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sociology - Flashcards

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Class:SOCI 2300 - Intro To Sociology
Subject:Sociology
University:University of Arkansas at Little Rock
Term:Fall 2010
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Structural Functionalism Structural functionalism, or in many contexts simply functionalism, is a broad perspective in sociology and anthropology which sets out to interpret society as a structure with interrelated parts.
conflict theory Conflict theories are perspectives in social science which emphasize the social, political or material inequality of a social group, which critique the broad socio-political system, or which otherwise detract from structural functionalism and ideological conservativism.
symbolic interactionism Symbolic interactionism is a major sociological perspective that places emphasis on micro-scale social interaction, which is particularly important in subfields such as urban sociology and social psychology.
social exchange theory Social exchange theory is a social psychological and sociological perspective that explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties.
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ethnomethodology Ethnomethodology is an alternative approach to sociological inquiry introduced by the sociologist Harold Garfinkel. It's the study of the methods people use for producing recognizable social orders
auguste comte (19 January 1798 - 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher, a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. social statics and social dynamics
macrosociology Macrosociology is an approach to the discipline which emphasizes the analysis of social systems and populations on a large scale, at the level of social structure, and often at a necessarily high level of theoretical abstraction.
microsociology Microsociology is one of the main branches (or focuses) of sociology, concerning the nature of everyday human social interactions and agency on a small scale.
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herbert spencer was an English philosopher, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era. organismic analogy, survival of the fittest, struggle for existence.
emile durkheim ) was a French sociologist.
ideal type Ideal type (), also known as pure type, is a typological term most closely associated with antipositivist sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920).
max weber Maximilian Carl Emil "Max" Weber (; 21 April 1864 - 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist and political economist, who profoundly influenced social theory, social research, and the discipline of sociology itself.
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participant observation Participant observation is a type of research strategy. Its aim is to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or sub cultural group, or a particular community) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment, usually over an extended period of time. The method originated in field work of social anthropologists, especially the students of Franz Boas in the United States, and in the urban research of the Chicago School of sociology.
interviewing An interview is a conversation between two or more people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee.
content analysis Content analysis is a methodology in the social sciences for studying the content of communication.
mores Mores, in sociology, are any given society's particular norms, virtues or values.
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taboos A taboo is a strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom that is sacred and forbidden based on moral judgment and sometimes even religious beliefs.
law Law is a system of rules, usually enforced through a set of institutions.
values A personal and/or cultural value is an absolute or relative ethical value, the assumption of which can be the basis for ethical action.
symbol A symbol is something such as an object, picture, written word, sound, or particular mark that represents something else by association, resemblance, or convention.
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ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism is the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own.
cultural relativism Cultural relativism is the principle that an individual human's beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual's own culture.
subculture In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a group of people with a culture (whether distinct or hidden) which differentiates them from the larger culture to which they belong, for example, if a particular subculture is characterized by a systematic opposition to the dominant culture, it may be described as a counterculture.
counterculture is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition.
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social structure Social structure is a term used in the social sciences to refer to patterned social arrangements which form the society as a whole, and which determine, to some varying degree, the actions of the individuals socialized into that structure.
ascribed status Ascribed status is the social status a person is assigned at birth or assumes involuntarily later in life.
achieved status Achieved status is a sociological term denoting a social position that a person can acquire on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen.
socialization Socialization is a term used by sociologists, social psychologists, anthropologists, politicians and educationalists to refer to the process of inheriting norms, customs and ideologies.
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mead's theory of self play stage- significant other game stage- generalized other. generalized other stage
significant other any person or persons with a strong influence on an individual's self-evaluation, which are important to this individual, as well as reception of particular social norms
game stage game stage the child must take the role of everyone else involved in the game
The looking glass self Perception phase interpretation phase Response phase
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social exchange theory Social exchange theory is a social psychological and sociological perspective that explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties. Social exchange theory posits that all human relationships are formed by the use of a subjective cost-benefit analysis and the comparison of alternatives
generalized other stage self control internalized norms and doesn't need outside monitor.
impression management In sociology and social psychology, impression management is a goal-directed conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event; they do so by regulating and controlling information in social interaction .
social groups In the social sciences a group can be defined as two or more humans who interact with one another, accept expectations and obligations as members of the group, and share a common identity.
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primary group A primary group is a typically small social group whose members share close, personal, enduring relationships. These groups are marked by members' concern for one another, and shared activities and culture. Examples include family, childhood friends, and highly influential social groups
secondary group People in a secondary group interact on a less personal level than in a primary group, and their relationships are temporary rather than long lasting. Since secondary groups are established to perform functions, people’s roles are more interchangeable. A secondary group is one you have chosen to be a part of. They are based on interests and activities.
ingroup In sociology and social psychology, an ingroup is a social group towards which an individual feels loyalty and respect, usually due to membership in the group.
outgroup outgroup is a social group towards which an individual feels contempt, opposition, or a desire to compete
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reference group A reference group is a concept referring to a group to which an individual or another group is compared.
group think Groupthink is a type of thought within a deeply cohesive in-group whose members try to minimize conflict and reach consensus without critically testing, analyzing, and evaluating ideas.
caste system A caste is an elaborate and complex social system that combines elements of , endogamy, culture, social class, tribe affiliation and political power.
social mobility In sociology and economics, as well as in common political discourse, social mobility refers to the degree to which an individual or group's status is able to change in terms of position in the social hierarchy.
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minority group A minority is a sociological group that does not make up a politically dominant voting majority of the total population of a given society. A sociological minority is not necessarily a numerical minority — it may include any group that is subnormal with respect to a dominant group in terms of social status, education, employment, wealth and political power
gatekeeping a decision making process by which people are admitted to the positions of power, privilege, and status.
institutional racism Institutional racism (also called structural or systemic racism) is any kind of racism occurring specifically within institutions such as public government bodies, private business corporations, and universities (public and private).
split labor market Split labor market theory, originally proposed by sociologist Edna Bonacich in the early 1970s, is an attempt to explain racial/ethnic tensions and labor market segmentation by race/ethnicity in terms of social structure and political power rather than individual-level prejudice.
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sex In biology, sex is a process of combining and mixing genetic traits, often resulting in the specialization of organisms into a male or female variety (known as a sex).
gender identity Gender identity (otherwise known as core gender identity) is the gender(s), or lack thereof, a person self-identifies as.
psychoanalytic theory freud's theories on gender. oedipal and electra complex
oedipal complex The Oedipus complex, in psychoanalytic theory, is a group of largely unconscious (dynamically repressed) ideas and feelings which concentrate on the desire to possess the parent of the opposite sex and eliminate the parent of the same sex.
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electra complex The Electra complex is the psychoanalytic theory that a female's psychosexual development involves a sexual attachment to her father, and is analogous to a boy's attachment to his mother that forms the basis of the Oedipus complex.
cultural transmission theory gender identity theory -reinforcement -imitation -observational learning
reinforcement Reinforcement is a term in operant conditioning and behavior analysis for the process of increasing the rate or probability of a behavior (e.g.
observational learning Observational learning (also known as vicarious learning, social learning, or modeling) is a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating novel behavior executed by others.
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labeling theory developed by sociologist Howard S. Labeling theory holds that deviance is not inherent to an act, but instead focuses on the linguistic tendency of majorities to negatively label minorities or those seen as deviant from norms. The theory is concerned with how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them, and is associated with the concept of a self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping.
sexism Sexism, a term coined in the mid-20th century, is the belief or attitude that one gender or sex is inferior to, less competent, or less valuable than the other.
androgynous -referring to the combination of masculine and feminine characteristics.
gender roles A gender role is a theoretical construct in the social sciences and humanities that refers to a set of social and behavioral norms that, within a specific culture, are widely considered to be socially appropriate for individuals of a specific sex.
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legal rational authority authority derives from a system of explicit rules or laws; vested in offices or positions prez prof pop senators
traditional authority Traditional authority (also known as traditional domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to tradition or custom. birth rights, kings and queens, pope
charismatic authority The sociologist Max Weber defined charismatic authority as "resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained by him." gandhi, MLK, Hittler. Weak and fragile, appear in crisis
The social contract Of The Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Right (Du contrat social ou Principes du droit politique) (1762) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is the book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way in which to set up a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality (1754).
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totalitarian state Total (or totalitarian rule) is a political system where the state, usually under the control of a single political person, faction, or class, recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible. nazi germany
incest taboo Incest taboo is a term to refer to a class of prohibitions, both formal and informal, stated and unstated, against incest, the practice of sexual relations between certain or close relatives, in human societies. very from one society to another.
norm of legitimacy regulates both the social relations of members with the newborn and rights of the newborn to care, succession, inheritance. the rule that no child should be brought into the world without a man and one man at that. creation of male link between the child and father.
socialization Socialization is a term used by sociologists, social psychologists, anthropologists, politicians and educationalists to refer to the process of inheriting norms, customs and ideologies.
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conjugal arrangement nuclear family. core family consists of spouses and their offspring.
consanguine arrangement extended family Priority is given to blood ties.
family of orientation oneself, father, mother and siblings
family of procreation oneself, spouse, children
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patrilineal Patrilineality (or agnatic kinship) is a system in which one belongs to one's father's lineage.
matrilineal Matrilineality is a system in which lineage is traced through the mother and maternal ancestors.
bilineal through both lines
endogamy Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific ethnic group, class, or social group, rejecting others on such bases as being unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships. in group marriage
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exogamy out-group marriage.
monogamy Monogamy refers to a form of marriage in which an individual has only one spouse at any one time.
polygyny Polygyny (from neo-Greek: poly - "many", and gyny - "woman or wife") is a form of marriage in which a man has two or more wives at the same time.
polyandry Polyandry (- many, andros- man) refers to a form of marriage in which a woman has two or more husbands at the same time.
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propinquity is one of the main factors leading to interpersonal attraction.
sociology of religion The sociology of religion concerns the role of religion in society; the practices, historical backgrounds, developments and universal themes of religion in society.
religion Religion is a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of life and the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a supernatural agency, or human beings- relation to that which they regard as holy, sacred, spiritual, or divine.
Definition
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 Structural FunctionalismStructural functionalism, or in many contexts simply functionalism, is a broad perspective in sociology and anthropology which sets out to interpret society as a structure with interrelated parts.
 conflict theoryConflict theories are perspectives in social science which emphasize the social, political or material inequality of a social group, which critique the broad socio-political system, or which otherwise detract from structural functionalism and ideological conservativism.
 symbolic interactionismSymbolic interactionism is a major sociological perspective that places emphasis on micro-scale social interaction, which is particularly important in subfields such as urban sociology and social psychology.
 social exchange theorySocial exchange theory is a social psychological and sociological perspective that explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties.
 ethnomethodologyEthnomethodology is an alternative approach to sociological inquiry introduced by the sociologist Harold Garfinkel. It's the study of the methods people use for producing recognizable social orders
 auguste comte (19 January 1798 - 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher, a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. social statics and social dynamics
 macrosociologyMacrosociology is an approach to the discipline which emphasizes the analysis of social systems and populations on a large scale, at the level of social structure, and often at a necessarily high level of theoretical abstraction.
 microsociologyMicrosociology is one of the main branches (or focuses) of sociology, concerning the nature of everyday human social interactions and agency on a small scale.
 herbert spencer was an English philosopher, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
organismic analogy, survival of the fittest, struggle for existence.
 emile durkheim) was a French sociologist.
 ideal typeIdeal type (), also known as pure type, is a typological term most closely associated with antipositivist sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920).
 max weberMaximilian Carl Emil "Max" Weber (; 21 April 1864 - 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist and political economist, who profoundly influenced social theory, social research, and the discipline of sociology itself.
 participant observationParticipant observation is a type of research strategy. Its aim is to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or sub cultural group, or a particular community) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment, usually over an extended period of time. The method originated in field work of social anthropologists, especially the students of Franz Boas in the United States, and in the urban research of the Chicago School of sociology.
 interviewingAn interview is a conversation between two or more people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee.
 content analysisContent analysis is a methodology in the social sciences for studying the content of communication.
 moresMores, in sociology, are any given society's particular norms, virtues or values.
 taboosA taboo is a strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom that is sacred and forbidden based on moral judgment and sometimes even religious beliefs.
 lawLaw is a system of rules, usually enforced through a set of institutions.
 valuesA personal and/or cultural value is an absolute or relative ethical value, the assumption of which can be the basis for ethical action.
 symbolA symbol is something such as an object, picture, written word, sound, or particular mark that represents something else by association, resemblance, or convention.
 ethnocentrismEthnocentrism is the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own.
 cultural relativismCultural relativism is the principle that an individual human's beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual's own culture.
 subcultureIn sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a group of people with a culture (whether distinct or hidden) which differentiates them from the larger culture to which they belong, for example, if a particular subculture is characterized by a systematic opposition to the dominant culture, it may be described as a counterculture.
 counterculture is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition.
 social structureSocial structure is a term used in the social sciences to refer to patterned social arrangements which form the society as a whole, and which determine, to some varying degree, the actions of the individuals socialized into that structure.
 ascribed statusAscribed status is the social status a person is assigned at birth or assumes involuntarily later in life.
 achieved statusAchieved status is a sociological term denoting a social position that a person can acquire on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen.
 socializationSocialization is a term used by sociologists, social psychologists, anthropologists, politicians and educationalists to refer to the process of inheriting norms, customs and ideologies.
 mead's theory of selfplay stage- significant other
game stage- generalized other.
generalized other stage
 significant other any person or persons with a strong influence on an individual's self-evaluation, which are important to this individual, as well as reception of particular social norms
 game stagegame stage the child must take the role of everyone else involved in the game
 The looking glass selfPerception phase
interpretation phase
Response phase
 social exchange theorySocial exchange theory is a social psychological and sociological perspective that explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties. Social exchange theory posits that all human relationships are formed by the use of a subjective cost-benefit analysis and the comparison of alternatives
 generalized other stageself control
internalized norms and doesn't need outside monitor.
 impression managementIn sociology and social psychology, impression management is a goal-directed conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event; they do so by regulating and controlling information in social interaction .
 social groupsIn the social sciences a group can be defined as two or more humans who interact with one another, accept expectations and obligations as members of the group, and share a common identity.
 primary groupA primary group is a typically small social group whose members share close, personal, enduring relationships. These groups are marked by members' concern for one another, and shared activities and culture. Examples include family, childhood friends, and highly influential social groups
 secondary groupPeople in a secondary group interact on a less personal level than in a primary group, and their relationships are temporary rather than long lasting. Since secondary groups are established to perform functions, people’s roles are more interchangeable. A secondary group is one you have chosen to be a part of. They are based on interests and activities.
 ingroupIn sociology and social psychology, an ingroup is a social group towards which an individual feels loyalty and respect, usually due to membership in the group.
 outgroupoutgroup is a social group towards which an individual feels contempt, opposition, or a desire to compete
 reference groupA reference group is a concept referring to a group to which an individual or another group is compared.
 group thinkGroupthink is a type of thought within a deeply cohesive in-group whose members try to minimize conflict and reach consensus without critically testing, analyzing, and evaluating ideas.
 caste systemA caste is an elaborate and complex social system that combines elements of , endogamy, culture, social class, tribe affiliation and political power.
 social mobilityIn sociology and economics, as well as in common political discourse, social mobility refers to the degree to which an individual or group's status is able to change in terms of position in the social hierarchy.
 minority groupA minority is a sociological group that does not make up a politically dominant voting majority of the total population of a given society. A sociological minority is not necessarily a numerical minority — it may include any group that is subnormal with respect to a dominant group in terms of social status, education, employment, wealth and political power
 gatekeepinga decision making process by which people are admitted to the positions of power, privilege, and status.
 institutional racismInstitutional racism (also called structural or systemic racism) is any kind of racism occurring specifically within institutions such as public government bodies, private business corporations, and universities (public and private).
 split labor marketSplit labor market theory, originally proposed by sociologist Edna Bonacich in the early 1970s, is an attempt to explain racial/ethnic tensions and labor market segmentation by race/ethnicity in terms of social structure and political power rather than individual-level prejudice.
 sexIn biology, sex is a process of combining and mixing genetic traits, often resulting in the specialization of organisms into a male or female variety (known as a sex).
 gender identityGender identity (otherwise known as core gender identity) is the gender(s), or lack thereof, a person self-identifies as.
 psychoanalytic theoryfreud's theories on gender. oedipal and electra complex
 oedipal complexThe Oedipus complex, in psychoanalytic theory, is a group of largely unconscious (dynamically repressed) ideas and feelings which concentrate on the desire to possess the parent of the opposite sex and eliminate the parent of the same sex.
 electra complexThe Electra complex is the psychoanalytic theory that a female's psychosexual development involves a sexual attachment to her father, and is analogous to a boy's attachment to his mother that forms the basis of the Oedipus complex.
 cultural transmission theorygender identity theory
-reinforcement
-imitation
-observational learning
 reinforcementReinforcement is a term in operant conditioning and behavior analysis for the process of increasing the rate or probability of a behavior (e.g.
 observational learningObservational learning (also known as vicarious learning, social learning, or modeling) is a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating novel behavior executed by others.
 labeling theory developed by sociologist Howard S. Labeling theory holds that deviance is not inherent to an act, but instead focuses on the linguistic tendency of majorities to negatively label minorities or those seen as deviant from norms. The theory is concerned with how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them, and is associated with the concept of a self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping.
 sexismSexism, a term coined in the mid-20th century, is the belief or attitude that one gender or sex is inferior to, less competent, or less valuable than the other.
 androgynous-referring to the combination of masculine and feminine characteristics.
 gender rolesA gender role is a theoretical construct in the social sciences and humanities that refers to a set of social and behavioral norms that, within a specific culture, are widely considered to be socially appropriate for individuals of a specific sex.
 legal rational authorityauthority derives from a system of explicit rules or laws; vested in offices or positions

prez prof pop senators
 traditional authorityTraditional authority (also known as traditional domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to tradition or custom.

birth rights, kings and queens, pope
 charismatic authorityThe sociologist Max Weber defined charismatic authority as "resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained by him."
gandhi, MLK, Hittler.
Weak and fragile, appear in crisis
 The social contractOf The Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Right (Du contrat social ou Principes du droit politique) (1762) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is the book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way in which to set up a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality (1754).
 totalitarian stateTotal (or totalitarian rule) is a political system where the state, usually under the control of a single political person, faction, or class, recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.

nazi germany
 incest tabooIncest taboo is a term to refer to a class of prohibitions, both formal and informal, stated and unstated, against incest, the practice of sexual relations between certain or close relatives, in human societies.

very from one society to another.
 norm of legitimacyregulates both the social relations of members with the newborn and rights of the newborn to care, succession, inheritance.

the rule that no child should be brought into the world without a man and one man at that. creation of male link between the child and father.
 socializationSocialization is a term used by sociologists, social psychologists, anthropologists, politicians and educationalists to refer to the process of inheriting norms, customs and ideologies.
 conjugal arrangementnuclear family.
core family consists of spouses and their offspring.
 consanguine arrangementextended family
Priority is given to blood ties.
 family of orientationoneself, father, mother and siblings
 family of procreationoneself, spouse, children
 patrilinealPatrilineality (or agnatic kinship) is a system in which one belongs to one's father's lineage.
 matrilinealMatrilineality is a system in which lineage is traced through the mother and maternal ancestors.
 bilinealthrough both lines
 endogamyEndogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific ethnic group, class, or social group, rejecting others on such bases as being unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.
in group marriage
 exogamyout-group marriage.
 monogamyMonogamy refers to a form of marriage in which an individual has only one spouse at any one time.
 polygynyPolygyny (from neo-Greek: poly - "many", and gyny - "woman or wife") is a form of marriage in which a man has two or more wives at the same time.
 polyandryPolyandry (- many, andros- man) refers to a form of marriage in which a woman has two or more husbands at the same time.
 propinquity is one of the main factors leading to interpersonal attraction.
 sociology of religionThe sociology of religion concerns the role of religion in society; the practices, historical backgrounds, developments and universal themes of religion in society.
 religionReligion is a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of life and the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a supernatural agency, or human beings- relation to that which they regard as holy, sacred, spiritual, or divine.
  Definition
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