prevention intervening in the lives of those already affected; Geared toward intervening in the lives of those who have been impacted by violence.
Hot Spots spots in town that are filled with crime.
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Prevention trying to keep damage from being done
Restorative Justice

Largely concerned with repairing the harm and damage caused by violence and criminality. This approach generally relies on cooperative rather than punitive and judgemental process and often involves mediation, restitution, and similar forms of healing.


Formal Costs of Violence Medical bills, legal fees, etc
Inequality Generally described as the economic, social, and political inequality between the rich and the poor.
Generated by Koofers.com
Primary Prevention population outreach. Finding causes of violence.
Problem-Solving Policing

police intervening in a problem area before crime takes place


Informal Costs of Violence stress, lost wages from time off
Intervention trying to keep damage from going further.
Generated by Koofers.com
Secondary Prevention identifying high-risk youth without protective factors
Public Health Perspective looking at violence as a disease and how to treat it
3 key points of “unity of aggression."
  • All violence is connected by a web of actions and behaviors

  • All violent acts share a number of essential characteristics

  • By and large, perpetrators rely on similar justifications for their violent acts

Use social learning theory to explain the relationship between media and violence.
  • Social learning theory is where you learn by watching others. When someone observes violence they learn it. This is especially the case when the person is younger and they are observing a lot. Media is growing more and more and it’s getting easier to access. This means it’ll be easier to learn about violence.

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Discuss homicide as it relates to the access of guns v. knives during a violent incident. t is easier to kill someone with a gun than a knife. Guns carry a greater threat than knives do. It is also the case that when a gun is present, compared to a knife, it is 3X more likely a death will occur. There is a difference in accessibility, however a greater difference in the damage that can be done.
Discuss violence using culture and context. Different types of violence are accepted in different cultures and contexts. Tackling is acceptable in a football game, not when you’re shopping. In one culture sacrifice may be tolerated but in America it is not. There isn’t really a “universally accepted” violence.
Explain how social learning theory is a ‘macro-level’ theory. Macro-Level is looking at the overall picture and social learning theory is where you learn behaviors based off of watching people are you.
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 Aggressionhard to define because of different perceptions and contexts. Behavior that is physically and/or psychologically harmful.
 Samplea small quantity to show what the whole is like.
 UCR programThe most widely used source of statistical information about violent crime in the United States
 NIBRS National Incident-Based Reporting SystemIncludes detailed information on crime incidents, including the characteristics of the victim, such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, and resident status. FBI’s national database of crime implemented to include more characteristics of the incident than previous reporting systems. NIBRS data are more specific than data in the Uniform Crime Reports, and the system includes many more offenses that local agencies have to report information on. It includes detailed information on crime incidents, including the characteristics of the victim, such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, and resident status. In all, NIBRS categorizes each incident and arrest in one of 22 basic crime categories that span 46 separate offenses. A total of 53 data elements about the victim, property, and offender are collected under NIBRS.
 NCVS(National Crime Victimization Survey) Designed by the US Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, to measure crime victimization
 Structural ViolenceDiscriminatory social arrangements that can be construed as violent. social inequality. Examples might be minorities access to education, healthcare, an adequate diet, and other necessities for survival and human development.
 Incidentsan event or occurrence.For crimes of violence, each act is measured as 1 unit regardless of the # of victims. Ex: If an offender robs 3 people leaving a bar, there would be 1 incident but 3 victimizations.
 Victimization ratesThe number of people 12 and older who experience a particular type of victimization
 Subcultures of ViolenceThe idea that members of particular groups or subgroups are prone to violence because of values & beliefs embedded in their cultures.
 Instrumental ViolenceViolence as a means to an end, such as acts committed durning a robbery.
 Lifetime prevalencea portion of people that in some point in their life up until the assessment have experienced some condition; Rates that show the proportion of people in a given population who have ever experienced a particular form of victimization
 Unity of human aggressionAll violence is connected by a web of actions and behaviors, ideas, perceptions and justification. While the individual dynamics of specific violent behavior may vary somewhat, acts share a number of essential characteristics that bind them together
 Brutalization hypothesisThe argument that capital punishment may actually serve to increase murder rates rather than cause them to decrease.
 NIBRS(National Incident-Based Reporting System):  Includes detailed information on crime incidents, including the characteristics of the victim, such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, and resident status. FBI’s national database of crime implemented to include more characteristics of the incident than previous reporting systems. NIBRS data are more specific than data in the Uniform Crime Reports, and the system includes many more offenses that local agencies have to report information on. It includes detailed information on crime incidents, including the characteristics of the victim, such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, and resident status. In all, NIBRS categorizes each incident and arrest in one of 22 basic crime categories that span 46 separate offenses. A total of 53 data elements about the victim, property, and offender are collected under NIBRS.
 Populationinhabitants of a particular area. Large group from which a sample is selected
 Spillover Theory

Justifications for violence in socially approved settings “spill over” into other settings and result in illegitimate forms of violence; The theory that violence overlaps into different parts of someone’s life. For example some suggest that more society legitimates some kinds of violence, such as in war, capital punishment, and justifiable homicide, the more illegitimate violence, such as robbery and murder, there will be.


 Expressive ViolenceEmotionally-motivated violent behavior; Motivations for violence are emotional, such as jealousy or anger.
 Righteous Slaughter humiliation = rage. Retaliation or defense of values; Perpetrators perceive that their violence is in defense of some important value or principle and that the victims are not innocent but, on the contrary, have brought violence upon themselves.
 AnomieFeeling of strain. Relabeling of strain. Feeling like you aren’t socially integrated. A state that results when people living in impoverished circumstances have limited access to conventional and legitimate means of success, anomie theory suggest they turn to violence as a means to achieve success.
 Cycle of Violenceparents are strongest role models, violence is normalized, violence is learned, and future violence is correlated with early exposure to it.; The idea that those who experience and/or witness violence as children are more likely to become violent in adulthood compared with children who do not experience or witness violence.
 Eugenics Movementjustified sterilization and discrimination; Attempts to improve the human race through selective breeding practices, forced sterilization programs, and similar kinds of policies. These ideas formed the philosophical justification for many discriminatory laws, beliefs and policies.
 Relative Deprivationdeprived in comparison to another person; A type of inequality, being poor and living within a relatively affluent community.
 ShameThe painful feeling arising from awareness of something improper or dishonorable done by oneself or another.
 Turning Pointschanges in a person’s life that affects the course of their life (marriage, job, kids)
 AtavismsViolent criminals as evolutionary throwbacks. The idea that individuals are born to be violent and criminal, and they are identifiable through a number of distinguishing physical characteristics, including the following: a small head with a large facial area; a sloping forehead; large, protruding ears, bushy eyebrows that met over the nose, abnormally large teeth, and tattoos.
 Dehumanizationperception that victims are less than us or are less human.; It is easier to remove ethical restrictions against violence where we perceive the victims to be less than we are or perhaps even less than human.
 Merton’s General Strain Theory3 sources: removal of positive stimulus, blocked opportunity, insertion of negative stimulus. Macro. Focuses on connection between stress and violence. Lower class only
 Agnew’s General Theory of CrimeIndividual/micro. Tries to find why people are stressed. Looks at everyone.
 Super PredatorsA type of violent offender popularized by criminologist John Dilulio. Radically impulsive, brutally remorseless youngster, including pre teenage boys, who murder, assault, rape, rob, burglarize, deal deadly drugs, join gun-toting gangs, and create serious communal disorders
 Macro-level

big picture, looking at a whole city


 Antisocial Personality Disorderoften characterized as being very narcissistic, reckless, and emotionally shallow, they are also unable to empathize or feel compassion for others.
 DeindividuationLoss of sense of self and individuality when in a group, collective mind takes over the individual. The loss of sense means that individuals are more capable of acting outside of the boundaries of their normal behavior.
 Differential Association Theory:People not only learn the techniques of criminality but also the motives and attitudes.; Sociological variant of social learning theory, asserts that if you associate with individuals and groups who use violence and who have attitudes supporting and justifying violence, then you are more likely to engage in violent behavior yourself.
 Institutional Anomie Theory of CrimeLinks crime to the existing social structure. Suggest that the high rates of crime and violence found in the US society can, in part be explained with reference to the notion of the “American Dream” which suggest that economic success can be achieved by anyone who works hard, plays by the rules, and is willing to engage in competition with other for jobs, income, and status. Our culture pressures people to strive relentlessly for success-primarily monetary success. Relentless pressure for financial success causes some to turn to crime.
 Focal concernsposited in 1962 by Walter B. Miller, attempts to explain the behavior of "members of adolescent street corner groups in lower class communities" as concern for six focal concerns: trouble, toughness, smartness, excitement, fate, autonomy.[1] These focal concerns are described as "areas or issues which command widespread and persistent attention and a high degree of emotional involvement."[2] Miller's theory, as it is often referred to, views these criminogenic influences as a learned part of the lower-class subculture values.[3] In essence, the theory suggests that delinquency is in fact part of the learned cultural values rather than an anomic reaction to unattainable goals.
 Micro-levelsmall picture, looking at one person
 Code of the StreetHonor + guard against insults. Taking respect very seriously.; Code of behavior that involves protecting one’s honor & reputation against acts of disrespect, even with violence if necessary.
 Economic DeprivationPoverty
 Phrenologystudying the skull in relation to character and mental abilities.
 Strain TheoriesTheories that content that blocked or frustrated needs and desires may result in criminality and violence.
 PsychopathyMental illness or disorder: Antisocial personality disorder. A psychopathic individual is characterized as being very narcissistic, reckless, emotionally shallow, and unable to empathize or feel compassion for others.
 AddictionTurns a desire or craving for something into an urgent need. When individuals are addicted to a drug, they must continue taking it in order to prevent their bodies form going into withdraw.
 Psychoactive Effects of Drugs

Studies attempting to find a link between various drugs and violence have been inconsistent. In addition, all of these studies are correlational and not experimental, which means that no causal relationship has been established.


 Handgun Homicidesrisk of death increases if a gun is present.
 Schedule I Drugs

Drugs that have no accepted medical utility and a high potential for abuse.


 Schedule II DrugsSubstances having high abuse risk but also some accepted medical purpose.
 Illicit Drug Usecan be illegal drugs or using legal drugs incorrectly.
 Disinhibitinglowers inhibitions and thought process.; The effect of loosening self-restraint on behavior of substance, such as alcohol.
 Emotional Desensitizationgetting used to seeing violence on media so that it affects us less.
 Taylor ParadigmMeasures aggression by the extent to which subjects give electric shocks to planted confederates (individuals pretending to be subjects themselves but who are really part of the experiment) for some incorrect answer on a given test or task.
 Arousal Component 
 Self-Protection Argumentowning guns as a means of protection
 Collateral ConsequencesThe hidden costs or sanctions faced by those released from prison. These include being excluded from voting, jobs, housing, and other public benefits
 PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder)Individuals who experience an extreme and distressing event can develop a set of symptoms that include recurrent dreams and nightmares, flashbacks, avoidance behaviors, psychological numbing, outbursts of anger, difficulty concentrating, a heightened startle response, and various other problems that can dramatically affect their ability to function and maintain relationships and jobs.
 Tertiary Preventionintervening in the lives of those already affected; Geared toward intervening in the lives of those who have been impacted by violence.
 Hot Spotsspots in town that are filled with crime.
 Preventiontrying to keep damage from being done
 Restorative Justice

Largely concerned with repairing the harm and damage caused by violence and criminality. This approach generally relies on cooperative rather than punitive and judgemental process and often involves mediation, restitution, and similar forms of healing.


 Formal Costs of ViolenceMedical bills, legal fees, etc
 InequalityGenerally described as the economic, social, and political inequality between the rich and the poor.
 Primary Preventionpopulation outreach. Finding causes of violence.
 Problem-Solving Policing

police intervening in a problem area before crime takes place


 Informal Costs of Violencestress, lost wages from time off
 Interventiontrying to keep damage from going further.
 Secondary Preventionidentifying high-risk youth without protective factors
 Public Health Perspective looking at violence as a disease and how to treat it
 3 key points of “unity of aggression."
  • All violence is connected by a web of actions and behaviors

  • All violent acts share a number of essential characteristics

  • By and large, perpetrators rely on similar justifications for their violent acts

 Use social learning theory to explain the relationship between media and violence.
  • Social learning theory is where you learn by watching others. When someone observes violence they learn it. This is especially the case when the person is younger and they are observing a lot. Media is growing more and more and it’s getting easier to access. This means it’ll be easier to learn about violence.

 Discuss homicide as it relates to the access of guns v. knives during a violent incident.t is easier to kill someone with a gun than a knife. Guns carry a greater threat than knives do. It is also the case that when a gun is present, compared to a knife, it is 3X more likely a death will occur. There is a difference in accessibility, however a greater difference in the damage that can be done.
 Discuss violence using culture and context.Different types of violence are accepted in different cultures and contexts. Tackling is acceptable in a football game, not when you’re shopping. In one culture sacrifice may be tolerated but in America it is not. There isn’t really a “universally accepted” violence.
 Explain how social learning theory is a ‘macro-level’ theory.Macro-Level is looking at the overall picture and social learning theory is where you learn behaviors based off of watching people are you.
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