Koofers

Test 1 - Flashcards

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Class:SOCI 3338 - FAMILY PROBLEMS
Subject:Sociology
University:Texas State University - San Marcos
Term:Fall 2011
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Marriage by Arrangement A group vs. individual decision

kinship and economic motives
  • preserve bloodlines
  • enhance wealth
  • resolve political issues

considerations include price and social status
many countries have all-inclusive brides



Free-choice Mate Selection Not the most common
less importance placed on extended kin groups

***Burgess' prediction from the 50s:
divorce rate will be higher when sole consideration is "romantic love"

62% of societies engage in arranged marriages


Endogamy Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific ethnic group, class, or social group, rejecting others on such basis as being unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.
Exogamy Exogamy is a social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside of a social group.

regulated through law, can't marry a blood relative or same gender or age (13 and under)
Generated by Koofers.com
19th Century Family impact of the industrial revolution and wage-labor system
  • first glimpse of male breadwinner and nurturing mother

becoming less patriarchal and somewhat more child-centered

family problems existed, but compared with today, fewer divorces and unwed mothers

Early 20th Century Families ***1900- highest proportion of people remained single for their entire life than any period since

new family values emerging
  • youth culture
  • romantic coupling (holding hands, small kisses)
  • leisure and recreation (game of monopoly, mini golf, dancing)
  • family self-sufficiency (harder for minorities, no gvmt. help)
20th Century Families and The Struggles WW1 - 1918

Depression era - 1930s

WW2 - ended 1945
  • stimulated marriage boom
  • by 1946 one in every three marriages was ending in divorce
The 1950s Family postwar prosperity and incomes up, confidence in ALL institutions up
  • 5 institutions- religion, economics, politics, family, education

divorce rate down for first time in 100 years - 25%


Late 1950s:
  • widening of gap between men and women (education, occupation, social status)
Generated by Koofers.com
The 1960s Family social movements modernizing society

attack on the "white family model"

the idea of marriage loosing populaity
The 1970s Family impact of feminism

"an emotional democracy" with a focus on love, relationships, and intimacy
The 1980s Family a self-focused or ME generation
  • individualism
  • what was the major stressor?
The 1990s Family no more fantasy family
  • postmodernism: the impact of information technology
Generated by Koofers.com
Era of Restricted Divorce until 1850s

only MEN could get a divorce

reasons centered around the woman's infidelity
Era of Divorce Tolerance 1850-1970

had to prove grounds

WOMEN could site drunkenness, failure to provide, abandonment, and mental cruelty

late 40s rate was 33%; 1950-65 decreased to 25%
Era of Unrestricted Divorce 1970s set the stage for no-fault divorces

new census categories emerged

rate hovers 40-50%
How Statistics are Shown # per year
  • not accurate due to population increase

ration of current marriages to current divorces- limited to current year

refined divorce rate- preferred method
  • # per 1,000 married women over 15 years of age

age-specific rate
  • # per 1,000 females in each age group
Generated by Koofers.com
Racial/ethnic Differences african-americans rate is twice as high as anglos

hispanic is slightly higher than anglos

anglo is lowest; especially jewish, asian, and italian americans
Single Parents 13% fathers awarded sole custody

single moms incomes drop by 40% within the first year after divorce
Stepparents higher rate of divorcing

if born in 1980s, a 50% chance of being a member of a stepfamily at some point in their life
Social Factors Related to Divorce
  • unrealistic expectations
  • increased individualism
  • changing gender roles
  • heterogeneity
  • weak religious values
  • childfree
  • age of marriage
  • previous divorce or parents were divorced
  • economic upheavals
  • social acceptance of divorce


Generated by Koofers.com
Ideas for Reducing Divorce Rates
  • early training
  • better mate selection methods
  • periodic visits to trained marriage counselors
  • stricter marriage laws
  • child care centers
  • highlight strengths in successful marriages

Approximately what percent of divorces are a result of low-conflict marriages? 70%
Roughly what percent of people who divorce after first marriage will remarry? 75%

more than half of all second marriages end in divorce

have to have solid ground rules to succeed
  • i.e. religion, number of kids, how to raise kids, who works, who does what chores
  • big ones are trust and commitment
What is human bonding?
  • experience
  • nurturance
  • taking care of needs
  • trust and respect

bonging is critical, its never too late

Generated by Koofers.com
Spitz and Orphanage Studies discovered that babies left in cribs and not loved or cuddled develop attachment issues
Harlow's Monkey Studies baby monkeys had a wire mother either with cloth or without, tested different situations and ones with cloth mothers returned to them more often because they were more bonded
Divorce Myth #1 Children are resilient

relational trauma has long-lasting psychological effects

most people remember their parent's divorce as an event after which they were different in significant ways
Divorce Myth #2 Family conflict is very damaging to children

family conflict is inevitable. healthy modeling of conflict resolution skills is essential for learning

how we deal with conflict is critical
Generated by Koofers.com
Divorce Myth #3 Surviving divorce does not impact future relationships

childhood relational experiences have a profound impact on subsequent relationships

relational patterns learned in childhood become semi-solidified (can be changed but with effort)

children are very likely to handle problems the way their parents did
Gender culturally transmitted expectations and behavior for members of each sex
Peer Marriage how changing roles and norms have created new marriage ideas like equality and friendship and negotiation
Destined for Equality good overall picture of changing roles
Generated by Koofers.com
Pre-Industrial "Occupations" economic pursuits = bartering and trading goods

housekeeping, food preparation, and childcare were more likely to be segregated on the basis of gender, but little emphasis was put on the term "roles" or "gender"
Industrial Era saw the evolution of stereotyping male breadwinner, female nurturer

gender roles- men were vital for financial support and women were needed for family strengfth and stability

***SEPARATE SPHERES***

the labor force was structured that way (men=public) (women=private, raise the children morally, educate them, impose religion)
Era of Egalitarian Illusion 1890-1940

women wanted rights that men had; they recognized oppression; led to 1920 right to vote

somewhat "token equality"

throughout these times these gender ideas were limited to upper middle class citizens...romanticized


WWII women recruited to the workforce as patriotic duty; their work outside the home was NOT to interfere with their traditional roles; yet women in the workforce challenged the idea of separate spheres

wives were defined by their husbands
Generated by Koofers.com
Era of Assimilation 1940-1990

increasing rights at home as well as the workplace

women's liberation

1969 spread of birth control

***thrust of change from 1950 to 1070
During the era of assimilation what kind of families were the norm? dual-income families
What is the basis of all the change? Education
Egalitarian Relationships today U.S. society has evolved to the point where both genders are more apt to do these SAME kind of activities
Generated by Koofers.com
Cultural Lag The term cultural lag refers to the notion that culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations, and that social problems and conflicts are caused by this lag.

(our ideologies have changed faster than policies have changed)
Social Structure the interaction of norms, roles, institutions
Cultural Changes
  • freedom and rights from all genders in all familial positions
  • sharing of power and status
  • women out of the home for a sense of societal recognition and source of personal recognition
  • hyphenated last names for wives
  • shared parenting roles (guys doing "mama patrol") (second shift issue- both men and women working full-time)
  • role strain/role ambiguity (stress is one of the major sources of divorce)

Economy ***a woman makes 80 cents for every dollar a man makes

increased power shift
Generated by Koofers.com
The Mommy Wars
  • to have kids or not
  • to stay at home or not
  • can we ever do it right?

***housework- wives still do the majority and don't complain

research shows that most mothers share the same concerns for "intensive mothering" and the groups actually envy each other

What is the difference between peer, near peer, and traditionals as outlined in the reading? Peer marriage- couples who split the work pretty evenly and are equal decision makers, they feel equal in the relationship

Near peer- couples that believe in equality but reality doesn't allow for it because the father needs to work more and can't be as involved

Traditionals- the man usually has veto power over decision-making (except when it comes to children) and the wife doesn't believe she has or doesn't want equal status
Pepper Schwartz' study focused on what group? middle class
What is the 2nd shift? a product of women entering the workforce, dual income earners becoming the norm, and an attitudinal shift toward egalitarianism
Generated by Koofers.com
Research by Pew Foundation shows that a successful marriage needs what?
  1. faithfulness
  2. sex
  3. sharing household chores

In the film in class what is the dad referred to as? the "assistant parent"
Theories of Division of Housework
  • relative resource model- person with more income will do less housework
  • time availability- spend more time in paid work will spend less time on housework
  • economic dependency- woman exchanges housework labor for economic support
  • gender ideology- those reared with gender-based beliefs will live them out

Family Compositions fewer children being born since 1970

increasing rate of diverse families

children help less at home due to advancement in technology and they are technology distracted by computers, video games
Generated by Koofers.com
What is one of the major barriers to solving the second shift? single parent households
Same Sex Households it is estimated that 10% of gays and 20% of lesbians have children, and they are usually the product of a hetero relationship

***gay and lesbian couples are generally far more egalitarian in their relationships than heteros
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Marriage by ArrangementA group vs. individual decision

kinship and economic motives
  • preserve bloodlines
  • enhance wealth
  • resolve political issues

considerations include price and social status
many countries have all-inclusive brides



 Free-choice Mate SelectionNot the most common
less importance placed on extended kin groups

***Burgess' prediction from the 50s:
divorce rate will be higher when sole consideration is "romantic love"

62% of societies engage in arranged marriages


 EndogamyEndogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific ethnic group, class, or social group, rejecting others on such basis as being unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.
 ExogamyExogamy is a social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside of a social group.

regulated through law, can't marry a blood relative or same gender or age (13 and under)
 19th Century Familyimpact of the industrial revolution and wage-labor system
  • first glimpse of male breadwinner and nurturing mother

becoming less patriarchal and somewhat more child-centered

family problems existed, but compared with today, fewer divorces and unwed mothers

 Early 20th Century Families***1900- highest proportion of people remained single for their entire life than any period since

new family values emerging
  • youth culture
  • romantic coupling (holding hands, small kisses)
  • leisure and recreation (game of monopoly, mini golf, dancing)
  • family self-sufficiency (harder for minorities, no gvmt. help)
 20th Century Families and The StrugglesWW1 - 1918

Depression era - 1930s

WW2 - ended 1945
  • stimulated marriage boom
  • by 1946 one in every three marriages was ending in divorce
 The 1950s Familypostwar prosperity and incomes up, confidence in ALL institutions up
  • 5 institutions- religion, economics, politics, family, education

divorce rate down for first time in 100 years - 25%


Late 1950s:
  • widening of gap between men and women (education, occupation, social status)
 The 1960s Familysocial movements modernizing society

attack on the "white family model"

the idea of marriage loosing populaity
 The 1970s Familyimpact of feminism

"an emotional democracy" with a focus on love, relationships, and intimacy
 The 1980s Familya self-focused or ME generation
  • individualism
  • what was the major stressor?
 The 1990s Familyno more fantasy family
  • postmodernism: the impact of information technology
 Era of Restricted Divorceuntil 1850s

only MEN could get a divorce

reasons centered around the woman's infidelity
 Era of Divorce Tolerance1850-1970

had to prove grounds

WOMEN could site drunkenness, failure to provide, abandonment, and mental cruelty

late 40s rate was 33%; 1950-65 decreased to 25%
 Era of Unrestricted Divorce1970s set the stage for no-fault divorces

new census categories emerged

rate hovers 40-50%
 How Statistics are Shown# per year
  • not accurate due to population increase

ration of current marriages to current divorces- limited to current year

refined divorce rate- preferred method
  • # per 1,000 married women over 15 years of age

age-specific rate
  • # per 1,000 females in each age group
 Racial/ethnic Differencesafrican-americans rate is twice as high as anglos

hispanic is slightly higher than anglos

anglo is lowest; especially jewish, asian, and italian americans
 Single Parents13% fathers awarded sole custody

single moms incomes drop by 40% within the first year after divorce
 Stepparentshigher rate of divorcing

if born in 1980s, a 50% chance of being a member of a stepfamily at some point in their life
 Social Factors Related to Divorce
  • unrealistic expectations
  • increased individualism
  • changing gender roles
  • heterogeneity
  • weak religious values
  • childfree
  • age of marriage
  • previous divorce or parents were divorced
  • economic upheavals
  • social acceptance of divorce


 Ideas for Reducing Divorce Rates
  • early training
  • better mate selection methods
  • periodic visits to trained marriage counselors
  • stricter marriage laws
  • child care centers
  • highlight strengths in successful marriages

 Approximately what percent of divorces are a result of low-conflict marriages?70%
 Roughly what percent of people who divorce after first marriage will remarry?75%

more than half of all second marriages end in divorce

have to have solid ground rules to succeed
  • i.e. religion, number of kids, how to raise kids, who works, who does what chores
  • big ones are trust and commitment
 What is human bonding?
  • experience
  • nurturance
  • taking care of needs
  • trust and respect

bonging is critical, its never too late

 Spitz and Orphanage Studiesdiscovered that babies left in cribs and not loved or cuddled develop attachment issues
 Harlow's Monkey Studiesbaby monkeys had a wire mother either with cloth or without, tested different situations and ones with cloth mothers returned to them more often because they were more bonded
 Divorce Myth #1Children are resilient

relational trauma has long-lasting psychological effects

most people remember their parent's divorce as an event after which they were different in significant ways
 Divorce Myth #2Family conflict is very damaging to children

family conflict is inevitable. healthy modeling of conflict resolution skills is essential for learning

how we deal with conflict is critical
 Divorce Myth #3Surviving divorce does not impact future relationships

childhood relational experiences have a profound impact on subsequent relationships

relational patterns learned in childhood become semi-solidified (can be changed but with effort)

children are very likely to handle problems the way their parents did
 Genderculturally transmitted expectations and behavior for members of each sex
 Peer Marriagehow changing roles and norms have created new marriage ideas like equality and friendship and negotiation
 Destined for Equalitygood overall picture of changing roles
 Pre-Industrial "Occupations"economic pursuits = bartering and trading goods

housekeeping, food preparation, and childcare were more likely to be segregated on the basis of gender, but little emphasis was put on the term "roles" or "gender"
 Industrial Erasaw the evolution of stereotyping male breadwinner, female nurturer

gender roles- men were vital for financial support and women were needed for family strengfth and stability

***SEPARATE SPHERES***

the labor force was structured that way (men=public) (women=private, raise the children morally, educate them, impose religion)
 Era of Egalitarian Illusion1890-1940

women wanted rights that men had; they recognized oppression; led to 1920 right to vote

somewhat "token equality"

throughout these times these gender ideas were limited to upper middle class citizens...romanticized


 WWIIwomen recruited to the workforce as patriotic duty; their work outside the home was NOT to interfere with their traditional roles; yet women in the workforce challenged the idea of separate spheres

wives were defined by their husbands
 Era of Assimilation1940-1990

increasing rights at home as well as the workplace

women's liberation

1969 spread of birth control

***thrust of change from 1950 to 1070
 During the era of assimilation what kind of families were the norm?dual-income families
 What is the basis of all the change?Education
 Egalitarian Relationshipstoday U.S. society has evolved to the point where both genders are more apt to do these SAME kind of activities
 Cultural LagThe term cultural lag refers to the notion that culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations, and that social problems and conflicts are caused by this lag.

(our ideologies have changed faster than policies have changed)
 Social Structurethe interaction of norms, roles, institutions
 Cultural Changes
  • freedom and rights from all genders in all familial positions
  • sharing of power and status
  • women out of the home for a sense of societal recognition and source of personal recognition
  • hyphenated last names for wives
  • shared parenting roles (guys doing "mama patrol") (second shift issue- both men and women working full-time)
  • role strain/role ambiguity (stress is one of the major sources of divorce)

 Economy***a woman makes 80 cents for every dollar a man makes

increased power shift
 The Mommy Wars
  • to have kids or not
  • to stay at home or not
  • can we ever do it right?

***housework- wives still do the majority and don't complain

research shows that most mothers share the same concerns for "intensive mothering" and the groups actually envy each other

 What is the difference between peer, near peer, and traditionals as outlined in the reading?Peer marriage- couples who split the work pretty evenly and are equal decision makers, they feel equal in the relationship

Near peer- couples that believe in equality but reality doesn't allow for it because the father needs to work more and can't be as involved

Traditionals- the man usually has veto power over decision-making (except when it comes to children) and the wife doesn't believe she has or doesn't want equal status
 Pepper Schwartz' study focused on what group?middle class
 What is the 2nd shift?a product of women entering the workforce, dual income earners becoming the norm, and an attitudinal shift toward egalitarianism
 Research by Pew Foundation shows that a successful marriage needs what?
  1. faithfulness
  2. sex
  3. sharing household chores

 In the film in class what is the dad referred to as?the "assistant parent"
 Theories of Division of Housework
  • relative resource model- person with more income will do less housework
  • time availability- spend more time in paid work will spend less time on housework
  • economic dependency- woman exchanges housework labor for economic support
  • gender ideology- those reared with gender-based beliefs will live them out

 Family Compositionsfewer children being born since 1970

increasing rate of diverse families

children help less at home due to advancement in technology and they are technology distracted by computers, video games
 What is one of the major barriers to solving the second shift?single parent households
 Same Sex Householdsit is estimated that 10% of gays and 20% of lesbians have children, and they are usually the product of a hetero relationship

***gay and lesbian couples are generally far more egalitarian in their relationships than heteros
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