Koofers

Final Review - Flashcards

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Class:SOCI 120 - Introduction to Sociology
Subject:Sociology
University:University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Term:Fall 2009
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Crime - a special type of deviance that refers to the violation of laws
Social-Conflict Approach - claims that who a society calls deviant depends on who has a does not have power
Labeling Theory of Deviance - Deviance arises not from what people do as much as how others respond
Faith - in religious matters, is best described as the conviction in things unseen
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Secularization - the decline of the importance of religion and the sacred
Sect - a type of religious organization that stands apart from the larger society
Peter Berger's explanation of dependence of religion - people turn to religion when events happen that are out of their control
Important Functions of Religion - According to Durkheim, generating social cohesion, providing social control, and providing meaning and purpose
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The Reason Sociologists Study Religion - to discover how patterns of religious activity affect society
Race - a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
Ethnicity - a shared cultural heritage
Minority - any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural differences that a society sets apart and subordinates
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Prejudice - a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people
Stereotype - an exaggerated description applied to every person in some category
Racism - the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
Scapegoat - a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom people unfairly blame for their troubles
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Discrimination - unequal treatment of various categories of people
Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination - bias(es) built into the operation of society's institutions
Pluralism - a state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing
Assimilation - the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
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Miscegenation - biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
Segregation - the physical and social separation of categories of people
Genocide - the systematic killing of one category of people by another
Gender - the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male
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Gender Stratification - the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women
Patriarchy - a form of social organization in which males dominate females
Matriarchy - a form of social organization in which females dominate males
Sexism - the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other
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Gender Roles (Sex Roles) - attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex
Intersection Theory - the interplay of race, class, and gender, often resulting in multiple dimensions of disadvantage
Sexual Harassment - comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome
Feminism - the advocacy of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism
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Social Stratification - a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
Social Mobility - a change in position within the social hierarchy
Caste System - social stratification based on ascription, or birth
Class System - social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement
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Meritocracy - social stratification based on personal merit
Status Consistency - the degree of consistency in a person's social standing across various dimensions of social inequality
Ideology - cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality
Davis-Moore Thesis - the assertion that social stratification is a universal pattern because it has beneficial consequences for the operations of a society
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Blue-Collar Occupations - lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor
White-Collar Occupations - higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity
Socioeconomic Status - a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality
Conspicuous Consumption - buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
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Collective Behavior - activity involving a large number of people that is unplanned, often controversial, and sometimes dangerous
Collectivity - a large number of people whose minimal interaction occurs in the absence of well-defined and conventional norms
Crowd - a temporary gathering of people who share a common focus of attention and who influence one another
Mob - a highly emotional crowd that pursues violence
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Riot - a social eruption that is highly emotional, violent, and undirected
Mass Behavior - collective behavior among people spread over a wide geographic area
Rumor - unconfirmed information that people spread informally, often by word of mouth
Gossip - rumor about people's personal affairs
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Public Opinion - widespread attitudes about controversial issues
Propaganda - information presented with the intention of shaping public opinion
Fashion - a social pattern favored by a large number of people
Fad - an unconventional social pattern that people embrace briefly but enthusiastically
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Panic - a form of collective behavior in which people in eone place react to a threat or other stimulus with irrational, frantic, and often self-destructive behavior
Mass Hysteria (Moral Panic) - a form of dispersed collective behavior in which people react to a real or imagined event with irrational and even frantic fear
Disaster - an event, generally unexpected, that causes extensive harm to people and damage to propery
Social Movement - an organized activity that encourages or discourages social change
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Claims Making - the process of trying to convince the public and public officials of the importance of joining a social movement to address a particular issue
Relative Deprivation - a perceived disadvantage arising form some specific comparison
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 Crime- a special type of deviance that refers to the violation of laws
 Social-Conflict Approach- claims that who a society calls deviant depends on who has a does not have power
 Labeling Theory of Deviance- Deviance arises not from what people do as much as how others respond
 Faith- in religious matters, is best described as the conviction in things unseen
 Secularization- the decline of the importance of religion and the sacred
 Sect- a type of religious organization that stands apart from the larger society
 Peter Berger's explanation of dependence of religion- people turn to religion when events happen that are out of their control
 Important Functions of Religion- According to Durkheim, generating social cohesion, providing social control, and providing meaning and purpose
 The Reason Sociologists Study Religion- to discover how patterns of religious activity affect society
 Race- a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
 Ethnicity- a shared cultural heritage
 Minority- any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural differences that a society sets apart and subordinates
 Prejudice- a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people
 Stereotype- an exaggerated description applied to every person in some category
 Racism- the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
 Scapegoat- a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom people unfairly blame for their troubles
 Discrimination- unequal treatment of various categories of people
 Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination- bias(es) built into the operation of society's institutions
 Pluralism- a state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing
 Assimilation- the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
 Miscegenation- biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
 Segregation- the physical and social separation of categories of people
 Genocide- the systematic killing of one category of people by another
 Gender- the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male
 Gender Stratification- the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women
 Patriarchy- a form of social organization in which males dominate females
 Matriarchy- a form of social organization in which females dominate males
 Sexism- the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other
 Gender Roles (Sex Roles)- attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex
 Intersection Theory- the interplay of race, class, and gender, often resulting in multiple dimensions of disadvantage
 Sexual Harassment- comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome
 Feminism- the advocacy of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism
 Social Stratification- a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
 Social Mobility- a change in position within the social hierarchy
 Caste System- social stratification based on ascription, or birth
 Class System- social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement
 Meritocracy- social stratification based on personal merit
 Status Consistency- the degree of consistency in a person's social standing across various dimensions of social inequality
 Ideology- cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality
 Davis-Moore Thesis- the assertion that social stratification is a universal pattern because it has beneficial consequences for the operations of a society
 Blue-Collar Occupations- lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor
 White-Collar Occupations- higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity
 Socioeconomic Status- a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality
 Conspicuous Consumption- buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
 Collective Behavior- activity involving a large number of people that is unplanned, often controversial, and sometimes dangerous
 Collectivity- a large number of people whose minimal interaction occurs in the absence of well-defined and conventional norms
 Crowd- a temporary gathering of people who share a common focus of attention and who influence one another
 Mob- a highly emotional crowd that pursues violence
 Riot- a social eruption that is highly emotional, violent, and undirected
 Mass Behavior- collective behavior among people spread over a wide geographic area
 Rumor- unconfirmed information that people spread informally, often by word of mouth
 Gossip- rumor about people's personal affairs
 Public Opinion- widespread attitudes about controversial issues
 Propaganda- information presented with the intention of shaping public opinion
 Fashion- a social pattern favored by a large number of people
 Fad- an unconventional social pattern that people embrace briefly but enthusiastically
 Panic- a form of collective behavior in which people in eone place react to a threat or other stimulus with irrational, frantic, and often self-destructive behavior
 Mass Hysteria (Moral Panic)- a form of dispersed collective behavior in which people react to a real or imagined event with irrational and even frantic fear
 Disaster- an event, generally unexpected, that causes extensive harm to people and damage to propery
 Social Movement- an organized activity that encourages or discourages social change
 Claims Making- the process of trying to convince the public and public officials of the importance of joining a social movement to address a particular issue
 Relative Deprivation- a perceived disadvantage arising form some specific comparison
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